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^Vblume 1, 1758-1767 


J^Kav -&** 



Edited by 

William S. Powell 

ISBN 0-86526-141-5 

William Tryon, the fourth of North ( 
five royal governors, was a military rv 
had served in the First Regimer o; Foot 

lards and had attained the rank atenant 

colonel, a commission he resign' on he was 

appointed lieutenant govr ; m ; of North 

rolina in April, 1764. T r ' 'lis arrival in 
Brunswick on October 10, T r (> m was informed 
that Governor Dobbs did not plan to leave until 
spring, 1765; so the new lieutenant governor 
quickly made plans to travel through the 
province during his wait. 

When Dobbs died quite suddenly in March, 
1765, Tryon was ready and eager to assume his 
gubernatorial duties. During the next six years, 
he proved to be a firm, capable administrator. 
Tryon was surprisingly astute and diligent in 
handling colonial problems. He weathered the 
Stamp Act crisis without losing the respect of 
the influential men around him; he worked to 

ablish schools and churches; he cooperated in 
establishing boundary lines and maintaining 
good relations with the Indians; he encouraged 
the development of agriculture and commerce 
and recognized the need for trade between the 
eastern and western sections of North Carolina; 
he cooperated with neighboring colonies in es- 

•lishing a postal service; he insisted on ac- 
curacy in keeping provincial records; he saw the 
d for a good court system; and he fixed the 

ivincial capital at New Bern where he built 
one of the most impressive buildings in America 
but also the subject of much dissension in North 

rolina. Destroyed by fire in 1798, the palace 

nplex has been restored in modern times. 

Tryon 's role in the War of the Regulators i^ 

ertainly he overreacted to 
in the Hillsborough area and in 
ly used the opportunity to impress the 
rful British decision mak< the king, the 

and the Board of Trade; 
Tr own comments in late 

his victor; 
ion for his transfer 
norship of New York in 1771. A f 
wh rolina 

Tr leparture havi 

life in the years o 
Revolution and afterw 



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Richard Jones measured the mileage fromjNew Bern to Salisbury and recorded his 
route on this map dated October 3,' 1768. Pf|ptograph after original in Draper MSS 1 
KK 90 (1), State Historical Society of Wincoijin. A Photocopy is in the North Carolina 
Collection at Chapel Hill. (Courtesy of Stati Historical Society of Wisconsin.) • 




Painted in New York in 1767 by John Wollaston, this oil portrait is marked on the back: 
"Govr: Wm. Tryon of No. Carolina— J. Wollaston, pinxt. New York — Anno D. 1767." 
Formerly in the collection of Gen. Philip Van Cortlandt (1749-1831) and his descendants, 
it was purchased in 1938 by Augustus F. de Forest and soon afterward acquired by Mrs. 
James Edward Latham for the anticipated Tryon Palace restoration. In recent years the 
identification of this portrait as representing Tryon has been questioned as the uniform 
does not appear to be that of the Twenty-ninth Regiment of Foot of which he was colonel. 
Tryon may well have been in New York in 1767, however, as his last known letter written 
in North Carolina that year was dated July 22, and the next reference to him in the colony 
occurs on September 17 when he visited the Moravians. Photograph courtesy of Tryon 
Palace, New Bern. 

North Carolina State Library 
Raleigh, N. C. 

The Correspondence of 
William Try on 

and H. C 

Other Selected Papers Doc 

Volume I 


Edited by 
William S. Powell 



Division of Archives and History 

Department of Cultural Resources 


Publication of this volume was subsidized by a grant from the 
May Gordon Latham Kellenberger Historical Foundation 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS members and Sloan Foundation 

In Memory of 

Albert Ray Newsome 

June 4, 1894- August 5, 1951 

Historian, Archivist, Teacher 

While secretary of the 
North Carolina Historical Commission 


he planned to edit the 

papers of Governor William Tryon 

but the demands of his position 

denied him the necessary time 

Copyright, 1980 , by the North Carolina Division of Archives and History 

ISBN 0-86526-141-5 


Sara W. Hodgkins 


Larry E. Tise 


Sarah M. Lemmon 

Dick Brown 
Gertrude S. Carraway 
T. Harry Gatton 

Raymond Gavins Robert M. Lineberger 

Samuel W. Johnson Clyde M. Norton 

Harley E. Jolley John E. Raper, Jr. 
H. G. Jones 

The decorative device on the title page is the crest of the Tryon family coat of arms. 
Described as a bear's head powdered with stars, it is taken from a book stamp in Mrs. 
Tryon's copy of Caroline De Licht field by Isabelle Montolieu, printed in London and Paris 
in 1786. This book is in the North Carolina Collection at the University Library in Chapel 


List of illustrations and maps ix 

Foreword xi 

Acknowledgments xiii 

Introduction to the Tryon Papers xv 

Chronology of William Tryon xli 

Chronological listing of the Tryon Papers, 1758-1767 xliii 

Symbols used in this volume to designate repositories of 

Tryon Papers lv 

The correspondence of William Tryon and 

other selected papers 1 

Index 617 


A Likeness of William Tryon? Frontispiece 

Arthur Dobbs 8 

Palmer-Marsh House 20 

John Burgwin; The Hermitage 22 

Edward Hyrne's Map of 1749 30 

Fountain Elwin 36 

Constantine John Phipps 58 

James Murray 61 

Ruins of St. Philip's Church 119 

King George III 130 

Seal of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 145 

William Hooper; William Hooper House 156 

Henry Seymour Conway 159 

Page from North Carolina Gazette 162 

Stamp 170 

Excerpt from London Chronicle 214 

Edmund Fanning 282 

Signatures from Tuscarora Petition 324 

Martin Howard; Circular Letter 332 

Model of Russellborough 356 

William Petty, Earl of Shelburne 390 

Three Tryon Palace Architectural Drawings 430, 431 

Menagerie at Kew 441 

Isaac Edwards 482 

Map of Tryon Mountain 489 

Map Showing Indian Boundary Line 510 

John Carteret, Earl Granville 562 

Salem in 1787 577 

Colonial Money 597 

North Carolina Seals 607 



With the publication of The Papers of William Tryon, the Division of 
Archives and History, North Carolina Department of Cultural Re- 
sources, is continuing its long tradition of issuing correspondence and 
other papers of prominent North Carolinians in printed form. The 
division's series of documentary publications includes many volumes of 
papers of the chief executives of North Carolina. Interest in publication 
of the correspondence of colonial governors in general and William 
Tryon in particular was repeatedly expressed by Miss Gertrude S. 
Carraway, first director of the Tryon Palace Restoration, and members 
of the Tryon Palace Commission. 

The commission endorsed the project in a tangible way when a 
motion was passed approving an application for a grant of $20,000 from 
the May Gordon Latham Kellenberger Trust Fund. Following this 
action of October 16, 1978, the trustees of the Kellenberger Trust Fund 
voted to provide $20,000 as a subsidy to be used in printing the two 
volumes. Because of limited state appropriations and the high cost of 
printing, the production of The Papers of William Tryon would have met 
with long delays had it not been for the generous gift from this source; 
and appreciation is hereby expressed to both the commissioners and the 

The division was fortunate when William S. Powell, professor of 
history at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, expressed an 
interest in editing the Tryon Papers. His expert knowledge of North 
Carolina's colonial history well qualified him for the task. Among his 
many credits are publications too numerous to list, but note should be 
taken of his recent titles: North Carolina: A History, one in the 
Bicentennial Series published by the American Association for State 
and Local History John Pory/ 1572-1636: The Life and Letters of a Man 
of Many Parts; When the Past Refused to Die: A History of Caswell 
County, North Carolina, 1777-1977; Colonial North Carolina: A History; 
and The First State University: A Pictorial History of the University of 
North Carolina. Professor Powell has written several pamphlets pub- 
lished by the Division of Archives and History, including a brief history 
of Lenoir County, sketches of North Carolina's institutions of higher 
education, and the history of the War of the Regulation and the Battle of 
Alamance. He, with James K. Huhta and Thomas J. Farnham, edited 
The Regulators in North Carolina: A Documentary History, 1759-1776, 
another in the Archives and History documentary series. He planned 
and is now editing a multi volume Dictionary of North Carolina Bio- 
graphy, being published by the University of North Carolina Press. 

In his acknowledgments, Professor Powell refers to the contribution 
made by Mary Reynolds Peacock, historical publications editor on the 

staff of the Division of Archives and History's Historical Publications 
Section. Particular thanks should be expressed to Mrs. Peacock for her 
many contributions in editing the book and seeing it through the press. 
Other members of the Historical Publications Section who merit recog- 
nition for their roles in making this book possible are Dr. Robert J. Cain, 
head of the Colonial Records Branch, who suggested the availability of 
documents in the newly procured documents from the British Public 
Record Office; Marie Moore, whose suggestions and expertise in editing 
were invaluable; Kathleen Wyche, who helped to transcribe several 
difficult documents; J. Franklin Whitley and Nancy Huntley Whitley, 
who typed documents and assisted with proofreading; Patricia Johnson, 
who assisted with proofreading; Henri Dawkins, Sue Sherron, Rose 
Ennemoser, and a volunteer, Elizabeth Morgan, all of whom typed 
documents. The volume was indexed by Mr. Powell and his wife, 
Virginia Waldrop Powell. 

Memory F. Mitchell 

Historical Publications Administrator 

November 1, 1979 



For permission to publish original manuscript and contemporary 
printed material in their care I am grateful to the Controller of H. M. 
Stationery Office, London, with respect to Crown -copyright records in 
the Public Record Office; to the Manuscript Division, the New York 
Public Library, Astor, Lennox and Tilden Foundations; to the librarians 
at Fulham Palace and at the Royal Society of Arts, London; to the state 
archives of North Carolina, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island; to the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, the New-York Historical Society, the 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania, and the State Historical Society of 
Wisconsin; to the Harvard University Library, the William L. Clements 
Library at the University of Michigan, the Virginia State Library, and 
the library of the College of William and Mary; to the Moravian 
Archives, Winston-Salem, North Carolina; and to the Director of the 
Southern Historical Collection and the Curator of the North Carolina 
Collection, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 

To Miss Martha Smith for her skill in transcribing many of the letters 
in these volumes my debt is especially great. Kenneth Wayne Mixon 
also transcribed some letters and diligently followed my suggestions in 
a search for further letters; he also spent many hours before a microfilm 
reader in order to answer questions that I sometimes raised. I am 
grateful to Paul Wyche for transcribing some of the letters written by 
Try on to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. The staffs of the 
reference departments in the libraries at the University of North 
Carolina and Duke University were helpful in assisting me with Tryon- 
related questions. Robert J. Cain, Mrs. Mary Reynolds Peacock, and 
George Stevenson, of the Division of Archives and History, all have 
contributed significantly in various ways to the preparation of these 

Miss Gertrude Carraway, Director of Try on Palace, answered many 
questions for me and provided copies of several Tryon manuscripts 
which I might not otherwise have discovered. Miss Elizabeth Vann 
Moore of Edenton shared with me her knowledge of many eighteenth 
century North Carolinians. 

My wife, Virginia Waldrop Powell, listened attentively and watched 
first the typed page and later the printed page with great care through 
many hours of proofreading. Her skill as a proofreader as well as her 
quickness in catching the meaning of eighteenth -century prose, with its 
sparse punctuation, contributed much to what I believe to be an 
accurate transcription of the material published here. 

William S. Powell 

Chapel Hill 
October 1, 1979 

Introduction to the Tryon Papers 

William Tryon, fourth royal governor of North Carolina, was born at 
Norbury Park in the county of Surrey southwest of London, June 8, 
1729, the year that North Carolina became a royal province after sixty- 
six years as a proprietary colony. He was the son of Charles Tryon of 
Bulwick, Northamptonshire, northwest of London, and his wife, Lady 
Mary Tryon, daughter of Robert Shirley, first Earl Ferrers. Through his 
mother William Tryon was descended from the Earl of Essex, favorite 
of Queen Elizabeth I. The Tryon family, which may have originated in 
the Netherlands, had been present in England as early as 1066. Charles 
Tryon was sheriff of Northamptonshire, while two relatives, William 
who died in 1742 and Thomas who died in 1747, were prominent West 
India merchants of London. 

In 1751 at the age of twenty -two William Tryon was commissioned 
lieutenant in the First Regiment of Foot Guards. During a portion of the 
Seven Years' War, 1756-1763, he served as a captain of the Foot 
Guards in Europe and was present at the evacuation of St. Cas Bay in 
the late summer of 1758. During the action he was slightly wounded 
and managed to escape to a boat only with difficulty. After wading into 
the water to enter it, he found the boat already full and had to hold on to 
the stern for about half a mile before he could be pulled in. His experi- 
ences are recounted in a letter of September 12, 1758, apparently 
written to Sir Henry Clinton. It was also in 1758 that Tryon became 
lieutenant colonel. 

While he was in London in 1757, Tryon was married on December 26 
in St. George's Church to Margaret Wake of Hanover Street, thereby 
acquiring control of an estate valued at £30,000. Her mother was 
Elizabeth Elwin, member of an old family from the north central part of 
the County of Norfolk. (The Elwin family was related to John Rolfe; the 
portrait of Pocahontas descended through that family.) Margaret's 
father, William Wake, who went to India in the early 1720s, became a 
merchant at Bombay. Joining the East India Company, Wake served on 
the council and became governor of Bombay on November 25, 1742, a 
post he held until November, 1750. The new Mrs. Tryon had connec- 
tions at court and through her relationship to Wills Hill, earl of Hills- 
borough, her husband received notable advantages. Hillsborough was 
president of the Board of Trade and Plantations from 1763 to 1765 and 
was named secretary of state for the colonies when that office was 
created in 1768; he served until 1772. Tryon was appointed lieutenant 
governor of North Carolina in April, 1764, and throughout most of his 
career in America he could count on a sympathetic ear in high places 
where colonial matters were discussed. 

Arthur Dobbs had been governor of North Carolina since 1754 and in 
1764 decided, at the age of seventy-five, to return home on leave. 

Tryon, as lieutenant governor, expected to succeed Dobbs quite soon 
after reaching his new post. Before leaving England he resigned his 
army commission and with the approval of his mother, sold Norbury 
Park. Tryon, his wife, and their three-year-old daughter Margaret 
arrived in the little town of Brunswick on the Cape Fear River on 
October 10 to discover that Dobbs did not intend to leave the colony 
until April or May of the following year. Tryon was not long in discover- 
ing what subsequent lieutenant governors have known and he be- 
moaned the fact that he would soon be inducted "into an office which is 
likely to be burdensome to me this Winter, for want of Employ." Never 
one to remain long idle, however, he began laying plans for a tour of the 
province. "At present," he noted after just five days, "I can form no 
Judgment of its Fertility, having seen nothing but Wood, Water, & 
Sand; tho' from the Conversation I have already had with the Inhabi- 
tants, I am confirmed . . . that there are great Seeds of Prosperity in the 

No house had been prepared for the new officer and his family and for 
a time their baggage remained aboard ship. Tryon was not pleased with 
the prospects of having to rent a house. "I came into this Province not 
with mercenary Motives, yet I entered it, without any idea of impover- 
ishing my private Fortune which the expences of my Equipment, pas- 
sage and present Household Establishment . . . must necessarily Occa- 
sion." Dobbs's delay clearly put Tryon in an uncomfortable position, 
yet, he concluded, "I mean to behave to him with the respect that is due 
to his Character, Age and Infirmities." Because of Dobbs's age and 
infirmities Tryon probably was little concerned when he reported that 
the governor "flatters himself with returning to this Province." 

Less than a week passed before Tryon began to correspond with in- 
dividual friends in England and with the Board of Trade. He anticipated 
"warm Disputes in the Assembly" that would convene in the autumn 
and thought it best to postpone for a time the presentation of several 
proposals that he had brought over from the Board. At the earliest 
opportunity, however, he would attempt to procure a law to establish 
salaries for the chief justice and the associate judges and would also 
carry out instructions to extend the boundary line between North Caro- 
lina and South Carolina. He anticipated that he would soon be able to 
report what steps had already been taken to partition off Earl Gran- 
ville's lands in the province. On October 27 at the council meeting he 
was sworn into office as lieutenant governor. Before Christmas Tryon 
expressed concern about the lack of postal service in the colony and 
prepared a table of distances between points that might be served. 

In order to extend his acquaintance with the area, Tryon set out from 
Brunswick in late December and reported a cordial reception in New 
Bern on the 28th. Early in January, 1765, he was en route to Edenton 
but was back in Brunswick on St. Valentine's Day. In the spring he set 


North Carolina State Library 
Raleigh, INI. C. 

out again on another tour, this time accompanying Lord Adam Gordon 
through the province; but after a few days a messenger overtook the 
small party to report that Governor Dobbs had unexpectedly died on 
March 28. Tryon promptly returned to Brunswick where he took pos- 
session of the great seal of the province on March 31. One of his first 
acts was to announce that all officers, both civil and military, would 
continue to serve until his further pleasure be made known. In Wil- 
mington on April 3 before the council Tryon took the oath of office as 
governor pro tempore and one month later at a brief session of the 
assembly in New Bern he formally announced his accession to the 
government. On July 19 a commission naming William Tryon governor 
of North Carolina was issued in London and on December 20 at a 
meeting of the council in Wilmington the new governor, thirty-six years 
old, opened it, thereby completing the formality of assuming office. 

The year 1765 was a very eventful one for Tryon although he may 
have realized that fact only in retrospect. Several things occurred that 
were to affect the course of his administration in serious ways. Parlia- 
ment passed the much-discussed Stamp Act on March 22 with an effec- 
tive date of November 1. The Quartering Act, passed three days after 
the Stamp Act, caused more concern elsewhere than in North Carolina, 
but Tryon surely was aware of the reverberations that it produced in 
some of the American colonies. On May 7, in Mecklenburg County, 
there were riots and personal assaults upon surveyors on the lands of 
George Selwyn, an encounter that came to be called The War of Sugar 
Creek. On June 6 in Granville County a schoolmaster, George Sims, 
made an address in which he called attention to evils in local govern- 
ment over which much dissatisfaction already existed. The Stamp Act 
Congress in New York, October 7-25, demonstrated a rare spirit of 
American unity, a fact that surely did not escape Tryon 's notice. He had 
made certain that his colony would not be represented there when he 
did not convene an assembly that might have chosen delegates. A 
supply of stamped paper arrived in the Lower Cape Fear on November 
28 aboard the Diligence, precipitating vigorous resistance throughout 
the whole region to the enforcement of the Stamp Act. And as if these 
various events were not a serious enough threat to the peaceful inaug- 
uration of his administration, Tryon was ill during most of the summer 
and fall with "the seasoning of the climate," as he expressed it. Al- 
though no hint of dissatisfaction crept into his letters, secretly Tryon 
must have wondered quite soon whether his decision to seek a career in 
America was a wise one. 

Tryon's initiation into the life of North Carolina was obviously swift 
and vigorous. He had an early opportunity to witness the determination 
of his neighbors in the Lower Cape Fear to resist what they regarded as 
an unwarranted act of Parliament, while at the same time they had an 
opportunity to see how rigorous their new governor could be when 


matters of principle were at stake. Both sides stood firm on the matter of 
the enforcement of the Stamp Act in North Carolina and only its repeal 
by Parliament resolved the issue. 

Opposition to the Stamp Act centered in the Lower Cape Fear be- 
cause Tryon's home, Bellfont, was there near the town of Brunswick 
and also because it was expected that the stamped paper would arrive 
in the Cape Fear River. In Wilmington about seven o'clock in the 
evening on October 19, 1765, some five hundred people gathered 
around the courthouse to demonstrate their displeasure with the atti- 
tude of a resident of the town who had spoken favorably of the Stamp 
Act. Marching around town, the mob visited every house and called out 
all male occupants to join them at a bonfire. There toasts were drunk 
and great cheers shouted until the mob dispersed about midnight. Very 
much the same activity was repeated on Halloween when an effigy 
designated as "LIBERTY" was borne around in a coffin. When LIBERTY 
was about to be buried in the local churchyard, it was discovered that 
the body was not yet dead, so it was placed in an armchair before an 
enormous bonfire where great rejoicing took place. On the next day the 
Stamp Act was to become effective, but no stamps had yet reached 
North Carolina. Indeed, the governor had not even received an official 
notification of its implementation. 

On November 16 Dr. William Houston learned that he had been 
appointed stamp distributor for the province; but when word of this 
spread, he was visited by a crowd of several hundred men. They easily 
convinced him that he should immediately resign his new office; and 
when he readily assented, they put him in an armchair and carried him 
around the courthouse, cheering wildly at every corner. Dr. Houston 
was then respectfully escorted back to his lodging and everybody went 
inside for a drink. Having persuaded Houston to abandon his post, the 
men of the Cape Fear next approached the local printer, Andrew 
Steuart. For fear of injury to himself and damage to his property, he 
agreed that his newspaper should appear on unstamped paper. 

Governor Try on, confined to his home by illness, was deeply con- 
cerned over the reaction of his neighbors to the act of Parliament. 
Although it was noted at the time that "not the least Insult [was] offered 
to any Person," Tryon was, nevertheless, offended. Dr. Houston, an 
officer of the crown, had been obliged to resign his commission while 
violent opposition to the law was certainly offensive to the king's 
governor. To seek an amiable solution to the question, Tryon invited 
about fifty merchants and other gentlemen from New Hanover, Bruns- 
wick, and Bladen counties to dinner at his home. While declining to 
discuss the complicated question of the right of Parliament to tax the 
colonies, he expressed the hope that none of those present actually 
wanted a total break with England. He hoped that their loyalty would be 
demonstrated through obedience to the law. But, he continued, he knew 


there was not enough specie in the whole colony to pay the stamp duty 
for even one year so he would explain to London North Carolina's 
unique situation and try to secure the exemption of the colony from the 
act. He also offered to pay the stamp duty himself on all legal documents 
from which the governor received a fee; he would, at his own expense, 
provide properly stamped wine licenses for taverns in the towns in the 
province; and further, he pointed out, North Carolina's trade would 
flourish if the Stamp Act were obeyed while the trade of the recalcitrant 
colonies would languish. 

Asking for a delay in replying until the following day, the men of the 
area decided not to be swayed by the new governor's attempt at com- 
promise. They assured Tryon of their loyalty to the crown and of their 
intention not to break their ties with England. Nevertheless, since the 
Stamp Act contravened their rights as British subjects, they decided 
they could not acknowledge it. They found particularly offensive that 
provision of the act concerning the trial of violators without benefit of 

It was only a few days after the dinner meeting when the sloop 
Diligence arrived in the mouth of the Cape Fear River with a bale of 
stamped paper. Since there was no stamp collector in the province to 
receive the paper, it could not be landed. Refusal to accept the stamped 
paper soon began to work real hardship in North Carolina. Ships could 
not sail with the produce of the colony— tar and pitch as well as other 
export products accumulated at the docks. The regular means of com- 
munication abroad were cut. Imports stopped. Early in 1766 two sloops 
arrived in the Cape Fear without proper papers and they were seized by 
Captain Jacob Lobb, a British naval officer stationed near the mouth of 
the river. This, of course, angered local people. When it was reported 
that seven other ships had approached the Cape Fear but turned away 
when they learned that they might be seized, resentment grew. William 
Dry, local customs collector, sought the advice of the attorney general 
because in other North Carolina ports business had returned to normal 
as ships sailed merely with certificates indicating that stamps were not 

The attorney general directed that the seized vessels, having violated 
the Stamp Act, should be prosecuted and that the action should take 
place in Halifax, Nova Scotia, because stamped paper for the necessary 
legal documents could not be obtained in North Carolina. At this point, 
Cape Fear men concluded that the time had come to take matters into 
their own hands. They began to gather in Wilmington and there, on 
February 18, they organized as Sons of Liberty and took an oath to 
prevent the enforcement of the Stamp Act. On the next day around a 
thousand men, under arms, began a march towards Brunswick near the 
mouth of the river to persuade Captain Lobb to release the vessels he 
held. Stopping by Governor Tryon's home, a small delegation informed 


him of their purpose, assured him that he had no need to fear for the 
safety of himself or his family, and left some armed men to guard his 
home. In effect, Try on was under house arrest and he resented it 
bitterly. When asked, he refused to reveal whether Lobb was in his 
house or not. Tryon's invitation to the men to break into the house and 
find out for themselves was rejected. He did not succeed in tempting 
them to violence. Learning that Lobb was aboard his own ship, the men 
soon confronted him there and demanded the release of the ships he 
held. Promising an answer later in the day, Lobb in the meantime con- 
ferred with Try on. Because he was uncertain of his rights in the case of 
one of the ships, Lobb consented to release it. By that time, however, 
large numbers of additional men had arrived at the edge of the river and 
it seemed that serious consequences might soon follow. Lobb agreed to 
release the vessels he held and to open the port. 

Still determined to prevent the enforcement of the detested Stamp 
Act, the men decided to confront the collector of customs (William Dry), 
the British naval officer (Lobb), and the comptroller of customs and 
oblige them to swear not to enforce the act. The first two were easily 
found, but the third, William Pennington, was discovered to be in the 
governor's house. A messenger was sent to bring the comptroller into 
Brunswick, but as they were leaving the governor called them back, 
saying that Pennington was working on official matters and must not 
leave. The messenger thereupon left without Pennington, but within a 
few minutes the house was surrounded by armed men. Try on was told 
that if Pennington left peacefully he would not be harmed; if he refused, 
his safety could not be guaranteed. Try on replied again that Pennington 
was occupied with official business and if anyone wanted to confer with 
him he would have to enter the house. For the second time, Tryon tried 
to entice his opponents to use force against him and to enter his house 
against his will. 

A little later, between four and five hundred men moved to the 
governor's house but stopped some three hundred yards away. About 
sixty men approached and asked to speak with Pennington; Cornelius 
Harnett was admitted and told the comptroller that his presence was 
requested outside. Tryon interceded and said that Pennington should 
have sanctuary in the governor's house; Harnett explained that if Penn- 
ington did not go willingly the people would take him by force. At this 
point Pennington agreed to go but before he left Tryon obtained his 
resignation as comptroller so that any indignity committed upon him 
would be to a private person and not to an officer of the crown. 

With these three important officers in their custody in Brunswick, the 
armed citizens extracted an oath from them that they would not in any 
way enforce the Stamp Act. Then various county officials and the 
attorneys who were present took the same oath. This little ceremony 
completed the business for which the "mob" had gathered, and its mem- 
bers dispersed quietly. 


This body of men, consisting of the leading planters and officehold- 
ers of the region, all of whom were known personally to Governor 
Tryon, and none of whom attempted to conceal their identity, suc- 
ceeded in preventing the enforcement of an unjust act of Parliament. No 
property was destroyed and no personal injury inflicted. They success- 
fully upheld their belief in "no taxation without representation." This 
was almost a decade before men in Boston harbor, disguised as Indians, 
destroyed private property to demonstrate belief in the same principle. 

Having weathered this crisis, Tryon rejoiced with others in the prov- 
ince when Parliament repealed the disputed act effective May 1, 1766. 
Apparently not one to bear a grudge, Tryon did nothing to suggest that 
he ever again gave any thought to what had occurred in the Lower Cape 
Fear. Before long he was calling upon the leaders there as well as else- 
where in the province for assistance in a variety of projects. 

Before leaving England Tryon was aware of the need for a perma- 
nent capital for North Carolina. Various attempts to meet the need had 
been made but none succeeded. At one time Edenton had been so 
designated. At another Governor Dobbs took steps to create a capital in 
the wilderness at a place called Tower Hill (in present Lenoir County); 
he would have named the capital George City. The assembly had met at 
a great many different places and previous governors had made their 
homes wherever they pleased. Those having business with high provin- 
cial officials sometimes were put to considerable trouble to find them. 
Official records of the province were carted about from place to place as 
need for them occurred or as offices were moved. Tryon concluded that 
the time had come to designate a settled capital and in 1766 New Bern 
was selected. On November 12 Edmund Fanning, member of the 
assembly from Orange County, introduced a bill "for erecting a Con- 
venient Building within the Town of New Bern, for the residence of the 
Governor " Twelve days later the bill was passed carrying an appro- 
priation of £5,000 and entrusting the accomplishment of the desired 
ends to the governor. Having anticipated success, Tryon was prepared. 
He turned at once to John Hawks who, he wrote to the earl of Shelburne 
on January 31, 1767, "came with me out of England to superintend this 
work in all its branches. . . . Mr. Hawks has contracted to finish the 
whole in three years from the laying the first brick." With formal 
approval from the crown, work was begun on August 26 and by early 
March the following year the governor was able to report that "the body 
of the house is already carried up to the plates, in six weeks I expect to 
have the roof on it. Several persons who have passed through here from 
the other colonies, esteem this house the capital building on the 
continent of North America." 

The initial appropriation was almost exhausted by the end of 1767 
and a few days before Christmas Tryon informed the assembly that 
additional funds would be required. Architect Hawks estimated that the 


house and its dependencies would cost £14,710 so the assembly early 
in 1768 provided an additional £10,000. In the final reckoning of 
accounts, the total cost was almost precisely the £15,000 made available 
for the "palace," as it soon came to be called. Tryon reported to Lord 
Hillsborough on January 12, 1769, that the structure was "covered in 
and roofed," and by the middle of 1770 the building was near enough 
finished that the governor, his wife, and daughter were able to occupy 
it. By January, 1771, all work was finished but on July 1, having 
enjoyed his new home for only about a year, Tryon left for his new post 
as governor of New York. 

To construct the governor's residence/capitol the assembly levied a 
tax of eight shillings "per head" on the taxpayers of the province for 
three years. In a land where money was scarce, this proved to be very 
burdensome, and it was a tax especially detested by the poor who paid 
at the same rate as the wealthy. They demonstrated their feelings the 
first time tax collectors made their rounds to gather the revenue for the 
New Bern building. Many refused to pay because they resented the 
unfair tax to erect a building that they would never see and even 
regarded as unneeded. Some, of course, simply did not have the money. 
This added burden on top of others— unsympathetic tax collectors who 
arrived unexpectedly, and a host of county officials, appointed by the 
provincial government and not elected, who were frequently excessive- 
ly zealous in exercising their authority— created for Governor Tryon a 
new form of rebellion. It was one which lasted longer and was much 
more troublesome than the Stamp Act crisis had been. 

Colonial North Carolina, almost from its first settlement, was marked 
by strife and turmoil. The people, with scant supervision from England, 
developed an independent spirit. They had little understanding of the 
role England expected North Carolina to play in the empire. Geograph- 
ical conditions such as poor harbors, the lack of navigable rivers, 
numerous swamps, and nearly impassable roads through deep sand or 
slick red clay contributed to the isolation of the colony from the outside 
world and the formation of widely separated communities in various 
parts of the colony. Settlement of people of English descent generally in 
the east and the Scotch-Irish and Germans along the colonial frontier 
also contributed to the division of the citizens into different camps. Be- 
cause the Granville family, descendants of one of the original Lords 
Proprietors, continued to hold rights in the land of the northern half of 
North Carolina after 1729, a further divisive influence was present. 
This "Granville District" was the scene of many disputes over land 
grants, taxes, support of the royal government, and numerous other 
lesser issues. 

In the backcountry settlers felt particularly oppressed by laws drawn 
up by an assembly largely composed of eastern landowners. Local offi- 
cials in many counties, particularly in the west, were not local men at all. 


These officials— friends of the royal governor and appointed, not elected, 
to their positions— often yielded to the temptation to collect higher fees 
than the law authorized or to divide a single service into two or more 
parts and require a fee for each. Lawyers who followed the judges about 
the colony wherever courts were held also fell into the same habit. 

People living in the counties of Anson, Orange, and Granville in 1764 
were the first to make themselves heard. They were referred to as "the 
mob" and created a number of local disturbances until Governor Arthur 
Dobbs issued a proclamation forbidding the taking of illegal fees, the 
abuse which elicited the loudest complaints. Protests were calmed 
temporarily, but the effects of the governor's proclamation soon wore off 
and some of the county officers returned to their old practices. Again 
there were vigorous complaints of dishonest sheriffs, excessive taxes, 
and extortionate fees. These evils were the more felt because of the 
scarcity of money; local trading was generally confined to barter. When 
a sudden need for cash arose, it was the custom to borrow from a neigh- 
bor, who occasionally lent small sums of money. The sheriff, however, 
when he arrived unexpectedly to collect taxes, refused to be delayed 
while the hapless taxpayer set off to borrow money. Sometimes fees 
were charged for the delay, and at other times the property was sold 
before the owner could secure cash and proceed to the county seat to 
pay. Often, it seemed to these people, their property was sold to some 
friend of the sheriff's for much less than its true value. 

Frontiersmen were also concerned over what they regarded as ex- 
tortionate fees required by public officials and attorneys. They felt that 
"as soon as counties were organized on the frontier sheriffs, clerks, 
registrars, and lawyers swooped down upon the defenseless inhabitants 
like wolves." It was even suspected that court officials conspired to aid 
these officers in escaping punishment. 

Far removed from and out of sympathy with the easterners, the people 
along the frontier were ripe for revolt and needed only a leader to provide 
the spark for conflagration. Hermon Husband came nearer to providing 
that leadership than any other man, although his role seems to have been 
that of a driver or agitator rather than a leader. He received political 
pamphlets of a patriotic character from various sources. These he re- 
printed and circulated among the people, seeking public sentiment to 
effect reform. When it became evident that the Regulators (as the leaders 
called themselves because of their desire to regulate their own affairs) 
were resorting to violence, Husband held himself aloof, trying to restrain 
excesses and make peace. He eventually left North Carolina. 

At no time during the Regulation was there an outstanding Regulator 
leader. James Hunter, often referred to as the "general" of the Regula- 
tion, declined to take command after Husband departed, saying, "We 
are all freemen, and everyone must command himself." Rednap Howell 
and William Butler were also prominent in the movement, however. 


An early center of the Regulator activity developed in Orange 
County. Edmund Fanning, holder of numerous offices in the county and 
a resident of Hillsborough, was a prime target. Governor William 
Tryon, of course, was also a target. It was he who had persuaded the 
assembly to vote funds for the erection of "Tryon Palace" in New Bern. 
Taxes levied for this building were not least among the grievances of 
the Regulators. Taxes everywhere along the frontier were burdensome, 
and frontiersmen had little occasion to conduct business with the 
governor or any other provincial official in New Bern. They were 
entirely unsympathetic with the governor's desire for a handsome 
residence and provincial capitol. 

Outbreaks of violence during the collection of taxes in Anson County 
and riots in the Granville District foretold events to follow. In May, 
1765, unauthorized settlers on a large tract of land in Mecklenburg 
County rose up in arms to drive away the owner's agents who arrived to 
survey the land to levy quitrents. In the same year in Granville County a 
complaint was registered over the government's "most notorious and in- 
tolerable abuses." In making their protest, the people were careful to 
point out that it was not the "form of Government, nor yet the body of 
our laws, that we are quarreling with, but with the malpractices of the 
Officers of our County Courts, and the abuses which we suffer by those 
empowered to manage our public affairs." Behind these complaints lay 
extortionate fees and harsh methods of collecting fees and taxes. 

Efforts to organize an active group to combat these evils were made in 
Orange County in the summer of 1767. A group of men, apparently 
enthusiastic over the success of the Sons of Liberty in resisting the 
Stamp Act, called the citizenry to meet to determine "whether the free 
men of this county labor under any abuses of power or not." Read in 
open court, the call was deemed reasonable and a number of officers 
agreed to attend. Edmund Fanning, however, considered this an insur- 
rectionary step and no officers attended. Delegates at the meeting, 
therefore, were able to accomplish little. They proposed to meet annual- 
ly to discuss the qualifications of candidates for the assembly, to inform 
their representatives of their wishes, and to investigate the official acts 
of officeholders. Public officials declined to cooperate, throwing all 
possible influence against such ideas. Discouraged over the lack of 
interest and support of their proposal, the leaders abandoned all efforts 
to secure justice through such peaceful means. 

Until the spring of 1768 only minor clashes occurred. Then, however, 
the sheriff of Orange County announced he would receive taxes only at 
five specified places; for all not paid there an additional charge of 2s. 8d. 
would be levied. About the same time word came that the governor was 
going to spend £15,000 to build a residence. Opposition to these moves 
drew the people together into an association later designated "the 
Regulation." Their purpose, they said, was 


to assemble ourselves for conference for regulating public 
grievances and abuses of power, in the following particulars 
with others of a like nature that may occur: (1) We will pay no 
more taxes until we are satisfied that they are agreeable to 
law, and applied to the purposes therein mentioned, unless we 
cannot help it, or are forced. (2) We will pay no officer any 
more fees than the law allows, unless we are obliged to do it, 
and then to show our dislike and bear open testimony against 
it. (3) We will attend all our meetings of conferences as often 
as we conveniently can. ... (4) We will contribute to collec- 
tions for defraying the necessary expenses attending the work, 
according to our abilities. (5) In case of differences in judgement 
we will submit to the judgement of the majority of our body. 

Various officials, including the sheriff, were asked to meet with the 
Regulators and exhibit a list of the taxables, a statement of the dis- 
bursement of public money, and a copy of the law establishing fees for 
deeds and other official papers. The officers refused, of course, and 
Fanning denounced the people for their daring to question them before 
"the bar of their shallow understanding" and their attempt to set them- 
selves up as "sovereign arbiters of right and wrong." 

At an unfortunate moment with feeling between the two groups at a 
peak, officials seized a Regulator's horse, saddle, and bridle and sold 
them for taxes. Thoroughly outraged, a band of Regulators rode into 
Hillsborough, rescued the horse, and before leaving town fired several 
shots into Fanning's house. Fanning, absent at court in Halifax, immedi- 
ately ordered the arrest of William Butler, Peter Craven, and Ninian 
Bell Hamilton, leaders of the mob. He also called out seven companies 
of the Orange militia and made preparations to return and take personal 
command. Citizens of Orange were so strongly in sympathy with the 
Regulators that only a token force turned out equipped to fight. The 
officers, perhaps frightened by this turn of events, took steps toward a 
truce but wrote Fanning that they were simply playing for time. 

Hermon Husband, although not yet a formal member of the Regu- 
lators, was chosen one of the delegates to meet with the officers to 
discuss the problems. Before the meeting could be held Fanning 
gathered a handful of armed men and assisted the sheriff in arresting 
William Butler and Husband. The two men were charged with inciting 
the people to rebellion, and after a trial before a justice of the peace the 
prisoners were confined in the Hillsborough jail. Husband, however, 
was scheduled to be removed to New Bern for safekeeping. 

The following morning 700 men, some of whom were not Regulators, 
went to Hillsborough to rescue the prisoners. County officials, becoming 
alarmed, released the prisoners in time to speed them on their way to 
meet the approaching men swarming toward the county seat. The 
governor's secretary informed the protesters that Governor Tryon 


would receive their petition to investigate conditions in Orange County 
and would see that they received fair treatment at the hands of county 

Tryon, when he was approached, claimed that his secretary had 
exceeded his authority. The governor refused to deal with the Regula- 
tors as an organization, but he did issue a statement to the public giving 
the amount of taxes due for 1767. He also promised to issue a proclama- 
tion forbidding officers from taking illegal fees and ordered the attorney 
general to prosecute all officers who were properly charged with 

The governor himself went to Hillsborough in July, 1768, in an effort 
to persuade the people to abide by the law. After his arrival Regulators 
met to consider what steps they might take; they decided to petition the 
assembly for relief since the governor's proclamation apparently had 
little effect. Several meetings were held and the antagonists were in 
frequent informal communication. The governor instituted proceedings 
against several officials, including Colonel Fanning, who was charged 
with extortion. The Regulators, nevertheless, wishing more progress, 
continued to agitate. 

To protect the superior court when it met to try Husband and Butler, 
Tryon called out the militia. Because so many people in the vicinity 
were in sympathy with the Regulators Tryon found it difficult to raise a 
force of 1,461 militiamen. Most of these came from the distant county of 
Rowan, while others were from Mecklenburg and Granville with only a 
handful from Orange. More than a fifth were commissioned officers, 
including eight generals and seven colonels. Among the troops were a 
number of council members, many assemblymen, and assorted office- 

Some 3,700 Regulators gathered but found themselves no match for 
the trained militia. No attempt was made to hold the trial, and after two 
days the Regulators went home. 

Husband was acquitted but Butler and two other Regulators were 
convicted and sentenced to fines and imprisonment. Fanning was found 
guilty of extortion on five counts and fined one penny for each offense. 
He resigned his position as register, but subsequent investigation in- 
dicated that he was guilty of nothing worse than a misconstruction of the 

Sympathy for the Regulators spread rapidly. A band of about thirty 
men from Edgecombe County made an unsuccessful attempt to rescue 
an insurgent leader from the Halifax jail. In Johnston County eighty men 
attacked the justices of the court but were repulsed when the justices 
and their friends took up clubs and met them in a field. In Anson a 
hundred armed men who succeeded in breaking up the county court 
joined an oath-bound association to assist each other in resisting the 
sheriff's efforts to collect taxes. A group in Rowan attempting to prose- 


cute certain officials for extortion failed because the grand jury refused 
to return true bills. 

Failing to secure justice in their own courts, the Regulators decided to 
appeal to the assembly. Governor Tryon in the summer of 1769 dis- 
solved the old assembly and ordered the election of a new one. Orange, 
Anson, Granville, and Halifax counties returned their entire delega- 
tions. This assembly which met on October 23 was inclined to hear the 
petitions and suggestions of the Regulators but before taking action 
passed several resolutions and drew up a petition to the crown on 
questions then at issue between the American colonies and the British 
government. Tryon was highly displeased and promptly dissolved the 
assembly. Almost immediately steps were taken to call a new election. 

The assembly as a deliberative body was naturally slow and could 
not move with the speed demanded by the impatient Regulators. They 
mistook this for indifference and began to react so violently the govern- 
ment was forced to action. Regulators broke into courts of justice, drove 
judges from the bench, and contemptuously set up mock courts. They 
dragged unoffending attorneys through the streets at the peril of their 
lives and publicly assaulted peaceful citizens who refused to express 
public sympathy with them. 

Both the assembly and the governor felt compelled to look less to the 
alleviation of the Regulators' grievances and more to the suppression of 
anarchy. In September, 1770, Judge Richard Henderson was presiding 
over the superior court in Hillsborough when a mob of 150 Regulators 
led by Husband, Hunter, Howell, and Butler and armed with sticks and 
switches broke into the courthouse, attempted to strike the judge, and 
forced him to leave the bench. They next attacked and severely 
whipped John Williams, a practicing attorney. William Hooper (later a 
signer of the Declaration of Independence but then an assistant attorney 
general) was "dragged and paraded through the streets, and treated 
with every mark of contempt and insult." Fanning was pulled from the 
courthouse by his heels and dragged through the street before being 
brutally whipped. The mob then broke into Fanning's house, burned his 
papers, destroyed the furniture, and demolished the building. Many 
others were whipped as the Regulators rioted through the streets of 
Hillsborough. Windows of private homes were broken and the inhabi- 
tants of the town were terrorized. Court was adjourned when Judge 
Henderson was unable to keep order. 

These outrages created general panic among Orange County officials, 
and they were quick to demand a special session of the assembly. Tryon 
summoned his council for advice; the decision was made to call the 
militia into active service at once. News reached New Bern of the burn- 
ing of Judge Henderson's home and stables in Granville County, and 
rumors spread that the Regulators were gathering in force to march on 
New Bern to overawe the assembly meeting there on December 5, 


The assembly at once set about to draw up a series of reform 
measures. Acts were passed dealing with the appointment of sheriffs 
and their duties, fixing attorneys' fees, regulating officers' fees, provid- 
ing for more speedy collection of small debts, and creating the counties 
of Wake, Guilford, Chatham, and Surry in the region where the Regu- 
lators were most numerous. These laws were designed to meet the de- 
mands of the Regulators. But while the assembly was so engaged, word 
arrived that the Regulators had assembled in Cumberland County and 
were ready to march to New Bern. A complete change came over the 
assembly and thoughts were turned toward punitive measures. 

An act generally known as the "Johnston Act" introduced by Samuel 
Johnston was adopted. (Johnston was later a member of the Continental 
Congress and a senator from North Carolina in the First Congress of the 
United States.) This act, to be in force for a year, provided that the 
attorney general might prosecute charges of riot in any superior court in 
the province. All who avoided the summons of the court for sixty days 
were declared outlaws and liable to be killed with impunity. In addition 
to these drastic steps, the governor was authorized to call out the militia 
to enforce the law. 

As might have been anticipated, the Regulators reacted with 
defiance. To extend and strengthen their organization they sent mes- 
sengers into Bute, Edgecombe, and Northampton counties to encourage 
supporters and to organize those who would join them. The people of 
Rowan denounced the "Johnston Act" and swore they would neither 
pay fees nor allow any judge or king's attorney to hold court there. They 
threatened death to all clerks and lawyers who came among them and 
declared Fanning an outlaw whom any Regulator might kill on sight. 

In March, 1771, Governor Tryon ordered a term of superior court to 
be held in Hillsborough, but the judges filed a formal protest with the 
council. Under the conditions existing in that part of the province, they 
felt that they could not hold court with any hope of conducting its 
business. And, too, they feared for their personal safety. 

The councillors decided the time had come for the government to take 
a stand against lawless factions. They advised Tryon to call out the 
militia and to march against the Regulators "with all expedition." Law- 
abiding elements of the colony, tired of the violence, lawlessness, and 
terrorism of the Regulators, generally approved this action. 

Strong protests were heard from the Regulators. They told the 
governor that they were resolved, should he come among them with the 
militia, that every man would take his horse from his plow and meet the 
governor's force. If he came to "suppress all the disturbers of the public 
peace and to punish according to their deserts the original offenders in 
government" (by which they meant the local officials in the govern- 
ment), then they would join him; otherwise they were ready to oppose 


Tryon paid not the least attention to this protest. On March 19 he 
called for volunteers for the militia and when enlistments were slow 
offered a bounty of forty shillings. The offer had its effect, and on April 
23 the troops got under way. Swivel guns, flintlocks, ammunition, and 
other equipment for these troops had been sent at Tryon 's request from 
Fort Johnston on the Cape Fear. General Hugh Waddell had already 
been ordered to march with the Cape Fear militia to Salisbury to over- 
awe the Rowan Regulators, to enlist the support of the western militia, 
and to march on Hillsborough from the west. 

Troops from Craven, Carteret, Orange, Beaufort, New Hanover, 
Onslow, Dobbs, and Johnston were joined by the Wake militia at 
Johnston Courthouse. On May 3, 1771, in a nearby meadow at Smith's 
Ferry beside the Neuse River, Tryon reviewed his troops just before 
breaking camp and marching toward Hillsborough. There were 1,068 
men with the governor and of this number 151 were officers. General 
Waddell, approaching Salisbury from the Cape Fear, had in his com- 
mand 236 men and 48 officers, mostly from Anson, Rowan, Mecklen- 
burg, and Tryon counties. 

On May 9, the same day that Governor Tryon and the militia reached 
Hillsborough, General Waddell left Salisbury. Just after crossing the 
Yadkin River he was met and stopped by a large body of Regulators. 
The general called a council of officers. Together they decided that in 
view of the numerical superiority of the enemy and because their own 
men could not be relied upon to fire on them, it would be wise to fall 
back to Salisbury. 

On this occasion nine young men among the Regulators, later known 
as "The Black Boys of Cabarrus," disguised themselves and attacked a 
convoy taking some powder from South Carolina to General Waddell. 
They beat off the guards and succeeded in burning the powder. 

Tryon left Hillsborough on May 11 leading the militia through the 
heart of the Regulator country to go to Waddell's aid. On May 14 they 
reached the banks of Alamance Creek where they rested for a day. On 
the morning of May 16 Tryon ordered his army of something under 
1,000 men and officers into battle formation. The companies from 
Carteret, Orange, Beaufort, New Hanover, and Dobbs counties, plus the 
artillery, were in the lead, followed by companies from Onslow, John- 
ston, and Dobbs. With these troops Tryon set out to find a large body of 
Regulators reported assembled about five miles ahead. Two companies 
from Orange remained in Hillsborough and a small contingent of troops 
kept guard over the camp at Alamance. 

The Regulators, estimated at about 2,000, were gathered in front of 
Tryon. They lacked adequate leadership, a clear purpose, efficient 
organization, and even sufficient arms and ammunition for battle. Their 
chiefs seemed to have felt that simply by making a display of force they 
could frighten the governor into granting their demands. Among their 


number were many restless and noisy individuals and many who 
seemed not to realize the seriousness of the situation. Against the 
wishes of their leaders some of the Regulators captured Colonel John 
Ashe and Captain John Walker of the militia on the morning of May 15 
while they were out scouting and, after severely whipping them, made 
them prisoners. The great body of Regulators was opposed to such 
action and even threatened to abandon the cause entirely if such acts 
were repeated. 

Trying to act as mediator between the two camps, the Reverend 
David Caldwell, went first among the Regulators and then to Tryon. 
Tryon promised him a reply on the following morning; as the militia 
began to move out of camp on May 16, the message was sent. Tryon 
offered no compromise but instead required the people to submit to the 
provincial government and disperse. He gave them an hour in which to 
comply. After delivering the message Caldwell returned to the governor 
in a last and unsuccessful effort to prevent an outbreak. He went back to 
the Regulators and advised them to abide by the governor's orders, but 
they stood fast. Husband, also present in the role of peacemaker, 
realizing the hopelessness of the situation, mounted his horse and 
quietly rode away. 

The Regulators were so careless and so unaware of the pending 
danger that quite a few were frolicking and wrestling when an old 
soldier who happened to be among them warned them to expect an 
attack at any minute. Shortly thereafter the firing began. 

While the Regulators remained under arms, Tryon considered them 
in "a state of War and Rebellion" and accordingly could not negotiate 
with them but could only endeavor to restore order by whatever means 
seemed most sure to promise success. He gave the Regulators a choice 
—to return peacefully to their homes or to be fired upon. They had one 
hour to decide. After the hour had passed Tryon sent an officer to 
receive their reply. "Fire and be damned!" was the response. The 
governor then gave the order, but his men hesitated. Rising in his 
stirrups, Tryon reportedly shouted, "Fire! Fire on them or on me!" The 
militia obeyed their commander. The Regulators responded in kind and 
the Battle of Alamance was on. 

Tryon's well-equipped troops, drums beating and red silk colors 
flying, soon put the Regulators to flight. His officers wore yellow 
cockades as a readily identifiable badge of authority, while the Regu- 
lators had no officer higher than captain and each individual company 
operated independently of the others. Tryon's artillery fire was very 
effective in the beginning, but some of the hardy frontiersmen crouched 
behind rocks and trees soon succeeded in driving away the artillery 
gunners and even in capturing one of the guns. These bold Regulators, 
however, were deserted by many of their comrades who took early 
leave of the field of battle. 


The Battle of Alamance lasted two hours. Tryon's forces lost nine 
killed and sixty-one wounded while the Regulators lost the same num- 
ber killed and a large but undetermined number of wounded. Tryon 
took about fifteen prisoners and executed one on the spot with the idea 
of striking terror in the hearts of the Regulators. This drastic step, 
however, was uncalled for; the "rebellion" was already crushed by the 
decisive military defeat. 

The governor's own surgeons treated the wounded Regulators. The 
day following the battle Tryon issued a proclamation offering to pardon 
all (with a few named exceptions) who would submit to the government 
and take an oath of allegiance. The governor and his troops marched to 
Sandy Creek, an early center of the Regulator movement. They arrived 
on May 21 and remained a week to collect supplies and administer an 
oath of allegiance to those who took advantage of the governor's 
proclamation. On May 29 they moved westward and were joined on 
June 4 by General Waddell and his troops. After visiting the Moravian 
settlement they turned on June 9 and marched to Hillsborough where 
the prisoners taken at Alamance were tried before a court-martial. Six 
were condemned to death and executed near Hillsborough; the re- 
mainder were pardoned by the British government at Tryon's request. 
On June 8 Waddell departed to return to the Cape Fear by the same 
route he had followed in coming up. Tryon, recently appointed governor 
of New York, departed at once for New Bern leaving Colonel Ashe in 
charge of the militia with orders to return to New Bern. 

Josiah Martin, Tryon's successor, found the Regulator uprising 
crushed when he arrived to assume office. By July 4 more than six 
thousand persons had taken the oath of allegiance, and in the election of 
1771 the voters of Orange County chose two strong anti-Regulators to 
represent them in the assembly. Most of the defeated Regulators were 
in hiding or had fled the province. 

The Regulators' attempt to secure reform in local government by 
force apparently failed completely. The people were compelled to 
submit or move farther into the wilderness. Many migrated, some going 
into Tennessee and down into the Mississippi country. Others followed 
Daniel Boone's trail into Kentucky. By 1772 about 1,500 had left while 
others were waiting only to sell their land before departing. 

The Battle of Alamance and its proper place in American history 
have long been topics of serious discussion not only in North Carolina 
but throughout the nation. Although the spirit motivating the Regu- 
lators was similar in many respects to that of the American colonists 
revolting against England several years later, it did not find such clear 
and idealistic expression. The Regulators came up against a local 
problem necessitating a local solution. Because no theory of govern- 
ment was involved, the War of the Regulation must be regarded simply 
as one of the preliminary thrusts before the Revolution. 


It was outside the province of North Carolina that the Regulator 
movement had one of its greatest effects. In Pennsylvania and 
Massachusetts, where the people were on the verge of revolution, the 
press gave lurid pictures of the struggles of oppressed North Caro- 
linians. Aroused sympathy and common feelings of discontent con- 
tributed to the growing movement toward the American Revolution. 

On the other hand, when the final break did come, many of the lead- 
ing North Carolinians in the struggle for independence were those who 
fought— or at least sided— with Governor Try on. Tryon's troops, after 
all, were North Carolina militia and not royal troops from England. 

Although the Stamp Act crisis, the construction of the palace, and the 
suppression of the Regulator uprising were the three primary highlights 
of Governor Tryon's administration, there were other matters with 
which he dealt. In less troublesome times his contributions to the 
province in more ordinary areas might have earned Try on a reputation 
as a concerned and effective administrator. In various ways he demon- 
strated his concern both for his royal master and for the people of North 
Carolina. Although Tryon was only thirty-five when he arrived in the 
colony, he exercised sound judgment and revealed a maturity that 
earned for him the respect of men in the colony who were his senior 
both in age and experience. When he was defeated, as in the Stamp Act 
encounter, he held no grudge. When he was victorious, as in the Battle 
of Alamance, he was quick to do everything possible to restore 

In order to postpone a confrontation between white settlers and 
Indians, King George issued a proclamation in 1763 forbidding white 
settlement in America farther west than the crest of the mountains. The 
French and Indian War had just been concluded, but the late influence 
of the French over certain Indians was not totally removed. Some of the 
Cherokees back of the North Carolina settlements asked John Stuart, 
England's superintendent of Indian affairs for the Southern Depart- 
ment, to seek a precisely defined boundary for their protection. South 
Carolina and Georgia had already indicated a tentative boundary when 
this request was made in 1765. The Indians preferred that the line not 
be run until after the 1766 hunting season, however, so that they might 
take game farther east than they anticipated the line might permit. 
Stuart approached Tryon at a time when he happened to be deeply 
involved with the dispute over the Stamp Act and at a time when he was 
also ill. By the spring of 1766 South Carolina's line between white and 
Indian lands was completed; and Alexander Cameron, Stuart's deputy, 
awaited instructions from Governor Tryon for a northward extension of 
that line from Reedy River. The Cherokees proposed a straight line 
across North Carolina to Virginia even though it would take away some 
of the land that would have been theirs according to a tentative earlier 


In June, 1766, Try on indicated to his council that he was ready to 
undertake the surveying of a line, and the council authorized him to 
direct the surveyor general to proceed. Since the treasury had no funds 
for such a project, the governor was authorized to issue warrants to the 
receiver general of His Majesty's quitrents as necessary. Since there 
were already white settlers west of the projected line, Tryon thought it 
best if he accompanied the survey party. His presence might be the 
means of avoiding serious conflicts between the two races. As it turned 
out, the Indians very generously permitted the whites to remain west of 
the line for the remainder of the year to tend and harvest their crops and 
to remove their possessions at leisure. 

For various reasons it was not convenient for Tryon to participate in 
the running of the boundary line until the spring of 1767. He then sent 
word for Stuart, Cameron, and a delegation of Cherokee Indians to meet 
him at Salisbury in May. The governor arrived on the appointed day, 
but after waiting in vain for four days he decided to go directly to Reedy 
River where he supposed he would find Stuart and the others. Tryon 
was accompanied by an aide-de-camp and five servants and from 
Salisbury he traveled in company with ninety -six men and four wagons. 
Also marching with the party were militia detachments from Mecklen- 
burg and Rowan counties under the command of Colonel Hugh 
Waddell. Several staff officers, including Edmund Fanning of Orange 
County, the boundary line commissioners, and others were also in- 
cluded. Proceeding in the direction of Reedy River, sometimes having 
to clear the way, Tryon and his party encountered the forty -two-man 
Cherokee delegation at the end of May at Tyger River in South Caro- 
lina. Having traveled over four hundred miles in twenty-six days, Tryon 
did not conceal his displeasure that his call for a rendezvous at Salisbury 
had been disobeyed. He had not brought the expected presents for the 
Indians from Salisbury, he said, because there was no way of knowing 
where the Cherokee would be found, or if they would be found at all. 
Nevertheless, now that the two parties had joined, Tryon directed that 
some of his men, accompanied by a contingent of Cherokee, return to 
Salisbury to secure the gifts. The Cherokee would be permitted to select 
merchandise of their own liking from a Salisbury merchant. 

Tryon and his party together with the Cherokee then set out for 
Reedy River, which they reached on June 3. A formal observance of the 
birthday of King George was held on June 4 as a part of the ceremony of 
beginning the running of the line. After two days during which ade- 
quate progress was made, Tryon appointed John Rutherfurd, Robert 
Palmer, and John Frohock to be boundary commissioners; and they, 
together with a detachment of thirty men, were left to complete the task. 
Tryon and the remainder of the men then departed for their homes. 
After reaching Brunswick, Tryon estimated that he had traveled 843 
miles. The total cost of running the line, including pay for the men, 


provisions, gifts for the Indians, and the charges of the commissioners 
was £1,490. 

The work was completed on June 13, 1767. On July 16 Tryon pub- 
lished a proclamation describing the boundary and "strictly requiring all 
Persons settled within the Indians Lands, to remove from thence by the 
First Day of January next [1768]." He further directed that "no Person 
on any Pretence whatsoever may disturb the said Indians in the quiet 
and peacable [sic] Possession of the Lands to the Westward of the 
aforesaid Line, or presume to Hunt thereon, or any other Way or Means 
to give them Cause of Uneasiness." 

The immediate effect of the line was apparently good in that for 
awhile there was no notable conflict between whites and Indians. Before 
long, however, as white population grew, the line came to be ignored. 
Nevertheless, four years after the line was established and when Tryon 
had left North Carolina for New York, he was criticized for the great 
expense involved. A contemporary believed that Tryon had made too 
great a show of force merely to please his own vanity. Richard G. Stone, 
in a study of Tryon made in 1962, agreed. The boundary had been 
described in general terms almost two years before it was surveyed, he 
pointed out, and John Stuart, England's Indian agent, did not feel that 
his presence was necessary at the actual running of it. Furthermore, 
Alexander Cameron had superintended the running of the line in South 
Carolina with very little fanfare. "Tryon," Stone concluded, "probably 
felt that the Cherokee boundary expedition was a good way to demon- 
strate the prestige of his office; something he probably felt that he badly 
needed after the mortifications of the Stamp Act crisis." 

In many other areas Tryon's interests and effort were also effective. 
These are reflected in a variety of letters and documents. Religion and 
education were of particular concern to him and his frequent correspon- 
dence with officers of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
reveals his desire for clergymen to serve the parishes in the province. 
His letters of recommendation to church officials in London on behalf of 
North Carolinians who were seeking ordination reflect his desire for a 
native clergy. The governor's references to the need for schools appear 
in his addresses to the assembly as well as in his correspondence. His 
pleasure in the work of Thomas Thomlinson, first teacher at the New 
Bern Academy, and his plea for royal approval of the charter of Queen's 
College in Charlotte demonstrate his desire for educational opportuni- 
ties for both children and young people. 

While Tryon's concern for the Anglican establishment was sincere, 
he was tolerant of other Protestant faiths. He lent a helping hand to the 
Germans in their search for German-speaking clergymen and school- 
masters. He permitted Presbyterian ministers to perform marriages— a 
rite previously reserved for Anglicans or for certain civil officers. And 
he heartily commended the Moravians for their orderly religious 


Commerce and industry were also matters of considerable importance 
in Tryon's mind. He wrote at considerable length to the Board of Trade 
and to prominent people in England stressing the potentials of North 
Carolina. Grain, tobacco, lumber, naval stores, and other produce were 
regularly mentioned. Try on often sought to demonstrate the worth of 
new products as when he described wooden pipes made of cypress trees 
from the forests of North Carolina sufficient in quantity to meet the 
needs of the city of London for as far into the future as he could imagine. 
The advantages of rice and indigo production were also mentioned, and 
he undertook to have a model of a particularly successful new sawmill 
sent to the colony. His concern over roads, bridges, and improved water 
transportation reflects his desire for commercial growth. Better postal 
service was also a long-standing desire of his. In fact, even before he left 
England he was aware of the poor service in the southern colonies and 
made inquiries concerning improvements. Once in North Carolina he 
continued the plea to postal officials at home as well as in the colonies. 
He secured two appropriations from the assembly and recommended 
the route to be followed by a post rider. At last, early in 1769, regular 
service across North Carolina every two weeks was established. 

The defense of his territory was often on his mind. Tryon frequently 
expressed concern over the condition of Fort Johnston at the mouth of 
the Cape Fear River, its maintenance, and the ordnance stored there. 
He requested arms and ammunition and sought qualified commanders 
both for Fort Johnston and for the militia. On a number of occasions 
when conditions seemed to suggest the need, Tryon called out various 
militia units and marched with them (as against the Regulators on 
several occasions and to the Cherokee country). He insisted on formal 
chains of command, careful security, and tight discipline. By example 
he taught the men of North Carolina many valuable lessons. 

Tryon's letters and more formal reports also reveal a great deal about 
the man and his interests as well as about North Carolina. He made 
frequent trips throughout the province to inform himself of the needs of 
the people, something that no other governor had done, at least on such 
an extensive scale. He enjoyed being entertained, as he was by the 
Moravians, for example, or in Wilmington and New Bern and in Wil- 
liamsburg, Virginia. Good music and good food pleased him. For a time 
he had a French cook as a part of his household. He also was a good 
host. References to house guests and dinner guests appear in his 
papers. Foreign and native guests and even Indians were entertained in 
his home. He was generous with gifts also— a book for James Hasell and 
a panther for King George, for example. 

Expressions of regret at his departure from North Carolina were un- 
doubtedly sincere, but there is certainly no question but that some of the 
people were happy to see him leave. Many, however, regarded him as a 
personal friend as well as a friend of the province. Even after arriving in 


New York he maintained an interest in North Carolina and on occasion 
people in the province sought his intervention with English officials on 
behalf of the province. Tryon was trusted whereas his successor, Josiah 
Martin, sometimes was not. 

Arriving at his new post in New York on July 8, 1771, Tryon found 
that a house in Fort George was ready for occupancy. Two years later, 
on the night of December 29, 1773, fire broke out in the council 
chambers after everyone had retired and the house was quickly con- 
sumed. Governor and Mrs. Tryon escaped quickly, but their daughter 
was rescued only after a frightening delay. Tryon's aide, Edmund 
Fanning, also escaped and so did all of the servants except one. Nothing 
in the house was saved and all of the family's furniture, silver, china, 
pictures, clothes, and other possessions were lost. An inventory sub- 
mitted in connection with the insurance claim suggests by the quantity 
and type of household furnishings the life-style enjoyed by the governor 
and his family. 

Tryon's reputation in North Carolina preceded him to New York and 
he was well received. He was acclaimed as an able administrator and a 
fair-minded man. There were, of course, no Regulators to contend with 
in New York. His addresses to the assembly there contained proposals 
for the betterment of the colony just as they had in North Carolina. He 
supported the New York hospital and urged the creation of an efficient 
militia. Before the end of the year of his arrival he wrote to Lord 
Dartmouth, colonial secretary, a glowing account of "the most brilliant 
militia review ever held within his majesty's American dominions." 
This was the sort of activity that delighted Tryon. Frontier disturbances 
of a different origin than in North Carolina did plague the new governor, 
however. Improper grants for land by New York and New Hampshire in 
the area that later became the state of Vermont created confusion and 
outspoken resentment. The situation became so explosive that Tryon 
sought the assistance of British regulars but his request was denied. 
Troubles also arose over the purchase of land from Indians in the 
Mohawk Valley and in this Tryon himself was involved. He had a 
personal interest in forty thousand acres in violation of his instructions 
which prohibited such action by the governor. Because of these and 
other problems, Tryon was called home to London in the spring of 1774 
and he did not return for fourteen months. Yet while in London he 
recommended to the earl of Dartmouth that he adopt a conciliatory 
attitude toward America. By that time the American Revolution was 
brewing and on the very day of his arrival in New York, June 25, 1775, 
George Washington passed through the city on the way to take com- 
mand of American forces. By the fall Tryon concluded that it was not 
safe for him to remain in the city and in October he took refuge on a 
British ship in the harbor from which he sent numerous important dis- 
patches to London. With the landing of General Sir William Howe in the 


summer of 1776 Tryon returned to New York, but because of the war 
he was unable to reestablish his civil government. Loyalists welcomed 
him, however, and he busily administered the oath of allegiance to them. 

Still a military man at heart, Tryon sought an active command. He 
had been made colonel in 1772 and now, in 1777, was granted com- 
mand of a corps of provincial loyalists. The following year he was made 
major general "in America" and given command of the Seventieth 
(Surrey) Regiment. He made a number of raids into Connecticut to 
destroy American supplies and to draw the state's forces from support 
of Washington. During the winter of 1779-1780 Sir Henry Clinton left 
Tryon in command of troops in New York, but early in 1780 a severe 
attack of gout forced Tryon to leave for England. At home in 1782 he 
was promoted lieutenant general and in 1783 made colonel of the 
Twenty -ninth Foot. On January 27, 1788, he died at his home in Upper 
Grosvenor Street, London, and was buried in a vault at St. Mary's 
Church, Twickenham, Middlesex. 

An obituary in the European Magazine and London Review for 
February referred to his "mild and beneficent sway," his "paternal 
tenderness," and the "filial attachment" of many "to their friend and 

[Tryon's] superior powers of wisdom and philanthropy were 
unceasingly exerted for the real welfare of the Colonists. His 
princely munificence extended to the most inconsiderable of 
the people, and the heart-felt gratitude that pervaded every 
branch of the community, will make the name of Tryon revered 
across the Atlantic, while virtue and sensibility remain. 

Such words of honor in death might seem grandiloquent had Tryon not 
also been honored in life. In North Carolina the names of two counties 
testified to the respect in which Governor and Mrs. Tryon were held. 
Tryon County was authorized to be formed from Mecklenburg County 
by the assembly of 1768 effective April 10, 1769. Its name, of course, 
was given in honor of the governor who had so recently been involved 
in the Stamp Act dispute and who had more recently seen to the run- 
ning of the Indian boundary. Another county was ordered formed by the 
assembly of 1770 from parts of Johnston, Cumberland, and Orange 
counties and to be established on March 12, 1771. It was named Wake 
County in honor of Margaret Wake, wife of the governor. 1 To further 

Joseph Seawell Jones originated and publicized a claim in 1834 that Wake County was 
named for one Esther Wake, purported to have been a sister of Mrs. Tryon. Although 
many questioned the statement at the time, the myth has been a long time dying. The 
question is resolved, however, by the inscription on the tomb of William Wake recording 
that it was erected by "his only daughter Margaret." This, of course, was unknown to 
Joseph Seawell Jones. See Kemp P. Battle, "Is Esther Wake a Myth?," University 
Magazine, 14 (November, 1894), 91-95; R. D. W. Connor, "Was Esther Wake a Myth?," 
North Carolina Booklet, 14 (April, 1915), 220-224; and Edwin A. Miles, "Joseph Seawell 
Jones of Shocco — Historian and Humbug," North Carolina Historical Review, 34 (October, 
1957), 491-492. 


honor her, no doubt, the parish whose bounds coincided with those of 
the county was designated St. Margaret's Parish. In New York in 1772 
a county was also named Try on, but like the one in North Carolina it 
was afterward changed during a period of Revolutionary patriotism. 
Wake County, however, remains basically unchanged. Try on was 
further recognized with the honorary LL.D. degree by King's College 
(now Columbia University) in 1774. 

On the other hand, in New York as in North Carolina there were those 
who had thoughts about Tryon that were less than kind. A loyalist letter 
writer in New York on May 17, 1778, characterized him as "the pink of 
politeness and the quintessence of vanity. . . . The man is generous, 
perfectly good-natured, and no doubt brave, but weak and vain to an 
extreme degree. You should keep such people at home; they are excel- 
lent for a Court parade. I wish Mrs. Tryon would send for him." 

Like so many men in high places, William Tryon was a controversial 
figure. He had loyal followers such as Edmund Fanning, William 
Pennington, Fountain Elwin, and others who were with him throughout 
most of his active life. His critics were legion and their names and 
comments may be found in the histories of both North Carolina and New 
York. And there was a great middle group who respected Tryon for 
some of his accomplishments and detested him for others. The letters, 
addresses, reports, and documents which follow contain evidence 
demonstrating all of these views. 


Bibliography for Introduction 

Arnett, Ethel Stephens. From England to North Carolina: Two Special 
Gifts. New Bern: Tryon Palace Restoration, 1964. 

Bargar, D. B. "Governor Tryon's House in Fort George," New York 
History, XXXV (July, 1954), 297-309. 

Carraway, Gertrude S. Crown of Life, History of Christ Church, New 
Bern, NC, 1815-1940. New Bern: Owen G. Dunn, 1940. 

Clarke, Desmond. Arthur Dobbs, Esquire, 1689-1765. Chapel Hill: Uni- 
versity of North Carolina Press, 1957. 

Corbitt, D. L., ed. "Historical Notes," Nort h Carolina Historical Review , 
III (July, 1926), 477-505. 

De Vorsey, Louis, Jr. The Indian Boundary in the Southern Colonies, 
1763-1775. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1966. 

Dill, Alonzo T. Governor Tryon and His Palace. Chapel Hill: University 
of North Carolina Press, 1955. 

Harrold, Frances Long. "Governor William Tryon of North Carolina, 
1765-1771." Master's thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1954. 

Haywood, Marshall DeLancey. Governor William Tryon, And His Ad- 
ministration in the Province of North Carolina, 1765-1771. Raleigh: 
E. M. Uzzell, 1903. 

Labaree, Leonard W. "William Tryon," Dictionary of American Bio- 
graphy. (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 20 volumes, 1928), 
X, 25-27. 

Lee, Lawrence. "Days of Defiance: Resistance to the Stamp Act in the 
Lower Cape Fear," North Carolina Historical Review, XLIII (April, 
1966), 186-202. 

The Lower Cape Fear in Colonial Days. Chapel Hill: Uni- 
versity of North Carolina Press, 1965. 

Lefler, Hugh T., and William S. Powell. Colonial North Carolina, A 
History. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973. 

Merrens, Harry Roy. Colonial North Carolina in the Eighteenth Century. 
Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1964. 

Miller, Helen Hill. The Case for Liberty . Chapel Hill: University of North 
Carolina Press, 1965. 

North, Jeremy. The Library of William Tryon, Royal Governor of North 
Carolina. New Bern: Tryon Palace Commission, 1958. 

Powell, William S. "Governor Tryon's 'Book' on North Carolina," North 
Carolina Historical Review, XXXIV (July, 1957), 406-415. 

Powell, William S., James K. Huhta, and Thomas J. Farnham, eds. 
The Regulators of North Carolina, A Documentary History, 1 759- 
1776. Raleigh: State Department of Archives and History, 1971. 

Robinson, Blackwell P. The Five Royal Governors of North Carolina, 
1729-1 775. Raleigh: The Carolina Charter Tercentenary Commis- 
sion, 1963. 


Schick, James B. "Regionalism and the Revolutionary Movement in 
North Carolina, 1765-1776: The Administration of Governor 
William Tryon and Governor Josiah Martin." Master's thesis, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, 1963. 

Seccombe, Thomas. "William Tryon," in Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy (New York: Macmillan and Co., 22 volumes, 1887), XIX, 

Skaggs, Marvin L. North Carolina Boundary Disputes Involving Her 
Southern Line. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 

Stone, Richard Gabriel, Jr. "Governor William Tryon of North Carolina, 
1765-1771." Master's thesis, University of North Carolina, 1962. 

Tingley, Ralph R. "Postal Service in Colonial North Carolina," Ameri- 
can Philatelist, 62 (1949), 310-312. 


1765 March 22 

March 25 
March 28 
March 31 

Chronology of William Tryon 

1729 June 8: Tryon is born at Norbury Park, Surrey. 

1738 Charles Tryon, father of William, becomes sheriff of Northamptonshire. 

1751 Tryon is commissioned lieutenant, First Regiment of Foot Guards. 

1757 Tryon marries Margaret Wake of London. 

1758 Tryon is promoted to lieutenant colonel. 
1761 Daughter Margaret is born. 

1763 "New Colonial Policy" is inaugurated. New land policies were established by 
royal proclamation. 

1764 Sugar Act is passed by Parliament. 

April 26: Tryon is named lieutenant governor of North Carolina and resigns 
his army commission. 

October 10: The Tryons arrive at Brunswick. 

Stamp Act is passed by Parliament (to be effective November 1 ). 

Quartering Act is passed by Parliament. 

Governor Arthur Dobbs dies. 

Great Seal of the province is taken over by Tryon. 

April 3: Oath of office as governor pro tempore is taken by Tryon before the 
council in Wilmington. 

May 3: Tryon 's commission is announced at brief session of the assembly 
at New Bern. 

May 7: Selwyn land riots, "War of Sugar Creek," occur in Mecklenburg 

June 6: George Sims's Nutbush Address is delivered in Granville County. 

July 19: Tryon 's commission as governor of North Carolina is issued in 

Summer and fall: Tryon is ill with "the seasoning of the climate." 

October 7-25: Stamp Act Congress is held in New York. 

November 28: Stamped paper arrives in the province aboard the Diligence. 

December 20: Tryon 's commission as governor is presented to council in 

1765-1766 November-February: resistance to the Stamp Act in North Carolina. 

1766 Orange County meeting is held to get accounting from local officials. 
January: Two ships are seized in harbor by Jacob Lobb of the Viper. 
February: Tryon joins the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. 
March 18: Stamp Act is repealed (to be effective May 1). 

April: Legislative session is held in New Bern. 

November 27: Act to build a residence in New Bern for the governor is 
passed in assembly. 

1767 Construction of Tryon Palace is begun in New Bern. 
David Caldwell's "Log College" is established. 
May: Cherokee boundary line is run. 


June 29: Townshend Revenue Act is passed by Parliament. 
September: Moravians in Wachovia are visited by the Tryons. 

1767-1771 Construction of Tryon Palace is continued. 

1768 Activities of Regulators in Orange County are increased; group is organized; 
rioting is quelled by a small force led to Hillsborough by Tryon. 

February 11: Massachusetts Circular Letter is sent to Speakers of provincial 

[November?]: Son is born to Governor and Mrs. Tryon. 
1768-1771 Tryon is plagued by trouble with the Regulators. 

1769 Virginia nonimportation association is formed. 
March: Tryon's infant son dies. 

April 10: Tryon County is formed from Mecklenburg County. 

1770 Mid-year: Tryon Palace is occupied by the Tryons. 
December: Tryon is appointed governor of New York. 

1771 January 15: Queen's College is chartered. 

March 12: Wake County is formed and named for Margaret Wake Tryon. 

May 16: Battle of Alamance is fought. 

June 21-24: Tryon is en route to New Bern from Battle of Alamance. 

July 1: Governor Tryon departs for New York. 

July 8: Governor Tryon arrives in New York. 

1772 Tryon County, New York, is formed and is named for Governor Tryon. 
Tryon is advanced to rank of colonel. 

1773 December 29: Fire at Fort George destroys Tryons residence and all of his 

personal effects. 

1774 Honorary LL.D degree is conferred on Tryon by King's College (now Colum- 
bia University). 

April: Tryon travels to London to consult with British officials. 

1775 June 25: Tryon returns to New York from London. 
October 19: Tryon takes refuge aboard sloop Halifax. 

1776 September: Tryon reenters New York. 

1777 April: Tryon assumes command of a corps of provincial loyalists. 

1778 June 5: Tryon is appointed to command Seventieth (Surrey) Regiment; he is 

promoted to major general in America. 

1779 Summer: Successful expedition into Connecticut is led by Tryon. 

October 22: Tryon's attaintment is effected by act of Congress and his lands 
are forfeited. 

1779-1780 Winter: Tryon is put in command of British troops in New York district. 

1780 Tryon's return to England is necessitated by his severe gout. 

March 22: Tryon is succeeded as governor of New York by James Robertson. 

1782 November 20: Tryon is promoted to lieutenant general. 

1783 Tryon is made colonel of the Twenty -ninth Regiment of Foot. 

1788 January 27: Tryon dies at his home in Upper Grosvenor Street, London, 

with burial at Twickenham. 








Letters and Addresses By William Tryon 



Written or Addressed to 


St. Cas Bay 

September 12, 1758 

[Sir Henry Clinton?] 



September 16, 1758 

Unidentified Correspondent 


On board Friendship 

October 10, 1764 

Arthur Dobbs 



October 15, 1764 

Earl of Halifax 



October 15, 1764 

Board of Trade 



October 16, 1764 

Earl of Hillsborough 



October 31, 1764 

Messrs. Drummond, Bankers 


December 6, 1764 
December 8, 1764 

Messrs. Drummond, Bankers 
Lord Hyde [with enclosure] 





December 8, 1764 

Lord Hyde [enclosure] 



December 8, 1764 

Messrs. Drummond, Bankers 



January 5, 1765 

Messrs. Drummond, Bankers 



February 14, 1765 

William Bull 



April 1, 1765 

Board of Trade 



April 2, 1765 

Earl of Halifax 


April 6, 1765 

Henry Eustace McCulloh 


April 9, 1765 

Constantine John Phipps 



April 22, 1765 

William Bull 



April 22, 1765 

Lord Colville 


April 24, 1765 

[Richard?] Hughes 


[with enclosure] 

New Bern 

April 30, 1765 

Charles Pinfold 


[New Bern] 

April 30, 1765 

Robert Melville 


[New Bern] 

May 3, 1765 



[New Bern] 

May 7, 1765 



[New Bern] 

May 8, 1765 



[New Bern] 

May 10, 1765 



[New Bern] 

May 14, 1765 



New Bern 

May 18, 1765 

General [Thomas] Gage 


New Bern 

May 19, 1765 

General [Thomas] Gage 


New Bern 

May 20, 1765 

Francis Fauquier 



June 7, 1765 

Robert Boyde 

[with enclosure] 



May 26, 1765 

Welbore Ellis 



[June 10, 1765] 

William Nunn 



June 24, 1765 

Board of Trade 



June 24, 1765 

Board of Trade 



July 16, 1765 

William Bull 



July 26, 1765 

Sewallis Shirley 



July 31, 1765 

[Daniel Burton], S.P.G. 




August 12, 1765 

Board of Trade 



November 5, 1765 

Henry Seymour Conway 
[with enclosure] 



[November 20, 1765] 

Gentlemen at Brunswick 



December 26, 1765 

Henry Seymour Conway 


Abstract, March 12, 



January 3, 1766 

Benjamin Barons 
[with enclosure] 



January 27, 1766 

Board of Trade 



January 29, 1766 

[Daniel Burton], S.P.G. 



February 1, 1766 

Board of Trade 



February 6, 1766 

Jacob Lobb 



February 13, 1766 

Philip (Stephens) Stevens 



February 17, 1766 

Benjamin Barons 



February 19, 1766 

Commander of Viper or 



February 19, 1766 

John Dalrymple 



February 22, 1766 

Jacob Lobb 



February 23, 1766 

Jacob Lobb 



February 24, 1766 

Jacob Lobb 



February 24, 1766 

Moses John DeRosset 



February 25, 1766 

Henry Seymour Conway 



March 3, 1766 

Walter Stirling 



March 3, 1766 

Francis Fauquier 



March 3, 1766 

Thomas Gage 



March 3, 1766 

Henry Seymour Conway 



March 3, 1766 

Gen. James Murray 



April 5, 1766 

Samuel Wyley 



April 5, 1766 

Commissioners of the Treasury 



April 9, 1766 

John Stuart 



April 26, 1766 

Wachovia Brethren 



April 28, 1766 

Henry Seymour Conway; 



April 30, 1766 

Board of Trade 



April 30, 1766 

Board of Trade 



May 3, 1766 

Benjamin Barons 



May 5, 1766 

John Stuart 



May 5, 1766 

William Bull 



May 6, 1766 

Board of Trade 



May 17, 1766 

Bishop of London 



June 14, 1766 

Sir Henry Moore 



June 14, 1766 

Henry Seymour Conway 



June 15, 1766 

Sir William Johnson 



June 17, 1766 

William Bull 



June 17, 1766 

Benjamin Barons 



June 17, 1766 

John Stuart 



June 17, 1766 

Charles Greville Montagu(e) 



June 26, 1766 

Corporation of Wilmington 



July 18, 1766 

Charles Greville Montagu(e) 



July 18, 1766 

Lord Colville 



July 19, 1766 

James Murray 



July 19, 1766 

Peter Timothy 



July 29, 1766 

Lord Barrington 



July 30, 1766 

John Stuart 



August 1, 1766 

Marquis of Gran by 





[New Bern] 
[New Bern] 
[New Bern] 
[New Bern] 
[New Bern] 
New Bern 
New Bern 
New Bern 








August 1, 1766 

Board of Trade 
[with enclosures] 


August 2, 1766 

Board of Trade 


August 2, 1766 

Corporation of Wilmington 


August 2, 1766 

Board of Trade 


August 2, 1766 

Henry Seymour Conway 


October 1, 1766 

Dr. Daniel Burton 


October 6, 1766 

Bishop of London 


October 6, 1766 

Bishop of London 


November 4, 1766 



[November 6, 1766] 



[November 10, 1766] 



[November 11, 1766] 



[November 15, 1766] 



November 15, 1766 

Earl of Shelburne 


November 17, 1766 



November 20, 1766 



November 26, 1766 



November 27, 1766 



[November 29, 1766] 



[December 1, 1766] 



December 3, 1766 

Board of Trade 


December 5, 1766 

Charles Greville Montagu(e) 


December 30, 1766 

Earl of Shelburne 


January 12, 1767 

Earl of Shelburne 


January 12, 1767 

Board of Trade 


January 30, 1767 

Board of Trade 


January 31, 1767 

Earl of Shelburne 
[with enclosure] 


January 31, 1767 

Board of Trade 


February 2, 1767 

Board of Trade 


February 2, 1767 

Earl of Shelburne 


February 2, 1767 

Earl of Shelburne 


February 2, 1767 

Earl of Shelburne 


February 2, 1767 

Board of Trade 


[February 2, 1767] 

Earl of Shelburne 


[February 2, 1767?] 

Board of Trade 


February 3, 1767 

Stamp Commissioners 


February 13, 1767 

Unidentified Person 
in Philadelphia 


February 16, 1767 

John Stuart 


February 16, 1767 

Patrick Gordon 


February 16, 1767 

Gabriel Cathcart 


February 17, 1767 

Samuel Wyley 


February 20, 1767 

Guy Carleton 


February 20, 1767 

Peter Timothy 


February 23, 1767 

Earl of Shelburne 


February 23, 1767 

Board of Trade 


February 27, 1767 

Earl of Shelburne 













February 27, 1767 

March 7, 1767 
March 7, 1767 
March 25, 1767 
March 28, 1767 
March 28, 1767 

March 28, 1767 

April 11, 1767 
April 16, 1767 
April 24, 1767 
April 28, 1767 
April 30, 1767 

April 30, 1767 

May 1, 1767 

May 19, 1767 
May 20, 1767 
May 23, 1767 

[Home of Martin 

[Tyger River Camp] June 1, 1767 
Tyger River Camp June 2, 1767 
Reedy River Camp June 4, 1767 

June 6, 1767 











June 6, 1767 
June 29, 1767 

July 4, 1767 
July 5, 1767 
July 5, 1767 

July 7, 1767 
[July 7, 1767] 

July 8, 1767 
July 8, 1767 

July 8, 1767 
July 14, 1767 
July 15, 1767 
July 15, 1767 
July 15, 1767 
July 16, 1767 

July 17, 1767 
July 18, 1767 
July 18, 1767 
July 18, 1767 

July 18, 1767 

Board of Trade 



Earl of Shelburne 


Board of Trade 


Francis Fauquier 


Earl of Shelburne 


Board of Trade 


[with enclosure] 

Lords of the Treasury 


[with enclosure] 

Lord Barrington 


Charles Greville Montagu(e) 


Peter DeLancey 


Board of Trade 


Richard Terrick 


[with enclosure] 

Daniel Burton 


[with enclosure] 

John Rutherfurd, Robert Palmer, 


John Frohock 

Inhabitants of Salisbury 


John Stuart 


Alexander Cameron 


Cherokee Indians 


John Mitchell 


John Rutherfurd, Robert 


Palmer, John Frohock 

John Rutherfurd, Robert 


Palmer, John Frohock 

Alexander Cameron 


Earl of Shelburne 


[with enclosure] 

Earl of Shelburne 


Earl of Shelburne 


Board of Trade 



Earl of Shelburne 


Board of Trade 



Edward Bridgen 


Board of Trade 


[with enclosure] 

Earl of Shelburne 


Earl of Shelburne 


Board of Trade 


Earl of Shelburne 


Board of Trade 


Earl of Shelburne 


[with enclosures] 

Earl of Shelburne 


Earl of Shelburne 


Earl of Shelburne 


Board of Trade 



Daniel Burton 




July 20, 1767 

Earl of Shelburne 



July 20, 1767 

Board of Trade 



July 21, 1767 

Earl of Shelburne 
[with enclosure] 



July 21, 1767 

John Stuart 



July 21, 1767 

Alexander Cameron 



July 22, 1767 

Board of Trade 



October 14, 1767 

Benjamin Heron 



October 31, 1767 

Earl of Shelburne 
[with enclosure] 


December 7, 1767 
[December 10, 1767] 

Council and Assembly 



[December 10, 1767] 



New Bern 

December 11, 1767 

Earl of Shelburne 


New Bern 

December 11, 1767 

Earl of Shelburne 


New Bern 

December 11, 1767 

Horatio Sharpe 


New Bern 

December 12, 1767 

Earl of Shelburne 


New Bern 

December 13, 1767 

Thomas Gage 
[with enclosure] 


[December 16, 1767] 



New Bern 

December 20, 1767 

Thomas Haywood 


[December 21, 1767] 



[with enclosure] 

New Bern 

December 22, 1767 

Earl of Shelburne 


New Bern 

December 22, 1767 

Board of Trade 


Letters and Addresses to William Tryon 



Written or Addressed by 



July 2, 1764 

John Pownall 



July 24, 1764 

John Pownall 


December 7, 1764 

John Pownall 



March 2, 1765 

William Hunter 


Aboard Diligence 

April 8, 1765 

Constantine John Phipps 



April 25, 1765 

Henry Eustace McCulloh 



May 6, 1765 



[May 6, 1765] 



[May 9, 1765] 

John Ashe 


May 13, 1765 

John Ashe 


[Craven County] 

[May 16, 1765] 

Inhabitants of New Bern and 
Craven County 


Halifax Harbor 

June 21, 1765 

Alexander Colville 


Halifax Harbor 

June 26, 1765 

Alexander Colville 



July 3, 1765 

James Murray 



July 19, 1765 

George III: Commission and 


August 23, 1765 
August 27, 1765 
September 2, 1765 

Board of Trade 


R. Hughes 
Board of Trade 






September 12, 1765 

Board of Trade 



September 14, 1765 

Board of Treasury 



September 24, 1765 

James Murray 


[Charles Town] 

October 29, 1765 

Charlestown Merchant 



[November 18, 1765] 

"About Fifty Gentlemen" 



November 29, 1765 

Board of Trade 


Charles Town 

December 13, 1765 

"A Charlestown Gentleman" 



December 16, 1765 

James Murray 


[Court of St. James] 

December 24, 1765 

George III [Instructions drafted 
by Board of Trade] 



January 30, 1766 

James Murray 


Charles Town 

February 5, 1766 

John Stuart 


February 18, 1766 

"The Association" [statement 


against the Stamp Act] 

[February 19, 1766] 

John Ashe, Thomas Lloyd, 


Alexander Lillington 

[February 19 (?), 1766] 

Constantine John Phipps 


Aboard Viper 

February 22, 1766 

Jacob Lobb 


Aboard Viper 

February 24, 1766 

Jacob Lobb 


Aboard Viper 

February 24, 1766 

Jacob Lobb 



February 28, 1766 

Moses John DeRosset 


Court of St. James 

March 1, 1766 

Henry Seymour Conway 


Court of St. James 

March 31, 1766 

Henry Seymour Conway 



April 21, 1766 

William Houston 



April 26, 1766 

Wachovia Brethren 



May 5, 1766 

James Murray 



May 5, 1766 

Board of Treasury 


Charles Town 

May 28, 1766 

John Stuart [with enclosures] 


May 31, 1766 

James Murray 



June 12, 1766 

Duke of Richmond 


June 19, 1766 

John Pownall 


June 23, 1766 

John Rutherfurd 



June 26, 1766 

Corporation of Wilmington 



July 10, 1766 

Duke of Richmond 


July 10, 1766 

Board of Trade 



[Before July 12, 1766] 

Tuscorora Indians 




July 28, 1766 

Corporation of Wilmington 


[Court of St. James] 

July 29, 1766 

Duke of Richmond 


[appointment of Martin Howard] 

August 1, 1766 

Board of Trade 



August 9, 1766 

Earl of Shelburne 



August 9, 1766 

Earl of Shelburne 



August 9, 1766 

Earl of Shelburne 



September [9?], 1766 

James Murray 


Court of St. James 

September 10, 1766 

George III 

[additional instructions] 



September 13, 1766 

Earl of Shelburne 


September 30, 1766 

Board of Treasury 



October 21, 1766 

James Murray 


[November 5, 1766] 



[November 6, 1766] 




[November 7, 1766] 

Thomas Basket* t) 


[November 11, 1766] 



[New Bern] 

[November 20, 1766] 



[Pasquotank County] [November 20, 1766] 

Pasquotank Inhabitants 



[New Bern] 

[November 22, 1766] 



[New Bern] 

November 22, 1766 



[New Bern] 

[November 28, 1766] 



[November 29, 1766] 

Henry Eustace McCulloh 


[New Bern] 

[November 29, 1766] 

Council and Assembly 


[New Bern] 

[November 29, 1766] 



[New Bern] 

[November 29, 1766] 



[New Bern] 

[November 29, 1766] 




December 11, 1766 

Earl of Shelburne 



December 11, 1766 

Earl of Shelburne 



Petitioners from Orange, Gran- 


ville, and Johnston Counties 


January 5, 1767 

Harry Gordon 


New Bern 

January 7, 1767 

Marmaduke Jones 


January 13, 1767 

Earl of Shelburne 



February 10, 1767 

Marmaduke Jones 



February 19, 1767 

Earl of Shelburne 


Court of St. James 

[February 20, 1767] 

Earl of Shelburne 


New Bern 

February 23, 1767 

Patrick Gordon 


Charles Town 

March 2, 1767 

John Stuart 



March 21, 1767 

Alexander McCulloch 
[with enclosure] 


Charles Town 

March 31, 1767 

John Stuart 



April 15, 1767 

Marmaduke Jones 



May 4, 1767 

Robert Palmer 


May 6, 1767 

John Rutherfurd 


Hard Labor 

May 14, 1767 

John Stuart 



May 19, 1767 

Alexander Martin 


Court of St. James 

May 22, 1767 

Earl of Shelburne 


Camp on Pacolet 

June 14, 1767 

Alexander Cameron 




June 20, 1767 

Earl of Shelburne 



June 23, 1767 

Robert Palmer, John Frohock 


[Court of St. James] 

July 9, 1767 

Earl of Shelburne 



July 11, 1767 

Earl of Shelburne 


August 7, 1767 

Earl of Shelburne 




August 9, 1767 

Earl of Shelburne 



September 15, 1767 

James Murray 



[Before October 21, 1767] Benjamin Heron 



October 22, 1767 

John Rutherfurd 


October 23, 1767 

Martin Howard 


[October 23, 1767] 

Thomas McGuire 



November 14, 1767 

Earl of Shelburne 


[December 10, 1767] 



[December 10, 1767] 

Thomas Burges 



December 11, 1767 


[Cumberland County] December 24, 1767 

[Petitioners of 


Cumberland County] 

New Bern 

December 28, 1767 

Residents of New Bern 


[December 29, 1767] 




Miscellaneous Letters and Verbal Exchanges 


May 1, 1764 

New Bern 
Castle Dobbs 

Court of St. James May 12, 1764 

November 26, 1764 

November 26, 1764 
December 21, 1764 
March 8, 1765 
May 15, 1765 
Whitehall [June 17, 1765] 

Court of St. James June 26, 1765 
Whitehall June 26, 1765 

Court of St. James June 26, 1765 

June 27, 1765 

July 10, 1765 
January 9, 1766 
January 14, 1766 
January 16, 1766 
January 16, 1766 
February 3, 1766 
February 15, 1766 
[February 20, 1766] 
February 20, 1766 
February 20, 1766 
April 21, 1766 
May 7, 1766 

May 10, 1766 

June 1, 1766 

June 3, 1766 

January 9, 1767 

New Bern 

Aboard Viper 
Port Brunswick 
Court of St. James 

Aboard Viper 
Aboard Viper 
Admiralty Office 


Addressed to 

Earl of Halifax 
Arthur Dobbs 
Arthur Dobbs 

Secretary, S.P.G. 
Alice Marsden 
Earl of Halifax 
Board of Trade 
Board of Trade 
Commissioners of the 

Sir Thomas Salisbury 

Secretary, S.P.G. 
Thomas Barker 
William Dry 
Robert Jones, Jr. 
Clerk of the Signet 
William Dry 
William Dry 
John Dalrymple 
William Dry 
William Dry 
John Pownall 
John Stuart 

John Stuart 

John Stuart 

John Stuart 

Secretary, S.P.G. 

January 26, 1767 John Pownall 


[Camp on Pacolet 

[Camp on Pacolet 

[Camp on Pacolet 

[Camp on Pacolet 


Caroline County, 


April 16, 1767 

June 13, 1767 

June 13, 1767 

June 13, 1767 

June 13, 1767 

July 31, 1767 
August 22, 1767 
September 14, 1767 
September 17, 1767 

November 14, 1767 

Lord Shelburne 

North Carolina 

Jud's Friend 

North Carolina 


Tryon's Agent 
Daniel Burton, S.P.G. 
Daniel Burton, S.P.G. 
Daniel Burton, S.P.G. 

Board of Trade 

Written by Page 

Board of Trade 7 

Earl of Halifax 8 

Council 23 

Arthur Dobbs 23 

James Reed 32 

Justina Dobbs 38 

John Ashe 94 

Board of Trade 109 

Earl of Halifax 113 

George III 114 

Earl of Halifax 115 

Commissioners of 116 

the Admiralty 

James Reed 120 

Samuel Johnston 218 

Jacob Lobb 220 

William Dry 221 

George III 222 

Robert Jones 233 

Concerned Citizens 238 

Jacob Lobb 247 

Jacob Lobb 247 

Jacob Lobb 248 

Philip Stephens 276 

George Price 297 


Alexander 298 


Alexander 304 


George Price 305 


Ana Morton 401 


Edward Brice 409 


Board of Trade 454 

[with enclosure] 

Jud's Friend and 503 


North Carolina 505 


Sallowie 506 

Commissioners 507 

James Murray 570 

John Barnett 572 

George Micklejohn 573 

Ana Morton 575 

Earl of Shelburne 591 

Proclamations and Miscellaneous Papers 





Warrant Appointing Tryon 

April 26, 1764 

[Court of St. James 

] 5 

Lieutenant Governor 

Excerpt from Minutes of 

May 1, 1764 



Board of Trade 

Excerpt from Minutes of 

June 29, 1764 


Board of Trade 

Comments on Tryon's Expected 

August 10, 1764 

New Bern 


Arrival in North Carolina 

News Item Concerning Tryon's Arrival 

September 28, 1764 

New Bern 


William Tryon's Arrival at 

Datelines: October 17, 



Cape Fear Reported 

October 19, 1764 


Tryon Assumes Office 

October 27, 1764 



Tryon's Reception in New Bern 

December 28, 1764 

New Bern 



Tryon's Departure Reported 

January 4, 1765 

New Bern 


Moravians Visit Brunswick 

January 19, 1765 



Legal Papers Relative to the 

March 18, 1765- 


Murder of Thomas Whitehurst 

May 22, 1765 

Tryon Obtains Seed from Moravians 

March 24, 1765 


Proclamation of the Lieutenant 

April 3, 1765 




Leave of Absence to James Murray 

April 17, 1765 



John Rutherfurd's Comments on 


Use of N.C. Pine 

Appointment of John McKildo, Sheriff 

May 8, 1765 

[New Bern] 


Proclamation of Lieutenant Governor 

[May 9, 1765] 

[New Bern] 


Proclamation of Lieutenant Governor 

May 18, 1765 

[New Bern] 


Excerpt from Minutes of 

June 26, 1765 



Board of Trade 

Samuel Swann's Commission 

[June 4, 1765; record- 
ed, June 26, 1765] 



Warrant for Tryon's Appointment 

July 10, 1765 



Tryon's Appointment to be Governor 

July [10?], 1765 



Letters Patent Appointing Tryon 

July 13, 1765 



Vice Admiral 

Tryon's Certification of John Burgwin 

[August 12, 1765] 



William Johnston's Appointment 

October 11, 1765 


to be Register 

Proclamation of the Lieutenant 

October 25, 1765 



Tryon's Dispatch Regarding 


Stamp Act 

William Houston's Resignation 

November 16, 1765 


Excerpts from North-Carolina Gazette 

November 27, 1765 



Report of Tryon's Reception in 

[December 19, 1765] 




Proclamation of the Governor 

December 20, 1765 



Proclamation of the Governor 

December 21, 1765 



Tryon's Proposed Mail Route 



Proclamation of the Governor 

January 6, 1766 



James Hasell's Commission 

January 7, 1766 




Robert Howe's Commission 
Statement of William Ward 
Proclamation of the Governor 
Proclamation of the Governor 
Treasury Orders for Tryon's Salary 
Warrant to Pay Tryon 

Proclamation of the Governor 
Treasury Orders for Tryon's Salary 
Warrant to Pay Tryon 
Thomas Lloyd's Commission 
Proclamation of the Governor 
Proclamation of the Governor 
Proclamation of the Governor 
Deed of Sale: Jacob Lobb to 

William Tryon 
Robert Howe's Commission 
Return of Artillery Stores and 

Ammunition at Fort Johnston 

Return of the Garrison at Fort Johnston 

Grant of Land to Ephraim McLean 
Tryon in Court of Chancery 
A Certificate by Tryon 
Proclamation of the Governor 
Proclamation of the Governor 
Inventory of the Estate of 

Pierre Le Blanc 
Proclamation of the Governor 
Articles of Agreement: William 

Tryon and John Hawks 
Decree of the Court of Vice Admiralty 
Marriage Permit for Thomas Willson 

and Catherane Leviston 
Commission: Tryon to Martin Howard 
Act Pertaining to Duty on Wines and 

Liquors [enclosure] 
Proclamation of the Governor 
Patrick Gordon's Reasons for 

Condemning Sloop and Cargo 
Account of Expenses of Brigantine Fox 

Salaries of Crown Officers Payable out 

of Quitrents [enclosure] 
Tax Report of Province [enclosure] 
Ordinary and Extraordinary Expenses 

Proclamation of the Governor 
Proclamation of the Governor 
Report of Civil Officers in the Province 

Proclamation of the Governor 
Tryon's Report on Parishes 


January 20, 1766 



February 21, 1766 



February 26, 1766 



February 27, 1766 



March 23, 1766 



March 24, 1766 



March 26, 1766 



April 3, 1766 



May 6, 1766 



June 4, 1766 



June 9, 1766 



June 25, 1766 



June 25, 1766 



June 25, 1766 


July 14, 1766 


April 26, 1766 


April 26, 1766 


September 26, 1766 
November 24, 1766 
November 26, 1766 
November 29, 1766 
December 1, 1766 
December 16, 1766 

December 20, 1766 
January 9, 1767 

January 21, 1767 
January 22, 1767 

January 23, 1767 
[ ], 1767 

February 12, 1767 
February 23, 1767 

[February 27, 1767] 



April 7, 1767 
April 16, 1767 

[New Bern] 
[New Bern] 
[New Bern] 
[New Bern] 
New Bern 



April 25, 1767 














Tryon's List of Ministers of Church of 

England [enclosure] 
Tryon's Cherokee Boundary Expedition: 

Tryon's Orders to the Escort 

Journal of Tryon's Escort 

Estimate of Expense 
Jacob Loesch Calls on Tryon 
Agreement between Tryon and 

Indians on Western Boundary 
"A View of the Polity of the Province 

of North Carolina in the Year 1767" 

List of Taxables in N.C. (1765) 

List of Taxables in N.C. (1766) 

Tryon's Certification of Commissioners 
Tryon's Certification of Isaac Edwards 
Tryon's Certification of 

Boundary Agreement 
Newspaper Account of 

Boundary Line Survey 
List of Fees on Land Grants 

Warrant of Survey 

Form of Land Warrant 

Surveyor's Plot of Land 

Proclamation of the Governor 
Proclamation of the Governor 
Proclamation of King George III 
Fees Received by Tryon 

Record of Tryon's Visit to Wachovia 

Land Grant to Thomas Price 
Proclamation of the Governor 
Excerpt from Minutes 

of Board of Trade 
State of Quitrents Owed by 

Henry McCulloh [enclosure] 
Note Concerning John Hawk's 

Tryon's Allowance of Land to Scots 

Return of Arms and Accoutrements at 

Fort Johnston [enclosure] 
Proclamation of the Governor 
Estimate of Cost of Governor's Palace 


[April 30, 1767] 

May 19-June 13, 1767 
May 21-June 19, 1767 

May 20, 1767 
[June 13, 1767] 





July 12, 1767 
July 13, 1767 
July 13, 1767 

August 13, 1767; 
dateline, July 14, 1767 
[July 2, 1767] 

[April, 1767] 

[April, 1767] 

July 16, 1767 
July 16, 1767 
July 16, 1767 
March 28, 1767 

June 30, 1767 
September 17- 

November 22, 1767 
October 26, 1767 
October 27, 1767 
October 29, 1767 

[April 25, 1767] 

November 3, 1767 

[After November 4, 

[November 25, 1767] 

December 14, 1767 
[November, 1767] 

























A&H Division of Archives and History, Raleigh, North Carolina 

A&H-B Archives and History, John H. Bryan Papers 

A&H-CCP Archives and History, Chowan County Papers 

A&H-CCR Archives and History, Colonial Court Records 

A&H-CGP Archives and History, Colonial Governors Papers 

A&H-CJ Archives and History, Council Journal 

A&H- EI Archives and History, Estate Inventories 

A&H-F-Mc Archives and History, Fanning- McCulloh Papers 

A&H-ER Archives and History, English Records (transcripts) 

A&H- GO Archives and History, Governors Office 

A&H-IE Archives and History, Inventories and Sales of Estates 

A&H- LP Archives and History, Legislative Papers 

A&H-MC Archives and History, Military Collections 

A&H-SH Archives and History, Stuart H. Hill Collection 

A&H-SS Archives and History, Secretary of State Papers 

A&H-T&CP Archives and History, Treasurers and Comptrollers Papers 

A&H-TB Archives and History, Tillie Bond Manuscripts 

A&H-TLB Archives and History, Tryon Letter Book 

A&H-W Archives and History, William Asbury Whitaker Papers 

CR William L. Saunders, editor, The Colonial Records of North Carolina 
(Raleigh: State of North Carolina, 10 volumes, 1886-1890). 

L-F London, Fulham Palace Manuscripts 

L-RSA London, Royal Society of Arts 

M-Ar Archives Division, Secretary of State, Boston, Massachusetts 

MH-CJ Harvard University Library, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Council Journal 

MH-TLB Harvard University Library, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Tryon Letter 

MHi-M Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, James Murray Papers 

MHi-R Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, James Murray Robbins Papers 

MiU-C-C William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michi- 
gan, Henry Clinton Papers 

MiU-C-G William L. Clements Library, Thomas Gage Papers 

MiU-C-Sh William L. Clements Library, Shelburne Papers 

NCC North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 

NHi-H New-York Historical Society, New York, New York, Hawks Papers 

NN-S New York Public Library, New York, New York, William Smith Papers 

PHi Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - 

PHi-G Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Gratz Collection 

PRO-ADM Public Record Office, London, Admiralty Papers 

PRO- CO Public Record Office, Colonial Office Papers 


PRO-T Public Record Office, Treasury Papers 

R-Ar Rhode Island Archives, Providence, Rhode Island 

SHC Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 

SHC-D Southern Historical Collection, Preston Davie Collection 

SHC-DeR Southern Historical Collection, DeRosset Family Papers 

SHC-G Southern Historical Collection, Leonidas Chalmers Glenn Papers 

SHC-JOC Southern Historical Collection, James 0. Carr Papers 

SHC- Reg Pa Southern Historical Collection, Regulator Papers 

SHC-S Southern Historical Collection, William L. Saunders Papers 

SR Walter Clark, editor, The State Records of North Carolina (Winston and 

Goldsboro: State of North Carolina, 16 volumes, numbered XI-XXVI, 

Vi Virginia State Library, Richmond, Virginia 

ViW- Blair Earl Gregg Swem Library, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, 
Virginia, Blair, Banister, Braxton, Horner, Whiting Papers 

WHi- D State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, Draper Papers 

Editorial note: In editing the two volumes of The Papers of William Tryon it was 
decided that those documents found in the British Public Record Office and available on 
microfilm in the Division of Archives and History, North Carolina Department of Cultural 
Resources, should be regarded as the most authoritative even though other versions of the 
same documents might be available elsewhere. In citing the location, or locations, of 
documents in these volumes, the Public Record Office citation is listed first, but other 
locations are also cited for the convenience of the reader. As would be expected wherever 
there are copies of a letter, there are differences in spelling, capitalization, use of amper- 
sands, abbreviations, superior letters, and form; in many instances, a phrase, sentence, or 
even paragraph may have been omitted or added by an individual transcriber. The editors 
have tried to note information found in one version but not in another— for example, the 
date on which a letter was received or read in London; the means used by the correspon- 
dent to transport his letter; and significant differences in names, words, or date. 

Papers pertaining to North Carolina during Tryon's tenure of office in the colony 
comprise the bulk of the two volumes. Exceptions are two especially revealing letters 
written by Tryon in 1758 after the British retreat from St. Cas Bay and the New York 
correspondence which seemed pertinent to North Carolina history. 


William Tryon to [Sir Henry Clinton?] 1 Miu-c-c 

On Board the Rich9 and Ann 
Transport in St Cas Bay 
12 Sept r 1758 2 

Yesterday proved a very fatal day to part of the best of Our Troops. 
The Enemy came down towards the Beach we where [were] re- 
embarking from in three Strong Columns, at the time we had re- 
embarked all the Troops but the Grenadiers of the Army (which 
consisted of Nine Companies of the Line and four of the Guards) with 
four Companies of the 1 st Regt of Foot Guards). The Grenadiers of the 
Guards where [were ] ordered above the beach upon the Sand Hills to 
receive the left Column of the Enemy who were Marching by files &the 
forwardest of the three: We began Our fire as soon as We saw the 
Enemys intention of forming to engage us which was little more than 
One Hundred & Fifty Yards Distant, for some time we succeeded to our 
Wishes, by not only preventing them from forming, but threw the head 
of the Column in Such Confusion , that their fire was too irregular to do 
us much Mischief; part of the Grenadiers of the line drew up to Support 
Us, on Our left, and this fire was kept up, till our Amunition was near 
expended; upon Seeing the Enemy determined to advance to the 
parapet (at the edge of the beach ) and our Ranks at this time not entire, 
we retired to the Shore in hopes of compleating [sic] them, but the 
Enemy press 'd too close upon us to give us this opportunity. The 
parapet was soon lin'd with French, and the fire very severe and the 
Slaughter great, on Our side, Our Companies were mixt together, and 
the four Companies of Foot Guards that were drawn upon the beach 
were broke by the confusion of the others. Two or three Hundred (not 
the boldest ) run into the Water to the Boats that were coming up as fast 
as they could, half of which I fear were Drownded the Remainder tha[t] 
broke kept loading firing, & Retreating to the left of the Bay which with 
a Prodigious fire from the Ships prevented the Enemy from coming over 
the Parapet till We got to a point of a Rock at the End of the Bay a full 
quarter of a Mile all which Spave [space?] was unhappily Strewd with 
Our Slain. In the last hundred Yards We Suffered much, from the Right 
Column of the Enemy who drew up behind the parapet of the right of 
the Bay as we got towards the extremity of it during our Retreat the fire 
of the left Column of the french was divided to the Center of the Bay were 
[where] the Boats where [were] taking in the Troops. (Some was So 
excessively crowded both within & round their Sides that they must 
have been lost if not tow'd off by Captains of Men of War in their long 
Boats: and to the Honour of Lord Howe 3 he attended in Person himself 
& gave infinite assistance in the preservation of several flat Boats, so 
deeply loaded: This fire Killd many Soldiers & Sailors, and some 

Officers of the Navy, who had the Government of the flat Boats. It was 
impossible under so severe a fire for more boats to come in to the Center 
of the Bay : but row 'd to the Number I believe of five or six , to take in the 
few remains of those who liv'd to reach the Rock. Two Hundred got 
round the Point, and was taken in by the Boats: The Enemy at last 
rush 'd over the Parapet close to this Rock & I believe took not more than 
Two Hundred Prisoners alive, exclusive of the Wounded upon the 
Ground: I was told by a Soldier that came of[f] the last, & that by 
Swimming to a Boat that the French gave no Quarter till our Ships 
ceas'd firing, and that then he saw them lead several of Our Men from 
the Beach. I remain 'd with the last Three Hundred I cannot say whether 
a few more or less : when I found all opposition was of no effect, I waded 
to one of the Boats at the Rock, and reach 'd the Ring of the Anchor at 
the Stern, more than Midway in water. As the Boat was full, & under 
way I was soon taken out of my Depth, & remain 'd in that hold for about 
half a Mile: when I was haul'd into the Boat, while I was hanging a 
Stern, a Musket Shot Struck me on the Middle of the back part of my 
Head, but being happily, Spent, it made me only a little Giddy, which a 
Soldier in the Boat observing, catch 'd hold of my Hand. I receiv'd while 
in the Center of the Beach, a contusion in my right Thigh, a little below 
the Hip. The Bullet went threw [through] the flap of my Waistcoat 
Pocket. My thigh tho' bruis'd does not make me the least Game or any 
ways troublesome. I have been very unhappy in Mind Since I came on 
Board for many of my friends, but exceedingly So for my apprehensions 
of Lord Frederick 4 as the last account I heard of him till within this 
quarter of an Hour was his being Wounded , and Swimming to one of the 
flat Boats near the Shore and calling out for the Assistance of the Boat; 
which was Cruely & Cowardly refus'd him as a Midshipman that 
commanded the Boat, Said the few Men in it his life was as Sweet to 
him as Lord Cavendish's and that he wou'd not put back. He was almost 
Spent, and the Tide carryed him back to Shore in the hottest of the fire. 
Lord Howe Sent a flag of Truce on Shore this Morning to desire a list 
of the Officers taken prisoners, and a request for all those who where 
[were ] wounded to be Sent on board the Fleet on their Paroles to receive 
the benefit of the Assistance of Our Surgeons, and if that was not to be 
granted, then, that their Servants & other necessaries might be sent to 
them. They returned for answer they had Twenty four Officers 
Prisoners, and among them to my Great Joy Lord Fredk is One, and 
very well. I wish you would with my respects Send this intelligence to 
the Duke of Devonshire, 5 and this letter giving an impartial account of 
an unhappy Day to Mr. Shirley, 6 who will forward it immediately to my 
Brother. 7 1 reced your Letter from Warwick the day We landed, & Mr. 
Shirley's from Gipple On the March before the Action. We have of the 
Grenadiers of the Guards five Officers Missing: Lord [Frederick?] 
Cavendish Capt Matthews 8 Bridgeman, Rolt & Casswell, whom I hope 

are in the Number of the Prisoners. 

No. of Men Engag'd in the Four Companies of Grenadiers 

Engag'd of which Missing 

Lord Cavendish's 62 33 

LtColMaitland's 66 28 

Lt Col Clavesing's 9 67 31 

Lord Adam Gordon's 10 71 29 

In the aforementioned return Serjts Corpls & Private Men are included, 
without the Drums or Fifers. I should have said the third column of the 
Enemy partly compos 'd of Cavalry never engag'd. I have wrote this in a 
great hurry and fatigue of Spirits 

Yrs &c &c &c 
Wm . Tryon 

^he father of Sir Henry Clinton (1738?-1795) was the Sir Henry Clinton who was a 
general, governor of Newfoundland from 1732 to 1741, and of New York from 1741 to 
1751. The younger Sir Henry first entered the New York militia, then went with his 
father to England and was gazetted on November 1, 1751,, as a lieutenant in the 
Coldstream guards. He was promoted to captain in the Grenadiers in April, 1758, and was 
serving in this capacity during the affair at St. Cas. Clinton is best known for his role as 
commander in chief of the British forces in North America during the American Revolution. 
He died in England in 1795 without ever assuming the post of governor of Gibralter to 
which he had been appointed. Leslie Stephen (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography 
(New York: Macmillan and Co., 22 volumes, 1887, index and updating supplements), IX, 
344-345, hereinafter cited as Dictionary of National Biography. 

2 The British retreat from St. Cas Bay on the coast of France east of St. Malo and south 
of the Isle of Jersey was under the joint command of Admiral Richard Howe and the 73- 
year-old Lt. Gen. Thomas Bligh (1685-1775). This particular expedition during the Seven 
Years' War, intended to create a diversion in favor of Ferdinand of Brunswick, was totally 
unsuccessful. The British fleet was standing by to pick up the British troops, and the 
opportunity existed for the men to board the ships in relative safety until several rather 
stupid tactical errors on the part of the British command alerted the French. As Tryon 
suggests, losses apparently were high. Military dispatches were lost, but the French 
estimated the total losses at 3,000 to 4,000 men altogether on both sides. They claimed to 
have taken over 600 prisoners, but the English claimed a total loss of killed, wounded, and 
captured of just over 800. Details can be found in Julian Stafford Corbett, England in the 
Seven Years' War, A Study in Combined Strategy (London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 2 
volumes, 1918). 

3 This is a reference to Richard, Earl Howe (1726-1799), admiral of the fleet. In 1758 
Howe had been put in command of the minor expeditions of the British against the French 
coast, of which the first was the attack on St. Malo in June. The weather and other factors 
prevented successful execution of Howe's plans, and Howe was extremely frustrated. Lt. 
Edward Bligh was then put in command, but Howe cooperated with Bligh in a second 
attempt to attack St. Malo in September. Richard was the brother of William and George; 
George was killed at Ticonderoga in July, 1758, and William played a leading role in the 
American Revolution. Dictionary of National Biography, XXVIII, 92-101. 

"Frederick, Lord Cavendish (1729-1803), had accompanied the duke of Marlborough 
as aide-de-camp in the expedition along the French coast. He was taken prisoner at St. Cas 
and was exchanged in 1760. Cavendish had a long military career but did not apply for a 
command in the American Revolution. At the outbreak of the Seven Years' War, he and 
three other young officers made a compact not to marry until France had been conquered. 

At the age of seventy -four Frederick died unmarried at his Twickenham estate. Dictionary 
of National Biography, IX, 344-345. 

5 This is probably a reference to William Cavendish (1720-1764), fourth duke of 
Devonshire, prime minister (1756-1757), and lord chamberlain (1757-1762). Webster's 
Biographical Dictionary (Springfield, Mass.: G. & C. Merriam Co., 1966), 269, hereinafter 
cited as Webster's Biographical Dictionary. 

6 Mr. Shirley has not been identified. It possibly was Sewallis Shirley, Tryon's uncle. 
Tryon's mother, Lady Mary Tryon, was the daughter of Robert Shirley, first Earl Ferrers. 
Marshall DeLancey Haywood, Governor Tryon and His Administration (Raleigh: Edwards 
and Broughton, Second Printing, 1958), 11, hereinafter cited as Haywood, Governor 

7 Tryon had two older brothers living at this time — Charles (1723-1768) and Robert (ca. 
1727-1774). Ethel Stephens Arnett, From England to North Carolina: Two Special Gifts 
(New Bern: Tryon Palace Restoration, 1964), 83, hereinafter cited as Arnett, From 
England to North Carolina. 

8 No positive identification could be made of these men mentioned by Tryon: Captains 
Matthews, Bridgeman, Rolt, Casswell, or Lt. Col. Maitland. 

9 This may be a reference to Sir John Clavering (1722-1777), who began his military 
career as a member of the Coldstream regiment of guards. In 1759 he succeeded in the 
conquest of Guadeloupe, and in 1773 he was appointed to act as a member of four on the 
council to govern India. Warren Hastings was governor -general and he and Clavering 
became bitter antagonists. Dictionary of National Biography, XI, 4-5. 

'"Lord Adam Gordon (1726P-1801), the son of Alexander, second duke of Gordon, was 
a member of Parliament, 1754-1768. At the time of this letter he was serving as a member 
of Bligh's expedition. He later became a general, colonel of the first royal regiment of foot, 
and was the governor of Edinburgh Castle. Dictionary of National Biography, XXII, 158. 

William Tryon Miu-c-c 

to Unidentified Correspondent 

Plymouth 16th Sept 1758 

Dear Sir 

The fleet came into the Sound last Night and I beleive only will wait 
here for a Westerly Wind. I receiv'd a Small contusion in my thigh by a 
Musket Ball in the Attack in our re embarkation, It went thro' my Coat 
and the flap of My Waistcoat Pocket. If you should See my Name in the 
list of the Wounded Scratch it out, for I am perfectly well and the bruise 
already dispers'd, by the Sole assistance of some Nerve Ointment I 
receiv'd from the good old Lady: Lord Frederick to my great comfort is 
well tho' the Conditions of his obtaining his Life are very unpleasant. I 
heard he & others was sent to St. Maloes, 1 Some Officers are Sent to 
Remes. 2 1 sent his Servant to Him: Write to Mrs Tryon 3 least [lest] the 
three letters I have wrote to her should have miscarried. 

Dear Sir &c &c &c 
Wm Tryon 


I wrote to Mrs. Tryon Yesterday 
but did not mention my being Bruis'd 

We will hold Conversation 
when we meet. 

Write to me at Portsmouth: 
Genl Dury 4 was Drowned. 

Two Ships of War with Twelve Sail of Transport came into the 
Sound the 14th Inst with Two thousand French Prisoners & as many 
more I hear are carried into Portsmouth. I hope a Cartel will Speedily be 
agreed on for the release of my friends. 


2 Possibly Rheims (Reims), France. 

3 Margaret Wake (1733-1819), "Miss Wake, of Hanover Street, London," was married 
to William Tryon, then a captain in the Foot -Guards, in 1757. She liked social functions, 
was instrumental in having the governor's palace built in New Bern, and was reputed to 
be an accomplished musician. When she visited in Salem and Williamsburg she performed 
on the organ and clavichord. The Tryons had two children, but the son died in infancy and 
the daughter, Margaret, died unmarried at the age of thirty. Mrs. Tryon survived her 
husband by over thirty years and was also buried in the burial ground of the old parish 
church of St. Mary's in Twickenham, Middlesex. Wake County, North Carolina, is named 
for Margaret Wake Tryon. Haywood, Governor Tryon, 201-207. 

4 General Dury has not been identified. 

Warrant Appointing William Tryon pro co 324/51, ff. 226-227 
Lieutenant Governor of North Carolina 

[Court of Saint James] 
April 26, 1764 

George R. 

George the Third by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France 
and Ireland Defender of the Faith &c. To Our Trusty & Welbeloved 
William Tryon Esq. Greeting: We reposing especial Trust & Con- 
fidence, in your loyalty, Courage & Prudence, do by these presents 
constitute and appoint you to be Our Lieutenant Governor of Our 
Province of North Carolina in America, To have, hold, exercise and 
enjoy the said Place and Office, during Our Pleasure, with all Rights, 
Privileges, Profits, Perquisites and advantages to the same belonging or 
appertaining; and further, in the Case of the Death or absence of Our 
Captain General & Governor in Chief in and over Our said Province of 

North Carolina 1 now and for the time being; We do hereby authorize and 
impower you to execute and perform all and singular the Powers and 
authorities contained in Our Commission to Our said Captain General & 
Governor in Chief, according to such Instructions as we already sent, or 
hereafter shall from time to time be sent, unto him, or as you shall 
receive from us, and from Our said Captain General & Governor in 
Chief of Our said Province of North Carolina, now & for the time being, 
and all singular Our officers, Ministers & loving Subjects of Our said 
Province, and all others whom it may concern, are hereby commanded 
to take due notice hereof and to give a ready obedience accordingly. 
Given at the Court of St. James's the Twenty-sixth day of April 1764, in 
the Fourth year of Our Reign. 

By His Majesty Command 
Dunk Halifax 2 

Arthur Dobbs (1689-1765), native of Carrickfergus, Ireland, had been a member of the 
Irish Parliament and surveyor- general of Ireland; he was especially interested in the 
Northwest Passage and in Hudson's Bay, and he had served as governor of North Carolina 
since 1754. Dobbs was old and infirm, although newly married to a young wife, and 
wanted to return home for a rest. During his administration, Try on 's predecessor was 
sympathetic with the problems of the colonists but firm in his allegiance to Great Britain. 
He opposed the Navigation Acts, encouraged development of trade with other countries, 
and tried to establish schools and churches in the colony. Desmond Clarke, Arthur Dobbs, 
Esquire, 1689-1765 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1957), 18,26-33,44- 
59, 107-121, hereinafter cited as Clarke, Arthur Dobbs. 

2 George Montagu Dunk (1716-1771), second earl of Halifax, succeeded his father 
George Montagu to the title and took the name Dunk when he married in 1741. His wife 
was heiress to the immense fortune of Sir Thomas Dunk. The earl of Halifax served on 
the Board of Trade (1748-1761), was secretary of state, was instrumental in founding the 
colony of Nova Scotia, and worked diligently to improve American commerce. Webster's 
Biograph ical Diction ary, 1 04 1 . 

Excerpt from Minutes of journal, 1 44-45 

Board of Trade crvi,io62 

May 1,1764 

Tuesday, May 1?* Present:— Earl of Hillsborough, 2 Mr. Jenyns, 3 Mr. 
Eliot, 4 Mr. Bacon, 5 Mr. Rice, 6 Lord Orwell. 7 

The Earl of Hillsborough having acquainted the Board, that the 
Governor of North Carolina had, in a private letter to him, desired him 
to intercede with his Majesty for his royal leave to return to England for 
twelve months, for the recovery of his health, and to settle his private 
affairs, a letter to the Earl to Halifax, desiring him to lay the Governor's 
request before his Majesty, was agreed to and signed. 

'This and other excerpts used in this volume are from Journal of the Commissioners for 
Trade and Plantations from January 1764 to December 1767 (Nendeln /Liechtenstein: 
Kraus Reprint, 1970), 44-45, hereinafter cited as Journal of the Commissioners. 

2 Wills Hill, Earl of Hillsborough (1718-1793), was at this time president of the Board of 
Trade and Plantations. In 1768 he became secretary of state for the colonies and in both 
positions corresponded with Tryon. ( Webster's Biographical Dictionary, 711). Mrs. Tryon 
was related to Lord Hillsborough. 

3 Soame Jenyns (1704-1787), poet and essayist, was educated at St. John's College, 
Cambridge . He was elected in 1742 to represent the county of Cambridge in Parliament, a 
post he held until 1780. In 1755 he was appointed one of the commissioners on the Board 
of Trade and Foreign Plantations. One of his notable essays, written in 1757, was 'The 
Objections to the Taxation of Our American Colonies by the Legislature of Great Britain 
Briefly Considered." Jenyns was personally popular and his prose was highly praised in 
his day .Dictionary of National Biography, XXIX, 332-333. 

4 Edward Eliot (1727-1804), afterward Baron Eliot, was a member of the Board of 
Trade, 1760-1774. In Parliament in 1776 he voted against the use of Hessian troops in 
America. Dictionary of National Biography, XVII, 184; Sainty, Officials of the Boards of 
Trade, 95. 

5 Edward Bacon was a commissioner of the Board of Trade, 1760-1765. J.C. Sainty, 
Officials of the Boards of Trade, 1660-1870 (London: University of London, Institute of 
Historical Research, 1974), 87, hereinafter cited as Sainty, Officials of the Boards of 

6 George Rice (1724-1779) was a native of Newton and was educated at Christ Church, 
Oxford. In 1761 he became a member of the Board of Trade and Foreign Plantations, a 
post he held until 1770 when he became a member of the privy council. Dictionary of 
National Biography, XL VIII, 102. 

"Francis Vernon (1715PT783), Baron Orwell, was a commissioner of the Board of 
Trade, 1763-1765. Geoffrey H. White, The Complete Peerage of England (London: St. 
Catherine Press, 14 volumes, 1910-1959), XI, 681-682, hereinafter cited as White, The 
Complete Peerage; Sainty, Officials of the Boards of Trade, 109. 

The Board of Trade to the pro co 5/325, 

Earl of Halifax cif vuoVf 

1 May 1764 
My Lord, 

Arthur Dobbs Esq*" e his Majesty's Governor of North Carolina, having 
made application to us to intercede with his Majesty that he may be per- 
mitted to return to Europe for the recovery of his health, which has been 
greatly impaired by the climate of that Country, we beg leave to desire 
your Lordship will be pleased to lay his request before his Majesty for 
his Majesty's directions thereupon, and in case His Majesty shall think 
proper to comply therewith, we submit, whether such leave of Absence 
should not be granted for twelve months from the Day of the Governor's 
arrival in England. 

As we are fully convinced how necessary and essential to his Majesty's 
Service it is, that all of his Majesty's Servants and Officers in America 

should personally attend their Duty, we shall at all times be very cautious 
of recommending requests of this nature, But the Circumstances of this 
Gentleman's case, who is upwards of seventy years of Age, who has 
resided in his Government near ten years without intermission, & 
undergone great fatigues, will we hope justify the application we have 
the honour to make to your Lordship. 

We are, My Lord etc 
Soame. Jenyns 
Ed. Bacon 
Ed. Eliot 
Geo. Rice 

Arthur Dobbs, successor to Gabriel John- 
ston, was governor from 1754 until his death 
in 1765. His young widow, nee Justina Davis, 
married Abner Nash, who was governor for 
one term, 1780-1781. Photograph from the 
files of the Division of Archives and History. 

The Earl of Halifax to 
Arthur Dobbs 

PRO CO 5/310, 
Part l.ff. 34-34b, 35b 

St. James's 12t h May 1764 

Arthur Dobbs Esq*" 
Governor of North Carolina 


His Majesty having been graciously pleased, in compliance with Your 
Request, to consent to Your returning to England for the Recovery of 


Your Health, and to appoint Lieutenant Colonel Tryon to be Lieutenant 
Governor of North Carolina, to administer Government during Your 
absence from that Province, You may, therefore, be preparing for Your 
Departure on the Arrival of Colonel Tryon, who proposes to embark for 
North Carolina the latter End of this Summer. 

I have transmitted to the First Lord Commissi of His Majesty's 
Treasury a Copy of Your Letter of the 14t n January last, relative to the 
Expediency of establishing some Custom house Officers at Occacoc 
Bay, and to the Improvement of Trade and His Majesty's Revenue [.] 

I am &c 

Dunk Halifax 

Excerpt from Minutes of journal of the 

t-» i r fr< i Commissioners, 78 

Board of 1 rade cr-vi, 1063 

Friday, June 29, 1764 

Colonel Tryon, appointed Lieutenant Governor of North Carolina, 
and going out to take the administration of that government upon 
Governor Dobbs's having obtained leave to return to England, attended, 
and the Board had some discourse with him upon several points relative 
to the state of that province, and it was ordered that such observations 
as had occurred should be stated to him in a letter from the Secretary. 

John Pownall 1 to William Tryon pro co 5/325, 2 

ff. 117118b 
CR-VI, 1049-1050 

July 2, 1764 

Letter from Mf Pownall to W m Tryon EsqF 
Lieut. Governor of North Carolina 


The Lords Commissioners for Trade & Plantations find upon ex- 
amination of the laws of North Carolina passed in Dec*" 1762, for 
establishing Superior and Inferior Courts of Justice and Judicature and 
for regulating Orphans Estates, that they are free from the Objections 
upon which former Laws for the same purposes were repealed & there- 
fore their Lordships recommend it to you to endeavour to procure a Law 

for giving them such duration and establishing such Salaries upon the 
Chief Justice and Associate Judges, as that the Courts of Judicature may 
have that Stability and Support which is essentially necessary to their 
efficiency and Dignity. 

The Law relating to the distribution of Intestates Estates having 
provided, that one third of Intestates Estates shall go to the Wife 
and the rest in equal proportions to the Children without including the 
legal Representatives of any Children that may happen to be dead, it 
is in this respect contrary to the Act of the 22 n ^ anc i 23T^ of Charles the 
second from which the other Regulations appear to have been taken and 
therefore their Lordships have been under the necessity of proposing it 
should be repealed. 

The Act for making Provision for an Orthodox Clergy, passed in 
1762, appearing to be liable to the Objections upon which a former Law 
of the same kind was repealed, which Objections you will find stated in 
the annexed Report of the Board of Trade upon it. Their Lordships 
cannot advise it's confirmation, but as the general purport of it appears 
to be commendable and beneficial, they recommend it to you to en- 
deavour to get it re-enacted free from those Objections. 

The annexed Extract of their Lordships Journal of the 13t n December 
1763 will mark out to you their Lordships Sentiments and Resolution 
upon the application of the Province in respect to the Disposal of the 
money appropriated in the Tax Act of 1754 for erecting Schools and for 
other pious purposes; and their Lordships desire it may be understood, 
that they cannot recede from that Opinion, nor on any account advise his 
Majesty to alter the Instruction which fixes the Quorum of the Assembly 
to be Fifteen. 

Their Lordships particularly recommend to you to co-operate with the 
Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina in carrying into effectual Execu- 
tion the Orders given by His Majesty for establishing a temporary 
Boundary Line between the two Provinces; and their Lordships wish to 
receive from you, as soon as possible, your opinion of what will be a 
proper final Boundary. 

Their Lordships further wish to receive from you an account of what 
Proceedings have been had and measures taken for ascertaining the 
line. of Partition between the Lands belonging to the Crown and those 
set off to Earl Granville. 3 

These are all the points upon which I am directed to give you a 
memorandum in writing; and I have only to add, that I am with great 
truth and the most sincere Wishes for your Success and Welfare 
Sir, your most obedient & most humble servant, 

J. Pownall 

'John Pownall served as secretary to the Board of Trade, conjointly with Thomas Hill 
from 17S3 to 1758, and continued to serve until 1776. In addition he was undersecretary 


of state for the colonies from 1768 to 1776. Brother of Thomas Pownall, John Pownall was 
quite influential in shaping the policy of the board. Charles M. Adams, The State Papers, 
Volume I of Guide to the Materials for American History, to 1783, in the Publie Record 
Office of Great Britain (Washington, D.C.rCarnegie Institution of Washington, 1912), 86. 

2 A copy of an extract in PRO CO 5/299 may be found in the transcripts of English 
Records in the Division of Archives and History. The extract was prepared for Governor 
Dobbs so that he might know in advance something of Tryon's instructions. Saunders, 
Colonial Records, VI, 1050, hasT. Pownall, but the letter in PRO CO 5/325, clearly reads 
/. Pownall . 

'John Carteret, Earl Granville (1690-1763), succeeded to the barony of Carteret upon 
the death of his father on September 22, 1695, and inherited a proprietor's share of 
Carolina at that time. An acknowledged scholar, Carteret was educated at Westminster 
School and Christ Church, Oxford. Perhaps because of his ability to speak German, he 
was a favorite of George I and George II. In 1711 he took his seat in the House of Lords 
and supported the Protestant movement. A bitter rival of Horace Walpole in political 
matters, Carteret was described as a man of great ability but contemptuous of public 
opinion. He was the only one of the Lord Proprietors unwilling to sell his share in Carolina 
to the crown in 1729; and as a result, he continued to claim one eighth of the quitrents 
collected in the two Carolinas and Georgia, although he gave up any voice in government. 
Finally between 1743 and 1745 a line was run setting off the northern half of North 
Carolina as the Granville District. Perhaps Pownall here was simply concerned that the 
line be carefully marked to obviate any dispute between the new earl and the crown. 
Dictionary of Na tional Biography, I X , 2 1 0-2 1 5 . 

John Pownall to William Try on pro co 5/325, f. 121 

CR-VI, 1050 

July 24? h 1764 


The Sieur Closen, 1 who will have the honour to deliver this to you, 
intends undertaking a Settlement in the Province of North Carolina, and 
having applied to the Lords Commissioners for Trades and Plantations 
for a recommendation of him to you for a Grant of Lands, I am directed 
by their Lordships to desire you will make him a Grant of such a 
quantity as shall be proportioned to the number of persons in his Family 
conformable to the directions of His Majesty's Instructions, in such a 
part of the Province as he shall think will best answer the Objects he has 
in view. 

I am with great regard and respect, 

Your most obedient 
humble Servant 

John Pownall 

'The identity of Sieur Closen has not been determined. It was not the Baron Ludwig 
von Closen, aide-de-camp of Rochambeau, although the name suggests kinship. 


Comments On Tryon's Expected North -Carolina Magazine; 

Arrival in North Carolina Lgulm™^^" 

NEWBERN, August 10, 1764. 

We hear from Cape-Fear, that a Lieutenant-Governor of this Province 
is appointed at Home, one Col. Try an, 1 an Officer in the Guards; and 
that he is expected out immediately. Tis also said, that his Excellency 
the Governor goes home in March next. The good People of Wilmington, 
ever intent on the Good of the Province, and always foremost in every 
Scheme for its Welfare and internal Quietude, immediately upon this 
News, engaged a large House in Wilmington for the Reception and 
Accommodation of the Governor on his Arrival in the Province, upon a 
Certainly that he will settle among them there. But the People of 
Newbern, having, for their Disobedience, drank largely of the Cup of 
Affliction, and intirely [sic] depending on the Goodness of their Cause, 
have engaged a large genteel House in Newbern, for the Governor's 
Residence; upon a Supposition he will settle rather in the Centre of the 
Province, than at Cape-Fear, a Place within Fifty Miles of the South 
Boundary of a Province almost 300 Miles wide, and the Passage to it 
gloomy and dismal, through hot parching Sands, enliven'd now and 
then with a few Wire Grass Ridges, and Ponds of stagnant Water: And 
where, on your Arrival, not as Dr. Watts 2 says, 

Sweet Fields, beyond the swelling Flood, 
Stand drest in living Green; 
So to the Jews old Canaan stood, 
While Jordan roll d between; 

But as the Passage, so the Entrance, dismal;— -a Turkey 15s, a Fowl 2s. 
8d. a Goose 10s. Butter 2s. 8d. and so pro Rata for every Thing else. 
—-Terrible Horribility! 

1 Tryan, of course, is a variant spelling of Tryon frequently used in news accounts. 

2 Isaac Watts (1674-1748), famous English theologian, also composed hymns and sacred 
poems. Webster's Biographical Dictionary, 1551. 

William Tryon Expected North -Carolina Magazine; or 

ii-» Ma„t "D/-WV-1-. Universal Intelligencer 

in New Bern September 28, 1764 

NEWBERN, Sept. 28. 

We have certain Advice from Norfolk in Virginia, That the Hon. Col. 
Tryan, our Lieutenant Governor, has got a Man of War appointed to 
bring him to his Government by Way of Virginia, where he is hourly 
expected: Therefore the Paragraph in the Wilmington Post- Boy, of the 


Governor's having taken his Passage in Capt. Veronierf's] 1 small Brig, 
belonging to Cape Fear, and was to come by Way of Madeira, proves 
premature; as indeed it is a Paragraph of the first Impression, to tell us a 
Governor had taken his Passage to his Government in a Tar- Droguer, 2 
and intended a trading Voyage by Way of the Madeilas. 3 But Mourn, 
Mourn, ye Wilmingtonians, and put on Sack cloth and Ashes, for the 
Measure of thy Good Things is full, and the evil Day is coming upon 
thee! Mr. TRYAN, if we have any Skill in Augry [sic], is coming to live in 
PEACE among us, and deliver us from unlevened [sic] Bread; which 
nothing but his Residence on the GRASSY PLAINS can restore and ac- 

'Capt. Veronier (Veriner) has not been identified except as captain of the snow 

2 A drogher was a type of barge used in the West Indian coastal trade. 

3 The word is very clearly written thus, but it may have been intended for Madeira, the 
island group in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Morocco and southeast of the Azores. 

William Try on to Arthur Dobbs mh-tlb, i 


His Excellency Governor Dobbs. On board the Friendship 

10th October 1764 

As I have had the Honour to be appointed by His Majesty Lieutenant 
Governor of North Carolina, I take, Sir, the earliest Opportunity to 
acquaint you of my arrival this Evening in Cape Fear River, at the same 
time desiring to be informed what time will be most convenient for my 
waiting on you with the Letters I have brought with me to be delivered 
to you. 

I am, &c. 

William Tryon to mh-tlb, 1-2 

the Earl of Halifax £ & ; h-t l eu -2 

To the Earl of Halifax, London Brunswick 15t n October 1764 

His Majesty's principal Sect, of State & & & 

My Lord, 

I take the opportunity by a Merchantman sailing for England this 
morning to acquaint your Lordship of my Arrival in Cape Fear River, on 


Wednesday the 10F 1 inst, the llt n I waited on Governor Dobbs and 
informed Him of the Honor His Majesty had conferred on me; the 
Intelligence of my Appointment he said had reached him two Months 
before my Arrival and that upon Receipt of his Leave of Absence in July 
last, he had wrote to his Friend Lord Egmont, 1 to request a Sloop of 
War to carry him home; this gave me an Opportunity to ask him when 
he proposed to take his Departure for England, he told me he should 
stay till next Spring, to the Middle of April, or beginning of May; this I 
own was a Thunderbolt to me, and I hope will be an Apology for me to 
Your Lordship for the Earnestness with which I expressed my Appre- 
hensions to your Lordship and M r . Sedgwick 2 of this Event. The 
Governor goes to meet the Assembly at Wilmington the 23? inst where 
I shall attend to be inducted into an Office which is likely to be 
burdensome to me this Winter, for want of Employ. Among my lesser 
Disappointments is the want of a House, as the Governor has declined 
letting me his Villa till his Departure, tho' the Assembly will detain him 
at Wilmington till December, This has obliged me to keep my Baggage 
still on board; after the Assembly is up I propose making a Considerable 
Tour through the Province; at present I can form no Judgment of its 
Fertility, having seen nothing but Wood, Water, & sand; tho' from the 
Conversation I have already had with the Inhabitants, I am confirmed in 
Governor Ellis's 3 Report that there are great Seeds of Prosperity in the 
Province. I must beg leave to observe to your Lordship, tho' I came into 
this Province not with mercenary Motives, yet I entered it, without any 
Idea of impoverishing my private Fortune, which the expences of my 
Equipment, passage and present Household Establishment, consistent 
only with the Character I expected sooner to have acted in; must 
necessarily Occasion, unless I meet with Your Lordships generous 
Interposition with his Majesty. It will be a twelvemonth between my 
appointment to the Province, and the taking the Administration of it: 
However still resting my Confidence in your Lordship's Protection I 
shall do my endeavour [sic] to inform myself, of the state and peculiar 
Interests of this Province, as well during the Governor's Continuance 
here, as after His Departure. 

The Old Gentleman has been so polite in his offers to accomodate my 
Family, till I can fix elsewhere: I mean to behave to him with the respect 
that is due to his Character, Age and Infirmities. 

I am my Lord with real Gratitude and Respect, &c. 

'John Perceval, second earl of Egmont (1711-1770), was Irish, as was Dobbs. He was 
also the first baron of Lovel and Holland, a member of Parliament for most of the years 
from 1741 to 1761, and the first lord of the admiralty from 1763 to 1766. (Webster's 
Biographical Dictionary, 1165.) The name appears as Egremont in the version of this 
document published in William L. Saunders (ed.), The Colonial Records of North Carolina 
(Raleigh: State of North Carolina, 10 volumes, 1886-1890), VI, 1053, hereinafter cited as 
Saunders, Colonial Records. 


-Edward Sedgwick was undersecretary of state to Lord Halifax from September, 1763, 
until July, 1765, and he served again during the first six months of 1771. J. C. Sainty, 
Officials of the Secretaries of State, 1660- 1 782 (London : University of London , Institute of 
Historical Research, 1973), 101, hereinafter cited as Sainty, Officials of the Secretaries of 

'Henry Ellis (1721-1806) was governor of Georgia from 1757 to 1760 and of Nova 
Scotia from 1761 to 1763. He had led the expedition commissioned by Parliament to find 
the Northwest Passage to the Pacific (1746-1747). Although he failed in /lis effort, Ellis 
acquired a reputation as a daring explorer. During his tenure of office as governor of 
Georgia he dealt skillfully with the Creek Indians and defended the coast against French 
and Spanish naval attack during the French and Indian War. Ellis died in Naples, Italy. 
Who Was Who in America: Historical Volume, 1607- 1896 (Chicago : Marquis Who's Who, 
revised edition, 1967), 238, hereinafter cited as Who Was Who: Historical Volume. 

William Tryon to the pro co 5/299, 

Board of Trade M ™|> 4 

A&H-TLB, 3-4 

North Carolina, Brunswick 15 October 1764 
My Lords, 

I have the Honor to acquaint Your Lordships by the Rose Sloop, of my 
Arrival in Cape Fear River on Wednesday Evening the 10 tn Inst I 
waited on the Governor at Brunswick to inform him of the Appointment 
I had the honor to receive from His Majesty; He inquired if I had 
brought any Instructions for him, I answered I had received Instructions 
from Your Lordships to govern myself by, but none directed to him. He 
informed me he should meet the Assembly at Wilmington the 23^ Ins*, 
and that he should leave this Province the Middle of April or beginning 
of May next. I am informed by some of the Inhabitants of this province 
there is likely to be warm Disputes in the Assembly this ensuing 
Meeting, upon which Account I think it not advisable to Communicate 
the Instructions I received, to endeavour to procure a Law for the 
Establishing such Salaries on the Chief Justice and associate Judges as 
Your Lordships recommend but shall wait a more promising Oppor- 

I shall as soon as possible after the Departure of the Governor 
endeavour to carry into Execution Your Lordships Instruction relative to 
the Boundary Line between this province and South Carolina, and 
likewise report what proceedings have been had and Measures taken 
for ascertaining the Partition Line between the Crown Lands, and those 
belonging to the Earl of Granville in this province. 

I am with all due Respect, &c. 


P.S. The inclosed is such points of my Instructions received from your 
Lordships as Seemed to me to be more immediately necessary to be 
Laid before the Assembly. I hope therefore your Lordships will not 
think it improper my having Delivered them to Governor Dobbs. 

Copy of the Extract of Instructions Received by Colonel Tryon 
of The Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, Dated 
Whitehall 2 July 1764 and delivered to Governor Dobbs. 

The Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations find that the 
Law relating to the Distribution of Intestates Estates, having provided 
that one Third of an Intestates Estate shall go to the Wife, and the rest 
in equal proportions to the Children, without including the legal Repre- 
sentative of any Children that may happen to be Dead; it is in this 
Respect Contrary to the Act of the 22^ & 23^ of Charles the Second, 
from which the other Regulations appear to have been taken and 
therefore their Lordships have been under the Necessity of proposing it 
should be repealed. 

The Act for making Provision for an Orthodox Clergy passed in 1762 
appearing to be liable to the objections, upon which a former Law of the 
same kind was repealed, which Objections You will find Stated in the 
annexed Report of the Board of Trade upon it, their Lordships cannot 
advise it's Confirmation; but as the general purport of it appears to be 
Commendable and Beneficial, they recommend it to You to endeavour 
to get it re-enacted free from those Objections. 

The Annexed Extract of their Lordships Journal of the 13" 1 of 
Decembr 1763 will mark out to You their Lordships Sentiments and 
Resolution, upon the Application of the Province, in respect to the 
Disposal of the Money appropriated in the Tax Act of 1754 for erecting 
Schools and for other pious purposes; and their Lordships desire it may 
be understood, that they cannot recede from that Opinion, nor on any 
Account advise His Majesty to alter the Instruction which fixes the 
Quorum of the Assembly to be Fifteen. 

William Tryon to the mh-tlb, 5-6 

Earl of Hillsborough a&h-tlb,4-5 

Wilmington 16t h October 1764 

On My Arrival in this Province I waited on Governor Dobbs with the 
Letter I had the Honor to receive by the Post from Your Lordship a few 
days before my Departure from England, I was not misled in my 
apprehensions I expressed to Your Lordship and Lord Halifax of the 
Governor's Continuance here; He acquainted me he purposed to 


undertake his Voyage to England the Middle of April or beginning of 
May next. This was no flattering Intelligence to me, and what makes it 
still less so, is the Consideration of the great Probability of the Governor's 
Infirmities not permitting him to undertake the Voyage in the best 
Season of the Year, Yet he flatters himself with returning back to this 
Province. I have Communicated to the Earl of Halifax the Mortification 
My Ambition has experienced, and at the same time requested His 
Lordship to take into his Consideration my present Situation, I must 
earnestly solicit likewise, My Lord, Your Interest and protection, I 
assure Your Lordship, Separate from the great Expence of my Equip- 
ment and passage to this province the present Establishment of my 
Family is much superior to the Income of my Fortune or produce of my 
Commission in the guards: I own, not withstanding, I still entertain very 
flattering Ideas from my Undertaking in this Continent, which are kept 
alive by the Expectations I entertain of the good offices of my Friends at 
Home and I do not yet wish to be in Grosvenor Street unless it was to 
enjoy such friends as I cannot find or Cultivate in this Province. 

The Provincial Assembly meet the 23" Inst; as soon as I have 
informed myself of the Forms and Proceedings of the Public Business of 
the Province, I shall make a Tour in the Country, as the Winter is the 
best and only Season for Travelling in this Climate: By the time of my 
return I hope to acquire a tolerable insight into the Temper and genius 
of the Inhabitants, the Nature and quality of the Soil and Commodi- 
ousness of the several navigable Rivers, all which will be usefull and 
agreable to me. I am, &c 

William TryOIl's Arrival North- Carolina Magazine; 

at Cape Fear Reported nJ^IjES* ""' 

WILMINGTON, October 17 

Since our Last the Snow Friendship, Captain Veriner, arrived in this 
River from London; on board which Vessel the Hon. JOHN [sic] TRYAN, 
our Lieutenant-Governor, his Lady and Family, came Passengers. His 
Honour was saluted by a Discharge of the Guns of Fort Johnston. 

Captain Veriner, on the 19th of August last, being in Latitude 32 : 15 
North, and Longitude 15 : 48 West from London, then steering W. by N. 
for Madeira, at Meridian fell in with the Sloop Tyge, John Barns Master, 
belonging to New London, but sailed last from Cork, bound to Bar- 
badoes; had been out 15 Days and had sprung a Leak, and thrown over- 
board Half of her Cargo; had 5 Feet Water in her Hold; both Pumps 
working, and three Buckets and a Tub with a Whip, all bailing; which 
hard Labour they said they had been constantly at two Days and 
Nights, and were very much fatigued, and unable to continue any 


longer at the Pumps, &c. they therefore desired Capt. Veriner to take 
them all on board; and as Capt. Veriner told them he expected to see the 
Island of Madeira that Night or the next Morning, it gave them fresh 
Spirits, especially as they judged themselves at a great Distance from 
the Land; at Three P.M. the said Master got his Long Boat in the 
Tackles, ready to assist them, and with 4 Hands and himself and 
Carpenter, went on board to endeavour to stop the Leak, but could not 
get at it: The Master of the Sloop was doing his Utmost Endeavour to 
keep her free, as was his whole Company ; and they all agreed to stay by 
her as long as the Master thought proper: At 5 P.M. Capt. Veriner went 
on board again, and took from on board the said Sloop Mrs. Sealy and 
her Son, about Seven Years of Age, who were made fast with a Rope 
and lowered over the Quarter, the Sea running so high that it was 
impossible to get them into the Boat any other Way; at Midnight they 
fired Guns, and told Capt. Veriner that she gained so fast upon them 
that they expected her to go down every Moment; upon which he sent 
his Boat on board, and in four seperate [sic] Turns got them all on board 
the Friendship; and the said Sloop sunk in one Hour after: The above 
People were all kindly received and well used by the Hon. Col TRYAN, 
who had exerted himself greatly, and was very anxious the whole Time 
for their Safety. The next Day saw the Island of Maidera, and landed 
them there, being 14 in Number. On the 25th of September, in Lat. 
26 : 30 N. Long. 60: 00 West, Capt. Veriner saw a Parcel of Lumber, a 
Chest and Hamper, floating, which he imagined belonged to some 
Vessel lost. 

North-Carolina Magazine; 
or Universal Intelligencer, 
October 19, 1764 

[October 19, 1764] 

The Hon. Col. TRYAN, our Lieutenant Governor, is Arriv'd at Cape- 
Fear, with his Family. 


North- Carolina Magazine; 
or Universal Intelligencer, 
November 2, 1764 

Oct. 24 Thursday last arrived here [Wilmington] the ship Harriot, 
Capt. L. Duncan 1 (in which ship Samuel Strudwick, 2 Esq; his wife and 
family, came passengers from England. The — Hon Col TRYAN'S lady 
came up from Brunswick in said ship and was received with the greatest 
respect, by the Ladies and Gentlemen of this Borough. 


On Friday the Hon Col. TRY AN, our Lieut. Governor, came up to 
town in the Viper man of war's barge, accompanied by Jacob Lobb, Esq; 
commander of the Viper; and was received with all due respect; a salute 
of 17 guns being fired from our wharf, which was answered by a 
discharge of 7 guns from the Harriott, Capt. Duncan.— The town was 
illuminated and every suitable Mark of respect shewn on the occasion. 

'No biographical facts about Capt. L. Duncan could be ascertained. 

2 Samuel Strudwick (ca. 1730-1794) emigrated from England to North Carolina in 1764. 
His purpose in coming was to look after land granted to his father, a London merchant; the 
Strudwicks claimed more than 20,000 acres of land in the Hawfields area of present-day 
Orange and Alamance counties. From 1767 until 1776 he was a member of the governor's 
council. In Tryon's military action against the Regulators Strudwick was a lieutenant 
general. Saunders, Colonial Records, VII, 831, 833; VIII, 532-917 passim; IX, 228-1229 

William Try on Assumes Office pro co 5/350, f .46 

CR-VI, 1078 

At a Council held at Wilmington 27th October 1764. 

Present— His Excellency the Governor 
James Murray 1 William Dry 5 

James Hasell 2 Robert Palmer 6 

The Honble Lewis H. De Rossett 3 and Esquires 

Charles Berry 4 Benjamin Heron 7 

The Hon"^ e William Tryon Esq 1 " came into Council, and produced his 
Majestys Commission Constituting him Lieutenant Governor, in and 
over this Province, which Commission was read, and the said William 
Tryon took the Oath by law appointed to be taken by Publick Officers 
made and subscribed the Declaration called the Test, and took the Oath 
of Office 

Ordered that the said Commission be recorded in the Secretarys 

Barnes Murray, native of Scotland , came into the Cape Fear region in 1736. He settled 
first at Brunswick where he remained for a few months before moving to Newton (later 
known as Wilmington). His mercantile business prospered, and Murray developed his 
Point Repose plantation during his twenty-nine years- of residence in North Carolina. He 
held important offices in Wilmington town government and was a member of the governor's 
council. In 1752 he was secretary of the province and clerk of the council; ten years later 
he was senior member. However, Murray moved to Boston ca. 1765 and fled to Nova 
Scotia during the American Revolution. His property, confiscated by the state because of 
his loyalist's convictions, was awarded to his nephew, Thomas Clark. Donald R. Lennon 
and Ida Brooks Kellam (eds.), The Wilmington Town Book, 1743-1778 (Raleigh: North 
Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, 1973), 5n, hereinafter cited as Lennon and 
Kellam, Wilmington Town Book. 


2 James Hasell was senior member of the governor's council and had acted as governor 
when Governor Dobbs left North Carolina for a brief visit to South Carolina in 1763. He 
acted again in this capacity in 1771 during the interim between Governor Tryon's 
departure for New York and Josiah Martin's arrival in North Carolina to assume the 
governorship. Hasell, master of the plantation Belgrange on the Lower Cape Fear River, 
was a judge in the court of oyer and terminer after Charles Berry's suicide, but he is best 
known as a book collector and owner of an unusually fine library, a rarity in the colony. 
Beth G . Crabtree , North Carolina Governors, 1585-1975 (Raleigh : North Carolina Depart- 
ment of Cultural Resources, Third Printing, Revised, 1974), 42, hereinafter cited as 
Crabtree , North Carolina Governors. 

3 Lewis Henry DeRosset (1724-1786), eldest son of Dr. Armand John and Madeline 
DeRosset, was a wealthy merchant and planter who served in many positions of public 
service during his residency in Wilmington. For twenty-three years (1752-1775)he was a 
member of the governor's council. However, he was forced to leave North Carolina in 
1779 because of his loyalist sentiment. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 40n. 

4 Charles Berry on November 6, 1758, was appointed to succeed Peter Henley as chief 
justice of North Carolina. He appeared at a meeting of the governor's council in December, 
1759, and qualified for this position. In April, 1766, Tryon reported to the Board of Trade 
the death of Berry and his appointment (subject to their approval) of James Hasell as 
Berry's successor. Judge Berry had committed suicide in Wilmington in December, 1765. 
Saunders, Colonial Records, VI, 327, 620, 624; VII, 160, 168. 

5 William Dry moved from South Carolina into the Cape Fear region ca. 1735. He was a 
collector at Port Brunswick ca. 1753 and represented Brunswick in the General Assembly 
(1760-1761). He also served as a town alderman in Wilmington in 1760 and was a 
member of the governor's council from 1764 until 1775 when he was suspended be- 
cause he espoused the cause of the revolutionists. Dry was a builder, one of his projects 
being the road across Eagles Island from Wilmington, which was continued by his son- 
in-law, Benjamin Smith, after Dry's death in 1781. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town 
Book, 78n. 

The home of Robert Palmer in Bath has been restored and is now designated as the 
Palmer-Marsh House. Its double chimney is the house's most unique feature. Photograph 
supplied by the editor. 


6 Robert Palmer was a member of the governor's council for over ten years (1764-1775). 
Palmer was a general in the militia, a customs official, and a jurist. A man of considerable 
wealth , Palmer in 1 764 purchased a house in Bath which has survived . Now known as the 
Palmer- Marsh House, the structure is today a part of the Historic Bath State Historic Site 
and is used as a visitors' center. (Don Higginbotham [ed.], The Papers of James Iredell 
[Raleigh: Department of Cultural Resources, 2 volumes, 1976], I, 225n, hereinafter cited 
as Higginbotham, Iredell Papers.) In 1767 he accompanied Tryon when the Cherokee 
boundary was run , and in 1 768 he was with the governor on the expedition into Regulator 
country. In 1771 Palmer participated in the Battle of Alamance. During the American 
Revolution he was a tory and his property was seized; attempts to regain it after the war 
were unsuccessful. 

''Benjamin Heron (d. 1770) served in the British navy before he settled in the Cape Fear 
region. Heron's first wife was Mary Howe, sister of Robert Howe; his second wife was 
Alice Marsden, daughter of Rufus and Alice Marsden. Among his various positions were 
deputy surveyor and auditor of His Majesty's revenue (1761), clerk of the crown (1762), 
naval officer (1762), and member of the governor's council (1763-1764). He achieved 
fame as builder of one of the first drawbridges in America, the one across the Northeast 
River. He returned to England because of failing health and died there in 1770. Lennon 
and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 80n. 

William Tryon to mh-tlb, 6 

Messrs. Drummond, Bankers a&h-tlb,5 

Wilmington 31?t October, 1764. 

1 have drawn on you the four following Bills, Vizt 

£ 37. 5 of 12 tn inst at 30 days sight, order John Stewart. 1 

100. of 27 d9 at d° , order Samuel Strud wick, Esq. 2 

25. of 30 d9 at d9 , order Capt. John Shipwright 

Veriner. 3 
25. o f d9 at d9 , order Mr. John Corbyn. 4 

£187. 5 Sterlg, say One Hundred Eighty Seven pounds five shillings 
together, which please to honor with payment and place to the Debit of 
my acctt 

I am, &c. 

Note. Sent Duplicate by Captt Veriner. 

Although this could be a reference to the John Stuart who was a doctor in Wilmington 
before 1 778, it is more likely that it was to John Stuart , the agent of Indian affairs , since he 
is mentioned at later points in the Tryon Papers. John Stuart, the scout, came to America 
in 1733 with Gen. James E. Oglethorpe and took part in the French and Indian War. In 
1763 he became general agent and superintendant of Indian Affairs in the Southern 
Department. Stuart died in 1779 at the approximate age of seventy-nine. 

2 Samuel Strud wick and his family had arrived on board the ship Harriot earlier in 
October, according to a report in the New Bern newspaper , North- Carolina Magazine, of 
November 2, 1764. 

3 Captain Veriner was captain of the snow Friendship in which the Tryons crossed from 
England to North Carolina. 

4 John Corbyn may be Dr. John Corbin, a Wilmington physician who was in the area 
before 1778. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, xxxv. 


John Burgwin (1731-1803), a promi- 
nent Cape Fear planter and merchant, 
was clerk of the governor's council in 
1764. Photograph from the files of the 
Division of Archives and History. 

The Hermitage, home of the Burgwin family in New Hanover County, was built ca. 
1753 and accidently burned in 1881. Tryon was probably a guest in this house. 
Photograph courtesy of North Carolina Collection, Chapel Hill. 


The Council to Arthur Dobbs pro co 5/352, 

ff. 105b-106 
CR-VI, 1249-1250 

and Dobbs's Response )5b - 1 

November 26, 1764 
May it Please your Excellency 

We His Majesty's Dutifull & Loyal Subjects the Council of this 
Province on the approaching Departure of your Excellency & Most 
sincerely desire to tender you our unfeigned & most Gratefull Ac- 
knowledgment for the many real and important services derived to this 
Province during the Course of your Excellencys Government. 

Your Excellencys wise Steady and uniform Administration has always 
been best calculated (Judging from Consequences) for promoting His 
Majestys Service and at the same time productive of the best and most 
Extensive Advantages to His Majesty's Loyal Subjects. 

We are happy in being able to distinguish that Administration not 
only unsullied but publickly tried and benevolent; as such yours de- 
mands our gratefull acknowledgments. We flatter ourselves from our 
future prospects, that your Successor whom His Majesty has been 
pleased to appoint Lieut Governor will from his universal good Character 
be equally successfull in your Absence in his Endeavours to promote 
the prosperity and welfare of this Province. 

And we most ardently wish your Excellency all happiness and 
prosperity with an agreeable arrival in Britain and a speedy recovery of 
your health together with a most gracious and cordial reception from His 
Majesty & his Ministers, for your unwearied endeavours to serve his 
Interest and the Province. 

Ja Murray Presidt 1 

By Order J. Burgwin Clk 2 

20 th NovU 764 

This House waited on His Excellency & by the President presented 
with their Address to which his Excellency was pleased to return the 
following Answer. 

HonPl e Gentlemen of His Majestys Council, 

I return you my sincere and hearty thanks for your Kind Address 
upon my approaching Departure from this Province. 

Your Kind acknowledgment and approbation of my Endeavours to 
serve His Majesty and to promote the true Interest and Welfare of this 


Colony by my promoting a happy Union between his Majesty and the 
Inhabitants of this Province (as it has been my constant Intention ) gives 
me the greatest pleasure; and upon my return to his Royal presence I 
shall truly inform his Majesty of your constant Endeavours to promote 
his service and the public advantage of the Colony. 

Arthur Dobbs 

Uames Murray (1713-1781), has been identified earlier. The wealthy Scotsman served 
as secretary of the province and clerk of the governor's council ; however, both he and John 
Rutherfurd were suspended from the council in 1757. Their restoration as council 
members was effected in 1762, whereupon Murray became senior council member of that 
body. By 1765 Murray had moved to Boston where he remained until the American 

2 John Burgwin (1731-1803), native of Hereford, England, settled in Charleston, South 
Carolina, probably before 1750 and removed to Wilmington about two years later. His 
first wife was Margaret Haynes of Castle Haynes (later, Hayne), site of Burgwin 's 
beautiful home Hermitage. Burgwin, a successful planter and merchant, served in the 
provincial militia, was a justice of the peace, clerk of the governor's council, clerk of the 
superior court, and member of the General Assembly. He went to Europe in 1775 to 
recuperate from a broken leg and its resulting complications but returned in 1778 to save 
his property from confiscation. Again in 1781 he fled to Europe when the British invaded 
the Cape Fear area. He reclaimed his property after the war and died at the Hermitage 
in 1803. His town house in Wilmington, reputed to have been used by Cornwallis during 
his invasion, has become famous as the Burgwin -Wright or Cornwallis House. Samuel 
A. Ashe and others (eds.), Biographical History of North Carolina: From Colonial Times 
to the Present (Greensboro: Charles Van Noppen, 8 volumes, 1905-1917), VIII, 58-66, 
hereinafter cited as Ashe, Biographical History; Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town 
Book, 159n. 

Governor Arthur Dobbs's Address a&h-lp 

CR-VI, 1253-1254 

November 27, 1764 

Honourable Gentlemen of his Majestys Council 
MT Speaker and Gentlemen of the Assembly 

I return you thanks for the Several good Bills you have Continued and 
Passed this Session, and hope upon your return to your places of 
residence, you will Endeavour to enforce the Laws already made for the 
peace Security and Improvement of the province 

MX Speaker and Gentlemen of the Assembly as it is probable that I 
shan't meet you again before I depart for England unless I shall receive 
his Majestys Commands; I propose only to prorogue you for a Short time 
that if there is any orders from his Majesty I may again Call you 
together before my Departure, and it is with great pleasure I can inform 
you, that I leave the Government in the hands of a Lieutenent Governor 


who will be as tender of your Just Rights & privileges as he will be of 
Strictly adhering to his Majesty s Instructions, and Supporting his 
undoubted prerogatives. 

However before my departure I think it my duty to inform you, as 
Governor, that by some hasty and inconsiderate Resolutions you have 
come into, by being overruled by some young members who dont 
rightly understand the Constitution of Britain and its Colonies; you have 
taken upon you to enterfere [sic] in the Executive power over this 
province, delegated to the governor for the time being and his Council, 
which is in pretending to dispose of, and distribute the public money 
already raised, which is not appropriate, arising from the Surplus of the 
Funds above the Services for which they are appropriated or granted, 
and such Sums as are to be applied for the Contingencies and Emer- 
gencies of Government, which his Majesty has impowered his governor 
for the time being and Council only to dispose of, in which you are not to 
interfere, nor are the Treasurers to obey or pay any money upon your 
Resolutions, but by warrant under the hand of the Governor in Council 
persuant [sic] to his Majesty's Instructions; and in Case they should 
wantonly misapply such unappropriated redundant Supplies, or Sums 
granted for Contingencies, your sole right is to anamadvert [sic] upon it 
and apply to his Majesty and Council in Britain against their proceedings 

This as a friend I mention to you to prevent you Interfering with his 
Majestys undoubted prerogative on the Executive power of the Govern- 
ment, that you may not embroil your Selves with the Crown, which at 
the End you must Submit to and must be highly prejudicial to the 
welfare of this province 

However in what manner soever you take this Information and 
advice, I shall think it my duty to lay the Loyalty of the Inhabitants of 
this province to his Majesty in the most favourable Light, and promote 
their peace and happiness; which can only be procured by a perfect 
Harmony between his Majesty and the General Assembly of this 
Province, which will be a means of procuring Favours which Otherwise 
they Cannot Expect. 

William Try on mh tlb , i 

to Messrs. Drummond, Bankers 

Wilmington 6t n December 1764. 

MessT s Drummond. 

I have this day drawn on you a Bill of Exchange of £100. Sterling 
payable the first of May next, to the order ot M^ s Margaret Palmer, 1 


value of Robert Palmer, Esq., which please to honour with payment & 
place to my account. 

I am. 

Note, sent original by Cap? Veriner, Duplicate by Cap? Duncan. 

'It was not possible to identify satisfactorily Margaret Palmer. 

John Pownall for the Board of Trade 

to William Tryon 1 pro co 324/17, 

f . 223b 

December 7, 1764 


His Majesty having been pleased to approve a Minute made by the 
Treasury Board on the twenty eighth of November last, in relation to 
public Expences, which may be incurr'd or Bills drawn by any Com- 
mander in Chief or Governor; I am directed by the Lords Commissioners 
for Trade and Plantations, to send you the inclosed Copy of the said 
Minute for your Information; 2 and at the same time to acquaint you, that 
the Regulations of the said Minute are not to be understood to extend to 
Money which has been or may be voted by Parliament to support the 
civil Government of the Colonies, or to any Establishments which have 
received His Majesty's Approbation. 

I am, 
Your most obed? Serv? 
John Pownall. 

J A circular letter also sent to the other colonial governors. 
2 The copy was not found with this document. 


William Tryon to Lord Hyde, mh-tlb, 10 

Postmaster General c^-vMoeo 8 " 9 

[with enclosure] 

Wilmington 8 December 1764 

Lord Hyde 1 

The Inclosed is what I really wish may be carried speedily into 
Execution, I will use my best Endeavours, (if the Governor ever gives 
me an Opportunity to exercise my Talent for Administration) to per- 
suade the Province to allow small Salaries for to establish Inns on the 
Post road at convenient Distances; Accomodations much wanted in this 
Province. As I have not interfered with any public Business since my 
Arrival here; I did not know with what Propriety I could address the 
Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations relative to the Com- 
munications I hope will be opened to this Province both by Post & 
Packet. However if you think it expedient the Inclosed may be shown to 
Lord Hillsborough, and the real Apology given, for not troubling his 
Lordship and the Board with a Letter on these Subjects at present. The 
Packet I esteem the Elder Sister. It is a great Comfort to have an honest 
and safe Conveyance of one's Letters home. The Complaint among the 
Gentlemen here, is that half the Letters that are delivered in this River 
come opened. Vice, versa; I must beg leave to Sollicit Your Lordships 
Attention to these Objects, which would lend [tend] both to Civilize and 
give Credit to this Province, as well as be beneficial to his Majestys 
Affairs here. 

I am, 

Thomas Villiers in 1756 was created Baron Hyde and first earl of Clarendon in the 
Villiers family. Edward Hyde (1609-1674), first earl of Clarendon in the Hyde family, had 
been exiled after losing his political prestige both with the royal family and Parliament in 
1667. Henry Hyde, second earl and son of Edward, sold his proprietary rights to Seth 
Sothel in 1677. Thomas Villiers, Baron Hyde, was appointed British postmaster general 
in 1763. He had been commissioner of the admiralty, 1748-1756. Webster's Biographical 
Dictionary, 752, 1524. 



[Enclosure] MH-TLB, 7-9 

William Tryon to Lord Hyde, cr-vm^iosq 

Postmaster General 

Wilmington 8 December 1764 

The Right Hont> le Lord Hyde, 

One of His Majesty's Joint Post Masters General 

As the Utility of Establishing a Post thro' the Southern Provinces of 
this Continent has been a Subject of Conversation between Your 
Lordship and Myself I have been Curious in my Enquiries since my 
Arrival here relative to the probability of effecting such a design. As 
One step towards it, the Assembly of this Province has this Session 
voted a sum of £133 1/3 this Currency, Value according to the present 
Exchange nearly £67 Stg to be paid Annually to His Majestys Deputy 
Post Master General on this Continent, if he will undertake to carry a 
Post from Williamsburgh, to Charlestown once a fortnight, charging the 
Customary Postage on Letters. This proposal is to be made by the 
province to Mr. Foxcroft, 1 One of the Postmasters residing at Williams- 
burgh. It will be needless for me to inform Your Lordship of the 
Numberless Inconveniences which attend this Province for want of such 
a Communication ; Inconvenience which must extend to every Province 
to the Southward. I will state One Case which will hold good at least to 
all the New Settled Provinces; should any of them be under the Cir- 
cumstances of Danger or actual Invasion, how should the Alarm be 
given to the Northern Provinces, from whom they must expect Succour? 
if by Shipping, that is Precarious, if by Express by Land, I am credibly 
informed that such a Conveyance is equally or more precarious, as the 
Messenger may ride the Horse he Setts out on possibly Two Hundred 
Miles before he can furnish himself with a Second, and when he comes 
to a Hut of refreshment, in this Wilderness, finding no Entertainment 
for his Horse, the Saddle and Bridle are taken off, and the Beast turned 
into the Woods to provide for himself; when the Messenger wishes to 
proceed, three of four Days perhaps is taken up in pursuit of his Horse; 
this I am told frequently happens to Travellers in this Province. The 
Post I am informed is regularly established from New York to Williams- 
burgh; therefore if your Lordship and Mr Hampden 2 would give such 
Directions as should continue the Communication at the same Intervals 
of time, on to Charlestown, these Provinces would immediately feel the 
Benefit of such a Channel. It has happened that Dispatches from the 
public Boards at home, have laid Six Weeks at Charlestown before they 
have been delivered at Brunswick in Cape Fear River. Capt n Lobb 3 of 
his Majestys Sloop Viper, stationed off this Coast, has informed me he 
received Two Letters from Lord Colvil 4 dated from Halifax, One in 


June, & the other in September last sent to Virginia to be forwarded, 
both which came to him about a fortnight since ; these are Inconveniences 
as incontestable as the facts I mention; & which I flatter myself will not 
fail to convince Your Lordship how beneficial a Post will be to his 
Majesty's Affairs, as well as to the Interest of his Commercial Subjects 
in the Southern Provinces. I doubt not but South Carolina will be very 
willing to Contribute their Mite to this Cause: It only wants Encourage- 
ment from home to begin the Work. It would be most Convenient for the 
Post (entering in at the Northward of this Province) to pass thro' the 
Towns of Edenton, Bath, Newbern, Wilmington and Brunswick: I 
mention this Route, as they lay most Commodious for fixing the Stages, 
and likewise the nearest Towns on the Seaboard. The distance from 
Williamsburgh to Charlestown is as follows, Vidt 

From Williamsburgh to Edenton 100 Miles 

From Edenton to Brunswick 200 

From Brunswick to Charlestown 180 

Total from Williamsburgh to Charlestown 480 Miles 

If it should be found more Convenient to carry the Post thro' the 
Town of Halifax in this province, instead of Edenton, it might be left to 
the discretion of the Deputy Post Master here. 

Another Petition I have to lay before Your Lordship, is, that his 
Majestys Packet ordered to Charlestown may in its return home be 
ordered to touch at Cape Fear River, if to stay only One Week; this 
would be but a small Distance out of her Course, as she goes within 
Twenty Leagues of the Bar of Cape Fear River when she Crosses the 
Gulph Stream. The Packet might come to an Anchor off Fort Johnston, 5 
with the greatest Security, about two Leagues within the Bar of the 
River. This Indulgence would afford the Governor and the other Crown 
Officers a more safe and regular Conveyance for their Dispatches home, 
than it is possible for them to obtain at present; for tho' the Opportunities 
of Ships going to England are frequent, all the Masters are not to be 
trusted with Dispatches of any Importance; and more particularly in 
time of War. This Indulgence would likewise give Credit to a Province 
which in a future day may not be the smallest Object of the Crown's 
Attention. The entrance over the Bar is esteemed equal to that of 
Charlestown. I assure Your Lordship I invite this Packet into a River, by 
Nature inferior by Account, to few in this Part of the World; and when 
the Back Country is well inhabited, will Support an Extensive Com- 
merce. The Distance from Charlestown Bar to that of Cape Fear is Sixty 
Leagues and has been frequently run in Twenty Hours. 

If the Packet's calling at Cape Fear every Voyage, should be thought 
to Occasion too much Delay, it would be a great Point gained, if it might 
call every other Voyage. Exclusive of other Advantages, the Report of 


his Majesty's Packet touching at North Carolina would give a Credit to 
the Province, and Convince Merchants that the Entrance of Cape Fear 
River is formidable only in its name. 

Your Lordships Assistance in the Execution of these Plans will be 
very Acceptable to this Province & much Oblige Your Lordships &c 

A Sew and Exact Plan 


Jiom $? 
( Iiy Edward Mvrnt /ftp 

Ai'tl/f, MtnS ________ 

f^&4 j» ,im- tit tAafirt£*«td<t/i 

<la*u& a*U Pp*&ruS**A> m manya/a^j thy 

..'/<fc 4)»}vr rrMj aftitiAar » fi*t at a • cvmnum i&StSSk m&un 
m* i'A&r M*>* m p-tmt 4 to 7 fttMern Water /&r *<*r <***<****«.? 
>.tt4/fjJtttn/At<iiatfftzi,f!tr3(tt'4Mt&M -u-Afu h&U**m htt- 
t4 .'Stttat/ufA fritter 

•**/,#, m.i •■*.,*■„ «k, jh>i/ n**Jkn~* 

On Edward Hyrne 's map of 1 749, "A New and Exact Plan of the Cape Fear River from 
the Bar to Brunswick," the port town of Brunswick appears at the top. Photograph from 
the files of the Division of Archives and History. 


Uohn Foxcroft (d. 1790) served as secretary to Gov. Francis Fauquier of Virginia and 
as joint deputy postmaster general of North Carolina with Benjamin Franklin until the 
outbreak of the American Revolution. He was a loyalist during the war and afterwards 
was agent in New York for a British packet service. Lorenzo Sabine, Biographical 
Sketches of Loyalists of the American Revolution (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 2 
volumes, 1864), I, 434-435, hereinafter cited as Sabine, Biographical Sketches. 

2 Mr. Hampden has not been identified; the name probably was Hampton. 

3 Jacob Lobb (d . 1773) was commander of the Viper, a sloop of war stationed in the Cape 
Fear River as early as March, 1764. In that year he was one of eight commissioners of 
pilotage of the Cape Fear River designated by act of the legislature. He was active during 
the resistance to the Stamp Act in the Lower Cape Fear and seized two vessels that 
arrived without stamped clearance papers in 1766. One of the men under his command 
who made his will while in North Carolina mentioned Lobb's son, William Grenfell Lobb. 
Walter Clark (ed.), The State Records of North Carolina (Winston and Goldsboro: State of 
North Carolina, 16 volumes, numbered XI-XXVI, 1895-1906), XXIII, 650, hereinafter 
cited as Clark, State Records; Saunders, Colonial Records, VII, 9, 165-195 passim. 

4 Alexander Colville, Lord Colvilleof Culross (1717-1770), was rear admiral in command 
in America, 1755-1766. White, The Complete Peerage, III, 384. 

5 Fort Johnston was built at the mouth of the Cape Fear River between 1748 and 1764 
and named for the governor Gabriel Johnston. The site is in the present town of Southport. 

William Try on mh-tlb, 10 

to Messrs. Drummond, Bankers a&h-tlb,9 

Wilmington 8? n December 1764. 
Messr s Drummond. 

I have this day drawn on you the two following Bills, Vizt 
£ 100. at 20 days sight order Mr. James Stansfield. 1 
100. a t 60 d° payable only to William Fitzherbert, Esq. 2 

£ 200. together, which please to honour & place to my account. 

I am &c. 

1 have also drawn on you another Bill of £100. at 20 days sight 
payable as above to William Fitzherbert Esq only which please to 
respect from &c. 

N.B. The business which occasioned these Drafts being dropt, they 
were destroyed before they were presented. 

'This could be the James Stansfield who constructed the model sawmill mentioned in 
William Tryon to Edward Bridgen, July 8, 1767. James Stansfield in 1761 won a prize of 
£100 for a sawmill. 

2 William Fitzherbert (1748-1791 ) was gentleman usher to George III and was eventually 
made baron in 1784. He resigned his post at court after a quarrel with 

Salisbury. Fitzherbert wrote a treatise on revenue and has been credited with the author- 
ship of pamphlets. By August, 1765, Fitzherbert was a member of the Board of Trade, 
and he was in attendance at a number of significant meetings over a period of several 
years. Dictionary of National Biography, XIX, 167-168; Saunders, Colonial Records, VII, 
113, 133,447,538,685. 


James Reed 1 to the Secretary, Society cr-vi, 1060-1061 

for the Propagation of the Gospel 

N9 Carolina, New Bern, Dec* 21 1764 
Rev d Sir 

. . . You must no doubt have heard of the safe arrival of the Hon^^ e 
Coll n Tryon our Lieut Gov r , in this Province long before the receipt of 
this. His coming was so sudden & unexpected that he had almost 
brought the news of his appointment himself. I expect him here daily on 
his tour thro' the Province. He is a young man and God grant, that from 
a personal knowledge of him, I may hereafter be enabled to say with the 
strictest truth, he is a religious man, and as well disposed towards the 
Clergy as our present worthy Governor, who intends to embark for 
England in the spring and only waits, till the weather be a little milder. 

'The Reverend James Reed (d. 1778) was rector of Christ Church, New Bern, 1753- 
1777. In addition to this parish he served eight chapels in the surrounding countryside, 
one as far away as Carteret County. Reed frequently served as chaplain to the legislature. 
Gertrude Carraway, Crown of Life, History of Christ Church, New Bern, N.C., 1715-1940 
(New Bern: [Vestry of Christ Church], 1940), 47-49. 

William TryOIl's Reception North -Carolina Magazine; 

or Universal Intellige 
December 28, 1764 

in New Bern Reported or Umversal [ntell & ncer 

NEWBERN, Dec. 28. 

On Monday last, the Honourable WILLIAM TRYAN, Esq; Lieutenant 
Governor of this Province, with his Lady, arrived here from Cape Fear; 
he was met about 8 Miles from Town by a great Number of Gentlemen, 
who accompanied them to Newbern, and conducted him to Lodgings 
prepared for his Reception; where he was immediately saluted with 19 
Guns from the Artillery.— In the Evening the Town was handsomely 
illuminated, Bonfires were lighted, and plenty of Liquor given to the 

On Wednesday, the Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen, and Common Coun- 
cil, of this Borough, waited on his Honour the Lieutenant-Governor, 
with their congratulatory Address; which was delivered by Mr. 
Recorder, as follows: 

To the Honourable WILLIAM TRYAN, Esq; Lieutenant Governor of the 
Province of North -Carolina. 


The Humble ADDRESS of the CORPORATION ofNewbern. 

May it please your Honour, 

His Majesty's dutiful and Loyal Subjects, the Mayor, Recorder, 
Aldermen, and Common Council, of the Town of Newbern, beg Leave to 
congratulate your Honour, upon your Arrival in this Borough. 

Your Appointment, Sir, to the Honourable Station of Lieutenant 
Governor of this Province, by his present Majesty, whose shining 
Vertues so justly command the Veneration of all his Subjects, gives 
them the strongest Reason to expect, that they will, under your Govern- 
ment, be protected in the Enjoyment of all the invaluable Rights and 
Liberties, which they claim as British Subjects. 

As we doubt not but your Honour will meet with unfeigned marks of 
Duty and Respect, from all his Majesty's dutiful and Loyal Subjects of 
this Government; so we in particular beg Leave to assure your Honour, 
that we will contribute every thing in our Power, and cheerfully 
embrace every Opportunity, of making your Administration easy and 

To which ADDRESS his Honour was pleased to return the following 


To the MAYOR, Recorder, Aldermen, and Common Council of the Borough 
of Newbern. 


I Thank you for your Congratulations on my Arrival in this Borough. 

His Majesty's appointing me Lieutenant-Governor to this Province, is 
very grateful to me, as an Honour received from a Prince, who has 
endeared himself to his People by his steady Attachment to the Interest 
and Welfare of all his Loyal Subjects. 

When the Administration of this Province devolves upon me, you 
may be assured I shall pursue every Measure in my Power, for its 
Benefit and Prosperity. 

The Respect and Civilities I receive from the Gentlemen of this 
Province, is very flattering to me; and I shall retain the properest Sense 
of the warm Assurances the Corporation of this Borough gives me, to 
make my Administration easy and agreeable. 

In the Evening there was a very elegant BALL, in the Great Bali-Room 
in the Court house, where were present his Honour the Governor, and 
his Lady, the Mayor, Mr. Recorder, and near 100 Gentlemen and 
Ladies. —About Ten in the Evening the Company withdrew to the Long 
Room over the Ball- Room, where was spread a very elegant Collation: 
After Supper, the Gentlemen and Ladies returned to the Ball -Room, 
and concluded the Evening with all imaginable Agreeableness and 
Satisfaction. The Courthouse was beautifully illuminated the whole 


On Thursday, being the Feast of St. John the Baptist, the Members of 
the Ancient and Honourable Society of FREE and ACCEPTED MASONS, 
belonging to the LODGE in this Town, met at their Lodge-Room; and 
after going thro' the necessary Business of the Day, retired to the Long 
Room in the Courthouse, to dine, where was served up an elegant 
Dinner; the Lieutenant-Governor honoured them with his Company; 
where also dined many other Gentlemen: The usual and proper Healths 
were drank; and at drinking the KING and the CRAFT the Artillery fired 

William TryOIl Departs North-Carolina Magazine; or 

-f™- T7i^l^r-»f/^^ Universal Intelligencer 

torLdenton January 4 1765 * 

New Bern January 4, 1765 

On Monday last, his Honour the Lieutenant-Governor, with his Lady, 
set out from this Town for Edenton. 

William Tryon mh-tlb, n 

to Messrs. Drummond, Bankers a&h-tlb,9 

N9 Carolina, Bath 5 JanY 1765. 

Mess*" s Drummond 

I have this day drawn on you in one Bill £ 100. Sterlf payable the first 
of May next, to the order of Robert Palmer, 1 Esq. which please to honor 
and debit the account of &c. 

Robert Palmer, of Bath. See "William Tryon Assumes Office," October 27, 1764, n. 6. 

Moravian Representatives Fries and others, eds. 

Visit Rmnswick Records of the Moravians,!, 299 

Bethabara, January 19, 1765 

Jan. 19. The Brn. Marshall 1 and Gammern 2 returned from their journey 
to Brunshwig. They waited upon Gov. Dobbs, and were received in so 
friendly a fashion that it almost created comment. He sent a bundle of 
grapevines to be planted here. They also visited our old friend Mr. 
Hasel on his estate, and he greeted them as though they had been his 
own children. So in Willmington and elsewhere they have found that 


the Brethren are in favor with men. The Lieutenant-Governor, Col. 
Tryon, had gone to Edenton. Three gentlemen came with them from 
Willmington to see our settlement. 

'Frederic William Marshall (1721-1802) was chief administrator of the Wachovia 
settlement; he guided the development of Salem from a wilderness to a thriving com- 
munity by the end of the century. He had university training in his native Germany, 
traveled in Holland and England, and was in North Carolina by 1761 where he was soon 
involved in planning and laying out the Moravian community. During the Revolution it 
was his diligence and concern and his careful negotiations which prevented the confisca- 
tion of Moravian lands by the state of North Carolina. Since the trustee of Wachovia was a 
British subject living in Great Britain, Marshall succeeded in getting title to the land 
vested in himself as trustee. Adelaide L. Fries and others (eds.), Records of the Moravians 
in North Carolina (Raleigh: North Carolina Historical Commission, 11 volumes, 1922- 
1969), 26-491 passim, hereinafter cited as Fries and others, Records of the Moravians. 

2 Abraham von Gammern (d. 1765 (emigrated from Europe to Pennsylvania via the ship 
Hope ca. 1761. He was one of the outstanding leaders in Wachovia and held a number of 
responsible posts : he and his wife Juliana were business manager and treasurer (vorsteher 
and vorsteherin) for the Bethania congregation; he and Jacob Loesch represented the 
community in conferring with Governor Dobbs in 1762; he was on the first committee of 
arbitrators; he traveled to Charleston to make trade arrangements; he was authorized in 
1765 by the Reverend Frederic Marshall to exercise the powers of attorney. After her 
husband's death Juliana returned to Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Fries and others, Records 
of the Moravians, I, 235-253 passim. 

William Tryon to William Bull 1 mh-tlb, n 


Brunswick 14 February 1765. 

William Bull, Esq. Lieutt Governor of South Carolina 

The Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations instructed me 
on my appointment to this province as Lieutenant Governor, to co- 
operate with you in carrying into effectual Execution the orders given 
by His Majesty for establishing a Temporary Boundary line between 
the two provinces of South and North Carolina. On my arrival at 
Brunswick last October I found the above partition line was just run, by 
Commissioners appointed from both provinces, to the Satisfaction of the 
Commissioners present. As I imagine it may not be a great length of 
time before a final boundary Line will be established between the 
two provinces, I should be glad to receive your Sentiments of what you 
think would be a fair and equitable partition. I send this by Mr. Elwin, 2 
a near Relation of mine, any Civilities shewn him will be acknowl- 
edged by, 

Yours &c. 


'William Bull (1710-1791) was born at Ashley Hall in the colony of South Carolina, 
studied, medicine abroad and was the first native American to be awarded the doctor of 
medicine degree. Instead of practicing, however, he engaged in planting and politics, 
serving in the Commons House of Assembly in his native colony, as a member of the 
council, as lieutenant governor, and as acting governor for terms between 1760 and 1775. 
Who Was Who: Historical Volume, 152. 

2 Fountain El win, Governor Tryon's private secretary and Mrs. Tryon's first cousin, 
was sworn into office as secretary to the council on December 20, 1765. On occasion he 
served as messenger from the governor to the assembly; and in October, 1767, he was in 
London and presented his letter from Tryon to the Board of Trade. Saunders, Colonial 
Records,W\l, 134,357, 547. 

Fountain Elwin (1736-1833) 
was Mrs. Tryon's first cousin 
and served as private secretary 
to Governor Tryon, 1764-1767. 
Photograph courtesy of Doro- 
thy E. Fountain Stokes, Old 
Pastures, Thompson, Thetford, 
Norfolk, England. 

William Hunter 1 to William Tryon 


May it please Your Excellency 

London, March 2, 1765 

Having in my Last of the 9? n Ullt9 presumed to offer Your Excellency 
my Humble Services, I have the Honor at this present to take up your 
Time with some little Matters that Occurred, while I negociated [sic] the 
provincial Money in the Agents Hands, & if the Circumstances be too 
Inconsiderable for Your Notice, I nevertheless satiate my own Anxiety, 
to let nothing escape that affects Your Interest. 

Mr Jouvencell 2 was surprized, he said, at Sam Smiths 3 telling him 
some days ago, he was no longer Agent. — But that He (Smith) was 


so.— He (Jouvencell) recollects what Mr Bridgen 4 and another Friend of 
his told him; of an Expression You dropt before You left this, of having 
an Agent in Your Pocket, which he says by the by, You disowned to 
himself the Sunday before Your Departure,— He also remembers the 
Artifice Garth, 5 and Knox 6 used, in getting the Rice Bill past clan- 
destinely without advising him; And on the review of these, charges you 
with the premeditated Design, and the Occult Occasion of the Motion in 
the late Assembly in your Province for a New Agent.— He looks upon 
Knox as his intended Successor, & is so displeased with Your demeanor 
towards him, that he declares, he will never miss any Opportunity of 
Retaliating,— He has already he says represented You to the Board of 
Trade, particularly to M*" Rice who sits there, and in a few days, he 
threatens, Lord Sandwich 7 and Lord Halifax shall be acquainted with 
Your Conduct. 

Mr Bridgen Complains you have Jockied him also, and (Comparing 
Notes with MI* Jouvencell after the above Declaration) adds, that to 
comply with Your Promise, of not opposing his being named Agent, in 
Case of Squabble, You had Officiously got him mentioned, by Way of 
being Cats paw to the point in View.— 

Mr Abercrombie 8 says You have got into a Scrape already, & he will 
lay ten to one, that in a Trice You are as deep in the Mire as ever Old 
Dobbs Was. 

The above Occurrences, Were all in presence of the above Three 
Gentlemen, & myself, & if Necessary for Your better Guard fullfill my 
Desire of being Serviceable. Having tendered Your Excellency already 
my best Offices and being an Enemy to Surprizals in the Dark, I submit 
to Yourself whether to make a Public or private Use of this Intelligence 
& shall implicitly Correspond with Your Desire. 

I have the Honour to be with perfect Respect 
Your Excellency's 

Most Obedt & most Hmble Servant 
Signed, Will m Hunter 

'William Hunter of Fenchurch Street, London, received goods from Bath, New Bern, 
and Edenton for consignment in England. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
was advised to use his services in sending material to the missionaries in the colony. See 
William Tryon to the Board of Trade, June 24, 1765, in this volume. 

2 Peter Cuchet Jouvencel (d. 1786) of Westminster, London, became a clerk in the office 
of the secretary of state in 1753 and served until 1765 under the various secretaries. In 
that year he became private secretary to the duke of Grafton, and in 1766 he was 
appointed secretary to the earl of Chatham as Lord Privy Seal, a post he still held at the 
time of his death. He was named North Carolina's agent in March, 1761, by the assembly 
then meeting in Wilmington; and he appears to have served until 1768 when he was 
suspended by the Board of Trade. Sainty, Officials of the Secretaries of State, 85. 

3 Samuel Smith had been the choice of the governor and council as North Carolina's 
agent in London, and he was functioning as late as November, 1764. His service was 
formally terminated, however, when governor, council, and assembly agreed on Cuchet 


Jouvencel as agent in 1761. Ella Lonn, The Colonial Agents of the Southern States (Chapel 
Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1945), 80, 81, 86, hereinafter cited as Lonn, 
Colonial Agents. 

4 Edward Bridgen (d. 1787) of Pater Noster Row, London, was a member of the 
mercantile firm of Bridgen & Waller; he owned extensive property in North Carolina on 
Topsail Sound, on the Cape Fear River, and a house and lot in Wilmington. His sister 
Catherine was the wife of Dr. Armand John DeRosset of Wilmington. Bridgen was a close 
friend of Benjamin Franklin and of Henry Laurens and William Henry Drayton of South 
Carolina. Although he was an Englishman, Bridgen was a firm friend of America during 
the Revolution, and after the war when his property was confiscated Bridgen 's friends 
came to his rescue. The North Carolina legislature passed a special act restoring his 
property or its value to him. At the time of a letter from Tryon to Bridgen (July 8, 1767, in 
volume I) he seems to have been an officer of the Royal Academy of Arts. He was 
certainly a Fellow of the Royal Society by 1777. At various times he was also treasurer of 
the Society of Antiquaries and an alderman of London. Clark, State Records, XVI, 388- 
389, XVII, 43 and passim; E.C. Branchi, trans., "Memoirs of Philip Mazzei," William and 
Mary Quarterly, IX, (October, 1929), 255, 256; New Hanover County Court Minutes, 
April 7, 1768, and passim. 

5 This may have been John Garth (1701-1764), member of Parliament, 1740-1764, from 
the county of Durham. He was the grandson of Sir John Colleton, one of the lords 
proprietors of Carolina. Romney Sedgwick, The History of Parliament, the House of 
Commons, 1715-1754 (New York: Published for the History of Parliament Trust by 
Oxford University Press, 2 volumes, 1970), II, 50. 

6 Knox has not been identified; perhaps he was William Knox (see p. Ill, n.2). 

7 Lord Sandwich was John Montagu (1718-1792), fourth earl of Sandwich, one of the 
principal secretaries of state. Dictionary of National Biography, XII, 701-702. 

8 James Abercrombie (1707-1775), native of Scotland and student at Leyden University 
and at Lincoln's Inn, London, went to South Carolina in 1730 as attorney general but 
returned to Great Britain in 1760 where he soon became a member of Parliament. He was 
North Carolina's agent in Britain during the years 1759-1763. He had earlier represented 
South Carolina, and he represented Virginia from 1754 until 1774. Lonn, Colonial Agents, 
78-80 and passim. 

Justina Dobbs 1 to Alice Marsden 2 shc 

March 8, 1765 
Dear Miss 

As I expect to : have Coll: Tryon and his Ladys Company [dure]n 
next week, I propose having a dance here on Thursday next and as you 
& your Sister were so good as to promiss to see me here, you will oblige 
me if you and your sister can be here the night before, as my stay in this 
Country will now be short, and bring any gentlemen you please to 
attend you: Mr. Dobbs joines in compliments to you and Miss Peggy 
Marsden and I remaine 

Dear Miss yrs Most affect. 

Justina Dobbs 
Castle Dobbs 
March 8th 1765 


'Justina Davis (1746?-1771), at the age of 15 in the summer of 1762, married Governor 
Arthur Dobbs, aged 73 and a widower, in St. Philip's Church, Brunswick. At this time 
they were planning to leave for his home in Ireland. After Dobbs 's death on March 28, 
1 765, his young widow married Abner Nash , later governor of the state of North Carolina . 
She and her new husband sued to break Dobbs's will which left most of his property to his 
sons. Courts in North Carolina were generous to her, but on appeal to English courts by 
Dobbs's male heirs, the will was upheld. Clarke, Arthur Dobbs, 186-187, 199-200. 

-'Alice Marsden (1746-1813), daughter of Rufus Marsden of Wilmington, married 
Captain Benjamin Heron on June 6, 1765. On the eve of the Revolution, in 1775, Janet 
Schaw was a guest in the home of the widowed Alice Heron when a "whole court of offices 
belonging to the house of my agreeable hostess" was destroyed by fire. The Peggy 
Marsden mentioned in the letter was the sister of Alice. Janet Schaw, Journal of a Lady of 
Quality; Being the Narrative of a Journey from Scotland to the West Indies, North Caro- 
lina, and Portugal, in the Years 1774 to 1776, edited by Evangeline Walker Andrews 
with the collaboration of Charles McLean Andrews (New Haven: Yale University Press, 
1921, 1939; Spartanburg, S.C.: Reprint Company, 1971 ), 169-170, 285n, hereinafter cited 
as Schaw, Lady of Quality; Raleigh Register, March 12, 1813. 

Legal Papers Relative to the pro co 5/299, 

Murder of Thomas Whitehurst 1 ff - 296 " 305 passim - 

[Editor's note: There are several letters pertaining to this case which are 
not included in this series of legal documents and which will be found 
elsewhere in this volume.] 

March 18, 1765-May 22, 1765 

True Copies of Sundry papers relative to the murder of M Y Thomas 
Whitehurst late Lieutenant of his Majesties Sloop of Warr the Viper 

The Deposition of James Brewster, taken before me William Hill, one 
of his Majesties Justices of the peace for the County of Brunswick the 
18 th Day of March 1765 

The Deponent James Brewster Midshipman on Board his Majesties 
ship Viper being Sworn on the Evangelists of Almighty God, saith that 
on y e evening of the 17 tn of March the Dept being at the House of Jn° 
Walker Lieut Whitehurst came to him & told him that he (M r White- 
hurst) had receiv'd a Challenge from M r Simpson & that he was 
Determind to meet him, but some Gentlemen come in at that time 
nothing further pass'd but that the Dept the next morning being then at 
M r Walkers Lieut. Whitehurst came again to him and said he was 
determined to carry his design of meeting M Y . Simpson into Execution 
& had brot the necessary Implements with him (Excepting the Pistols) 
which MT Mooring soon after delivered to M Y Whitehurst & M Y 
Whitehurst gave them into the Dept s hand, & he the Dept carried them 
into an upper Room of M Y Walkers House, & soon after the Dept went 
out & left MT Whitehurst at M Y Walker's & went to the Church where 
he had not been above ten minutes before Mr Whitehurst came to him, 
& after stoping a few minutes M Y . Whitehurst pass'd on and left the 


Dept behind; a few minutes after which the Dept heard the Discharge of 
two Pistols upon which the Dept advanced to the place from whence the 
Sound proceeded, & as soon as he was in Sight he saw M Y Whitehurst 
& Mr Simpson strugling together & MF Whitehurst fell in y e Strugle & 
Mr Simpson struck M r Whitehurst Several Blows over the Head with 
the Butt of his Pistoll after he fell, & the Dept heard M Y Whitehurst cry 
out "Simpson do you intend to murder me?" & the Dep t upbraided M r 
Simpson as acting cowardly in Strikeing M Y Whitehurst with the butt of 
his Pistoll, on which M r Simpson said M r Whitehurst had taken the 
advantage of him in fireing at him after his Pistol had snap'd. The Dept 
further says that M r Simpson & M r Whitehurst had each of them Two 
Pistolls but that he heard but two Pistolls fir'd but knows not who fir'd 
them, & the Dept helped to carry Mr Whitehurst off the field & further 
the Dept saith not 

Sworn to the 18 tn of March 1765 James Brewster 

before me W. Hill 2 

The Deposition of James Mooringe taken before William Hill, one of 
his Majesties Justices of the Peace for the County of Brunswick this 
10 th Day of March 1765. 

The Deponent James Mooringe being sworn on the Evangelists of 
Almighty God saith that this morning being near Capt n Lobbs House he 
met Mr Whitehurst, who told him to take a pair of Pestolls (which James 
Beney had then hid in a Handkerchief in his hand) and carry them to M Y 
Walkers which he the Dept did, and there deliver 'd them to M*" 
Whitehurst who had got there before him, some time after which as he 
the Dept was walking back of the Town he saw Mr Simpson walking 
with another Gentleman, & M Y Simpson ask'd the Dept if he had seen 
M Y Whitehurst, the Dept told him he had seen M Y Whitehurst at 
Walkers immediately upon which the Gent that was with Mr Simpson 
said thers Whitehurst & retir'd the Dept then heard M Y Simpson ask if 
he had anything to say. M Y Whitehurst said nothing at all, M Y Simpson 
then ask'd Mr Whitehurst if they were fair enough off M Y Whitehurst 
Said as near as you please, the Dept then heard Mr Simpson Say be 
upon your Guard & Snap'd his Pistoll, which miss'd Fire on which M Y 
Simpson threw Down the Pistoll that had miss'd Fire & was Stooping to 
take up his other Pistoll when the Dept heard M Y Whitehursts Pistoll go 
off on which M Y Simpson advanced towards M Y Whitehurst with his 
Second Pistoll & fir'd it at M Y Whitehurst & then club'd his Pistoll & 
struck M Y Whitehurst over the head M r Whitehurst fell in the struggle 
& M!" Simpson struck him one or two Blows over the Head with the Butt 
of his Pistoll after he was Down on which M Y Whitehurst said Simpson 
this is not usuage M Y Simpson then retir'd & said he was wounded this 


Dept assisted M r Simpson off the Field & then run to Call the Doctor & 
further this Dept saith not 

Sworn to the 18" 1 March 1765 James Mooringe 

before W Hill 


Brunswick County 

The Examination of Doctor John Eustace 3 taken the 23° Day of 
March 1765 before William Dry, 4 & W m Hill Esq*" s two of his Majesties 
Justices Assigned to keep the Peace for the County aforesaid after View 
of the Body of Tho? Whitehurst then & there lying dead, the said John 
Eustace being duly sworn Saith that it is his oppinion that the Blows Mr 
Whitehurst rec° on his head were sufficient to have kill'd him, but that 
his Irregular living for some time before he rec° those Blows might have 
contributed to his hastening his Death & the Examinant Saith that he 
does not think the wound in his Thigh was the Occasion of his Death & 
further this Examinant Saith not 

Sworn this 23° March 1765 John Eustace 

before me W Hill 

Will m Dry 

Brunswick County 

The Examination of Doctor Tho s Cobham 5 taken the 23° day of 
March 1765 Before William Dry & W m Hill EsqF s two of his majesties 
Justices Assigned to keep the peace for the County aforesaid, after View 
of the Body of Tho? Whitehurst then & there lying dead, the s° Tho? 
Cobham being duly sworn Saith, that it is his opinion that the wounds 
M!" Whitehurst Rec° in his Thigh & on his Head & his Bloods being 
inflam'd by the irregularity of his living before he rec° the wound were 
the Occasion of his Death & further this Examinant saith not 

Sworn to the 23° March Tho? Cobham 

1765 Before Will Dry 

Brunswick County 

The Examination of Doctor Jn9 Fergus 6 taken the 23° Day of March 
1765 before William Dry and William Hill Esq*" s two of his Majesties 


Justices Assigned to keep the Peace for the County aforesaid 

After the View of the Body of Thomas Whitehurst then & there lying 
Dead the s^ John Fergus being duly Sworn Saith that it is his opinion 
that the wound in M r Whitehursts Thigh was the Principal cause of his 
Death, but the wounds rec^ in his head he thinks might have contributed 
to his Death by bringing on a Putrid Fever, as his Blood was inflam'd & 
that all these Circumstances together were the cause of his Death 

Sworn to the 23^ March John Fergus 

1765 before 

Will™ Dry 


North Carolina 

Brunswick CountySsj Inquisition Indented & taken at Brunswick 

in the County aforesaid the 23^ day of March 
in the year of our Lord One thousand Seven hundred Sixty five Before 
us William Dry & William Hill Esqr s two of his Majesties justices of the 
peace for the said County of Brunswick upon the view of the Body of 
Thomas Whitehurst late Lieutenant of his Majesties Ship Viper then 
and there lying Dead & upon the Oath of John Walker, 7 foreman, Rich^ 
Quince, Jun!" 8 Jn9 Quince, 9 William Lord, 10 Joshua Gabourel, 11 William 
Pennington 12 Josiah Loring, 13 John Coppin, 14 Thomas Jones, 15 
Christopher Wotton 16 Blanford Bevain, 17 Issac Anderson, 18 ' and Edward 
Hazard, 19 all free & Lawful men of the Said County of Brunswick, 
who being charged & sworn to Enquire how & in what manner the 
s? Thomas Whitehurst, by his Death came, upon their Oaths do Say 
that on the Eighteenth day of March Inst Thomas Whitehurst, & 
Alexander Simpson, met to decide a Duel between Them, and that 
the s^ Alexander Simpson, by force and arms, did assault the said 
Thomas Whitehurst, being then & there in the peace of God & our 
Sovereign Lord the now King, and that the said Alexander Simpson at 
the Back of the Town of Brunswick on the said Eighteenth day of March 
Instant with a Certain Pistol of the Value of Two Shillings Lawful mony 
of Great Britain, with the said Pistoll then & there held feloniously & of 
his malice forethought did give the aforesaid Tho s Whitehurst four 
mortal wounds in the Head, & one in the right thigh of which wounds 
the said Thomas Whitehurst died on the twenty third Instant, and so the 
aforesaid Alexander Simpson, him the s^ Thomas Whitehurst then & 
there feloniously Kill'd & wilfully Murder'd Contrary to the Peace of our 
sovereign Lord the King his Crown & Dignity; And farther the said 
Jurors on their Oath Do Say that the aforesaid Alexander Simpson at the 


time of committing the felony & Murder aforesaid had no Goods of 
Chattels Lands or Tenements in the County afores^ to the knowledge of 
the Said Jurors. In testimony whereof as well we the said Justices of the 
Peace or the Jurors aforesaid to this Inquisition have severally put our 
hands & seals the day year & place first above mentioned 

Isaac Anderson SEAL 

Edwd Hazard SEAL 
John Walker Foreman SEAL 

Rich d Quince Jun r SEAL 

John Quince SEAL 

William Lord SEAL 

Joshua Gabourel SEAL 

W m Pennington SEAL 


Will m Dry 




Josiah Loring 


John Coppin 


Tho? Jones 


Chr*" Wotton 



Blanford B + Bevin 



North Carolina \ To the Sheriff of the County of Brunswick 

Brunswick County I or to Christopher Cains, Constable of 

SEAL j the said County of Brunswick 


These are in his Majesties name to comand you to take the Body of 
Alexander Simpson & Deliver him to the sheriff or Gaoler for the 
District of Wilmington agreeable to the mittimus herewith sent you, he 
the said Alexander Simpson having been found Guilty of Wilfully 
murdering Thomas Whitehurst on the Eighteenth of March 1765 upon 
an Inquest on the Oaths of thirteen free & Lawful men, taken before us 
as Justices of the Peace for the said County, and for So doing this shall 
be your Sufficient Warrant, Given under our hands & seals this 23 Day 
of March 1765 

Will m Dry 

agreeable to the within warrant I have taken the Body of the within 
mentioned Alexander Simpson, who is so very ill & low he is incapable 
of being moved 

Usher Espy sheriff 



It having been represented to us as well by the Sheriff as by the 
Doctors that the within mentioned Alexander Simpson, is so very 


Dangerous, that moving him wou'd be Instant death to him we therefore 
think you must postpone moving the said Alexander Simpson, till he 
grows something better, but you must take care to keep a Sufficient 
Guard to prevent an escape, Given under our hands this 25^ March 

Will™ Dry 


To the sheriff or keeper of the Gaol for the District of Wilmington 

North Carolina 
Brunswick County 

We William Dry, & William Hill, Justices Assigned to keep the peace 
for the County of Brunswick having taken an Inquisition upon the Oath 
of thirteen free & Lawful men on the Body of Thomas Whitehurst there 
lying Dead, & the Inquest having thereupon found Alexander Simpson 
guilty of Wilfully murdering the said Thomas Whitehurst on the 
Eighteenth day of March in the year of our Lord 1765 We do therefore 
Command you the said Gaoler to receive the said Alexander Simpson, 
into your Gaol & Custody & him there Safely to keep until he shall be 
thence Discharged by a Due Course of Law. Given under our hand & 
seals this twenty third day of March in the year of our Lord 1765 and in 
the fifth year of his Majesties Reign 

Will m Dry 

North Carolina 

By the Hon bl e Colonel Will m Tryon 
Lieutenant Governor & Commander in Chief 
in and over the said Province 

A proclamation 

Whereas Information hath been made that Alexander Simpson Master 
of his majesties Sloop the Viper hath fled from Justice for the murder of 
Thomas Whitehurst late Lieutenant of the said sloop, I have therefore 
thought proper by and with the advice and consent of his majesties 
Council To Issue this Proclamation, & do hereby command & require all 
magistrates & Officers Civil & Military in this Province to be aiding & 
assisting in apprehending the said Simpson 


And for the encouragement of all & every person to apprehend the said 
Murderer, a Reward of Fifty Pounds Proclamation mony shall be paid 
to him or them who shall apprehend the said Simpson so as that he may 
be brought to Tryal for the said Murder 

Given under my hand & seal of the Province this 5™ Day of April 
1765 And in the fifth Year of his Majesties Reign 

By his Honours Command Will m Tryon SEAL 

Benj n Heron sec. 

North Carolina 
Brunswick County 

To all Sheriffs Constables & other proper officers within the said 

Whereas Information has been made before me William Hill, one of 
his Majesties Justices of the Peace for the said County of Brunswick, 
That Alexander Simpson late master of his Majesties Sloop Viper (who 
was in Custody of the sheriff of the s^ County for the Murder of Thomas 
Whitehurst, late Lieutenant of the said Sloop) hath Escaped and fled, 
Therefore in his Majesties name I charge and command you & every of 
you in your several Counties, to search Diligently in all & every 
suspected place for the Said Alexander Simpson, & to make Hue & Cry 
after him from Town to Town & from County to County as well by 
Horse men as foot men, & if you shall find the s^ Alexander Simpson, 
that then you apprehend him, & carry him to the Gaol of the District of 
Wilmington, & there deliver him to the Keeper of the s^ Gaol; who is 
hereby Commanded to receive the Said Alexander Simpson into his 
Gaol & Custody Hereof fail not. Given under my hand & seal this 7 tn 
Day of April 1765 

William Hill 

North Carolina 

By the Hon ble Colonel Will m Tryon 
Lieutenant Governor & Commander in Chief 
in and over the said Province 

A Proclamation 

Whereas by Information it is suspected that Alexander Simpson, 
lately in Custody of the Sheriff of the County of Brunswick for the 
murder of Tho s Whitehurst late Lieutenant of his Majesties Sloop the 
Viper is concealed on Board some of the ships or Vessels in the River or 


on Shore near the sea Coast 

You are hereby Commanded & required in his Majesties Name to 
make diligent search for and to apprehend the s^ Simpson & to 
recommit him to safe Custody there to remain in order to be brought to 
Tryal. And I do hereby Command & direct all officers both Civil & 
Military to be aiding and assisting you therein. Given under my hand & 
seal at Wilmington the ninth day of April in the year of our Lord 1765 

To Usher Espy Esq*" Sheriff Will m Tryon 

For the County of Brunswick 

North Carolina 

The Examination of James Barzey Mariner on Board the Viper Sloop 
of Warr Taken before the Honourable William Dry Esquire the 22^ day 
of April 1765 touching the escape of one Alexander Simpson, com- 
mitted for the murder of Thomas Whitehurst Lieutenant of said Sloop of 
Warr, the Deponent being sworn on the Holy Evangelists of almighty 
God Deposeth & saith that he went down to the Cape or Bald Head to 
Bring up the People who were cutting of Cedar there, that upon his 
landing he saw Alexander Simpson there lying on a Cott in a Tent, & 
that he saw four or five men more with him which he took to be saylors, 
& that he knew none of them, except his Own Servant man Alick, & an 
Elderly man which he verily believes to be the master of Deligence 
[Diligence] Sloop of war as he has since seen him on Board the Viper 
sloop of war that he does not know who carried him away from 
Brunswick, nor in what manner he came off but that by the appearance 
of his Illness not being able to walk, he certainly must have been helpd 
off by some person or other, & that he saw the people lift him on Board 
of a Boat in his cot & where they went to afterwards this Dept cant tell, 
as he never saw him afterwards 

April 22^ 1765 Sworn to before me James Barzey 

Will m Dry 


North Carolina 

The Examination of William Weeks Mariner on board the Viper 
Sloop of Warr taken before the Honourable William Dry Esquire the 
22^ Day of april 1765 touching the Escape of One Alexander Simpson, 
committed for the Murder of Thomas Whitehurst late Lieutenant of s? 
Sloop of Warr, the Dept being Sworn on the holy Evangelists of 


almighty God Deposeth & saith that he went Down to the Cape or Bald 
Head to bring up the people who were cutting of Cedar there, that upon 
his landing he saw Alexander Simpson lying in a Cott in a Tent & that 
he saw four or five men more with him which he took to be saylors & 
that he knew none of them except his own servant man Alick & that 
there was an Elderly man there, & that afterwards he saw the master of 
the Dcligence [Diligence] Sloop of warr whom he thought like the 
aforesaid Elderly man with Simpson, that he does not know who carried 
him off from Brunswick nor in what manner but that by the appearance 
of his illness not being able to walk he Verily believes he must have 
been helpd away by some person or other, & that he saw the people 
some time in the night lift him on Board of a Boat in his Cot & where 
they went to afterwards this Deponent can't tell as he never saw him 
afterwards, and further this Deponent Saith not. 

April 22 d 1765 his 

Sworn to before William + Weeks 

Will m Dry mark 


North Carolina 
Newhanover County 

The Deposition of Daniel Martin Midshipman on Board his majesties 
Sloop of Warr the Viper touching the Escape of Alexander Simpson late 
master of the s? Sloop of War who was in Custody for the Murder of 
Tho? Whitehurst late Lieutenant of the said Sloop of War taken before 
Fred^ Gregg Esq*" 21 one of his Majesties Justices Assigned to keep the 
peace in the County of Newhanover aforesaid— The s9 Dan! Martin 
being first sworn on the Holy Evangelist of Almighty God Deposeth & 
saith that he this Deponent about the 18™ of March last was with three 
other men Vizt Thomas Martin Tho? Paling John Visen 22 & a boy 
named Edward Reist Sent to the Cape to Cut Cedar there— that he this 
Deponent remaind at Ball [Bald] head till he & all the people with him 
came up together which was on Thursday the 2" April, that while he 
this Dept remain 'd at Ball head, he believes about the first of April in 
the morning he saw a Smoke in the woods to which he went & when he 
came to it he there saw M r Alexander Simpson with six other men none 
of which he knew but one named Alick whom he had seen before on 
Board the Viper Sloop of Warr, they all appeard to be saylors— That he 
the Dept ask'd s? Simpson how he did, who answered he was ill & that 
he came there for his health that one of the People with Simpson ask'd 
the Deponent to take part of a Mug of Tody with him which he 
accordingly did that the said Person told the Dept they came there to cut 
Cedar That he this Dept tarried at Simpsons Tent about an hour & then 


went away to his own Tent about 600 yards from Simpsons that about 
half an Hour after he returned to Simpsons where he Stay'd about half 
an hour that he then had no discourse with Simpson or any other person 
there only Simpson desir'd him to take care of a little Dog belonging to 
said Simpson —That he returned to his own Tent & never saw Simpson 
or any of the People with him after — Dept Says he knows not how said 
Simpson came to Bald head— only that a Negro belonging to Colonel 
Dry Early on Monday Morning the first of April waked him & told him 
there was a boat coming in the Creek, that this Deponent saw not the 
Boat, but believes Said Simpson came in her — 

Dept further says that upon coming from Simpsons Tent the first or 
second time (he dont remember which) he told Thomas Pealing he had 
Seen MT Simpson but sayd nothing further about him— Dept says he 
cou'd not have apprehended Said Simpson without risking his own life 
as Simpson had Six men with him Dept Says he upon his return to 
Brunswick did not mention to Capt n Lobb or any one Else that he had 
seen Simpson — Dept says there then lay a Brig (which he believes to be 
the Brig Commanded by Capt n John Cray) off Bald head Point but that 
he saw no Boat go to or from Said Brig, that this Dept with all the Vipers 
men came off with him on Tuesday 2® April & further he says not 

Sworn to before me Daniel Martin 

the 22 d April 1765 

Frederick Gregg 

The Examination of John Nash Boatswain of his Majesties Sloop of 
Warr the Viper taken before Frederick Gregg Esq*" one of his Majesties 
Justices of the Peace for the County of Newhanover the 22 d Day of 
April 1765 touching the escape of one Alexander Simpson committed 
for the murder of Tho? Whitehurst Lieutenant of Said sloop of Warr — 

The Deponent being Sworn on the Holy evangelist of Almighty God 
Deposeth & saith that about four days after the report of the escape of 
Alexander Simpson master of his Majesties Sloop the Viper this Dept 
with seven others was sent down from Brunswick by Capt n Jacob Lobb 
to Bald Head to bring the people who were cutting of Cedar there 
up— that this Dept went with the Boat up Cape Creek that he landed 
about Eleven a Clock at night & that he saw there a negro of W m Drys, 
this Dept ask'd the s? negro where the man of warrs people were that 
were Cutting Cedar he answer 'd a little distance off in a Tent, he this 
Dept ask'd s? negro who was there, he made answer there was a man 
came there sick, upon which he disir'd the sy Negro to Shew him where 
they were, the Negro carried him to a Tent wherein the said Simpson 
then lay he this Dept ask'd s9 Simpson how he did, & s9 Simpson 
reply'd he was very bad, at the time the said Dept came to the said Tent 


there was in the Tent with said Simpson, one Alick a Servant man of s? 
Simpsons & two other men unknown to this Dept Saylors whom he 
never Saw before nor since that upon this Dept s coming into the Tent, 
Simpson told him he hop'd he was come upon no bad Design upon 
which this Dep? told him he was upon no ill design but come for the 
people that were cutting Cedar that he this Dept Tarried at said 
Simpsons Tent about ten minutes & then went to the Tent wherein the 
People who were there for the Cutting of Cedar were, that he found 
there four of Captain Lobbs people Viz? Dan! Martin, Tho? Martin, 
Tho? Pellin [Palin? Pealing?], John Visen & a boy, that no Discourse or 
mention was made of Simpsons being there, & that he this Dept never 
went near said Simpson again, & believes that none of the people which 
came with him went to Simpsons Tent, that he not having any authority 
as he thought to apprehend Said Simpson did not care to meddle with 
him, that on the next Day he came off from the Cape & Brought all the 
People belonging to the Man of Warr with him, that he never acquainted 
any person of his seeing M r Simpson at the cape till the next Day after 
his coming ashore he told M*" s Lobb, who ask'd him if he had seen 
Simpson, to which this Dept answer'd that he had seen him at the Cape 
this Dept further Says that Capt^ Crays Brig, lay at the same time at 
Oak Island but that he see no boat goe to or from her the s^ Brig, & 
further he says not — 

April 22 d 1765 John Nash 

FredH Gregg 

N° Carolina 

The Examination of Joshua Gabroul taken before Frederick Gregg 
Esq*" one of his Majesties Justices of the peace for the County of 
Newhanover the 22 d Day of April 1765 touching the escape of 
Alexander Simpson late master of his Majesties Sloop of War the Viper, 
who was in custody for the Murder of Thomas Whitehurst late 
Lieutenant of the said Sloop of War, the said Joshua Gabroul being first 
sworn on the holy Evangelists of Almighty God Deposeth & saith, that 
he this Dept with RichyKingate Carpenter of the Viper Sloop of War, 
were set as guard over the s d Simpson on Wednesday the 27™ march 
last that they watched till between twelve & One of the Clock in the 
night, & that he see said Simpson eat Supper, & that this Dept often 
afterwards ask'd for him but never did see him afterwards, nor does not 
know how he got away from Brunswick, nor of any person that assisted 
him in getting away, but he apprehends he was carried by some of the 
People belonging to his majesties Sloop of war called the Deligence 


[Diligence], as this Dept saw Alexander Simpson a certain Pistol of the 
Value of five shillings Sterling, then & there charged with Gun powder 
and one Leaden Bullet, which Pistol he the said Alexander Simpson, in 
his right hand then & there held to against & upon the said Thomas 
Whitehurst then & there Feloniously wilfully & of his malice afore- 
thought, did Shoot & Discharge; and that the said Alexander Simpson 
with the Leaden Bullet aforesaid out of the Pistol aforesaid then & there 
by force of the Gun powder Shot & sent forth as aforesv the afores? 
Thomas Whitehurst in upon the right Thigh of the said Thomas 
Whitehurst then and there with the leaden Bullet aforesaid out of the 
Pistol aforesaid by the said Alexander Simpson so as aforesaid Shot 
Discharged & sent forth feloniously wilfully & of his malice aforethought 
did strike penetrate & wound & the said Thomas Whitehurst so as 
aforesaid Struck & wounded, the said Alexander Simpson, with both 
his hands & feet the Said Thomas Whitehurst, to & against the ground 
then & there Feloniously wilfully & of his malice aforethought did cast 
& throw, & the said Thomas, so upon the ground lying he the said 
Alexander Simpson the said Pistol in his right hand as aforesaid having 
& holding the said Thomas Whitehurst in and upon the head of him the 
said Thomas Whitehurst then & there Feloniously wilfully & of his 
malice aforethought did strike & beat giving to the said Thomas 
Whitehurst as well with the leaden Bullet aforesaid so as aforesaid Shot 
& Discharged and Sent forth in & upon the right Thigh of him the Said 
Thomas Whitehurst as also by the casting & throwing of him the said 
Thomas Whitehurst, to the ground as aforesaid, & as also by the 
Striking & beating the said Thomas Whitehurst in & upon the head of 
him the Said Thomas Whitehurst with the Pistol held in the right hand 
of him the said Alexander as aforesaid several mortal wounds & 
Bruises, of which s9 mortal wounds & Bruises from the said Eighteenth 
day of March in the year aforesaid untill the twenty third day of March 
in the same year at the County of Brunswick afores? did Languish & 
Languishing did live on which said Twenty third day of March in the 
year aforesaid the said Thomas Whitehurst at the County aforesaid of 
the several mortal wounds & Bruises aforesaid Died; And so the Jurors 
aforesaid upon their Oath aforesaid Do say that the Said Alexander 
Simpson, the said Thomas Whitehurst in manner & form aforesaid 
Feloniously wilfully & of his malice aforethought did Kill, and Murther 
against the peace of our said Lord the King his Crown and Dignity 

Sam 1 Ashe 23 Att n Y & Reg 
A True Bill 
Caleb Grainger, 24 Foreman 

[ENDORSED ] North Carolina 

Wilmington District 


These may Certify that the within are true Copies of Sundry papers, 
relative to the Murder of Lieutenant Tho? Whitehurst, & of the escape 
of Alexander Simpson, taken from the Originals & Carefully Examind 

Maythe22 d 1765 

Ja Moran 25 
also Endorsed NP Carolina 

Copies of sundry Papers relative to the Murder of Mr Thomas 


In Govf Tryon's Letter of 24 June 1765 two new toughts 26 in the Tent 
at Bald Head wherein it was say'd the s d Simpson had been which Said 
two toughts, he new had been made a few Days before by the Carpenter 
& his meat [mate?] belonging to the Deligence [Diligence], & further he 
this Dept Sayth not 

April 22 d 1765 Josue Gabourel 

Sworn to before me 
Fredk Gregg 


North Carolina 
Wilmington District 

At a Superior Court of Justice held for the District of Wilmington on 
the fifteenth Day of April in the year of our Lord One thousand Seven 
hundred and Sixty five and in the fifth year of the Reign of our 
Sovereign Lord George the third by the Grace of God of Great Britain 
France & Ireland King Defender of the Faith and so forth Before 
Charles Berry Esquire Chief Justice of the Province of North Carolina 
aforesaid and Robert Howe Esquire his associate Justices of the said 

The Jurors for our Sovereign Lord the King upon their Oath Present 
that Alexander Simpson late of the County of Brunswick in the Province 
of North Carolina aforesaid Mariner, not having the fear of God before 
his Eyes but being moved and seduced by the Instigation of the Devil on 
the Eighteenth day of March in the year of our Lord 1765 with force and 
arms at Brunswick County aforesaid in & upon one Thomas Whitehurst 
in the peace of God & our said Lord the King then & there being, 
Feloniously wilfully & of his malice afore thought did make an assault, 
& that the said Alexander Simpson. . . . 27 


Thomas Whitehurst, lieutenant on the Viper, was challenged to a duel by Alexander 
Simpson, master of the same vessel. A woman was reported to be the cause of their 
quarrel. Whitehurst's thigh was broken by a pistol shot in the duel on March 18, and the 
seaman also suffered head wounds from blows with the butt of the pistol. Whitehurst died 
on March 23 and his will, drawn on March 22, was proved on June 23. He left a sum of 
money to the son of Jacob Lobb, commander of the Viper, he bequeathed land near 
Stafford, England, to his sister, Ann Whitehurst. Simpson fled to Smith Island where he 
was aided by friends, but he afterwards returned and surrendered. He was tried at the 
October session of the Wilmington Superior Court. The verdict of the jury was man- 
slaughter. Charles Berry, judge in the case, later committed suicide. Saunders, Colonial 
Records, VII, 5, 9-10, 39-40, 94, 147, 159, 197, 290. 

2 William Hill, a justice of the peace, was apparently a man of considerable prominence. 
Among the various actions in which he was involved were the acquisition of land needed 
for the post road in 1767, condemnation of land for Fort Johnston, the settlement of 
problems related to importing tea, and the evaluation of houses. Hill in 1775 served in the 
assembly and in the provincial congress. Saunders, Colonial Records, IV, 47, 1070; V, 
1214; VI, 359, 362, 397, 398, 399; VII, 454, 703-704; X, 166, 167, 173, 185, 337. 

3 Dr. John Eustace (d. 1769) was a physician in Wilmington who served as a justice of 
the peace from 1767 until 1769. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 188n. 

4 William Dry was a native of South Carolina who moved into the Cape Fear region ca. 
1735. He was a justice of the peace after 1738, a member of the General Assembly from 
Brunswick (1760-1761), and a member of the governor's council (1764-1775). In 1775 he 
was suspended from the council because of his alignment with the revolutionaries. Dry 
was by trade a builder, Fort Johnston near the mouth of the Cape Fear River being one of 
his contracted jobs. He did not live to complete another important job, that of building the 
road across Eagles Island from Wilmington. However, Dry's son-in-law, Benjamin Smith, 
did complete the road. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 78n. 

5 Thomas Cobham (d. after 1797) was a Scottish physician who had recently come to 
Wilmington. During the Revolution he remained in the Lower Cape Fear until the British 
occupation of Wilmington in 1781, whereupon he joined the tories and was made surgeon 
at the naval hospital in Charlestown. His property was confiscated. Lennon and Kellam, 
Wilmington Town Book, 217n. 

6 John Fergus, like Cobham, was a Scottish physician, but he served during the 
Revolution as a surgeon with North Carolina troops. When George Washington was in 
Wilmington on his southern tour in 1791 he called on Dr. Fergus, whom he evidently had 
known during the war. Archibald Henderson, Washington s Southern Tour, 1791 (Boston: 
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1923), 111. 

7 There were several John Walkers, but this is probably the one who was active in 
acquiring land for Fort Johnston and who frequently served as a commissioner for 
important projects in and around Brunswick and the Cape Fear area. Saunders, Colonial 
Records, V, 996; VI, 1008; VII, 703-704. 

8 Richard Quince, Jr., like his father and brother, was a prominent Wilmington merchant 
and planter. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 187n. 

9 John Quince (d. 1775) was son of Richard Quince, Sr., and brother of Richard Quince, 
Jr. John was a prosperous Wilmington merchant and planter who was active in civic 
affairs. He was a county coroner, justice of the peace, and member of the Wilmington 
Committee of Safety. During the resistance to the Stamp Act he assumed a patriot's role. 
Kellam and Lennon, Wilmington Town Book, 104n. 

10 William Lord served many terms in the colonial assembly, held numerous offices in 
county government, attended the provincial congress in Halifax in November, 1776, and 
was a colonel in the American army during the Revolution. Clark, State Records, XX, 280, 
XXI, 739, 833, 884, 891, 927, 930, 931, 937, 946-1055 passim; Saunders, Colonial 
Records, VII, 703-704, X, 913-960 passim. 

"Joshua Gabourel, an attorney, was appointed to be a justice of the peace by the 
governor's council on May 10, 1736. During that same year one of his clients was Clement 


Machen, who was trying to get a patent for a 510-acre tract of land known as Patridges 
Bluff and located in New Hanover precinct. Saunders, Colonial Records, IV, 57, 217, 218, 

'-William Pennington, comptroller, on February 21, 1766, took refuge in Tryon's house 
at Brunswick when a group of local men sought him in connection with their effort to 
prevent the enforcement of the Stamp Act. Before Pennington left, at his own suggestion, 
he resigned his office so that no indignity would be offered to a crown official. During the 
American Revolution Pennington was a patriot and served as a sergeant in Capt. Thomas 
Clark's company of the Artillery. Clark, State Records, XIII, 479, XV, 734, XVI, 1197; 
Hugh Talmage Lefler and Albert Ray Newsome, North Carolina, The History of A 
Southern State (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1954), 184. 

l3 Josiah Loring was probably the lieutenant colonel mentioned in Clark, State Records, 
XIII, 515, 530 

14 John Coppin has not been identified. 

15 Since there were several Thomas Joneses who were contemporaries, it is difficult to 
determine the identity of this man. Probably it was the Thomas Jones, attorney, who 
represented some of the prominent Cape Fear residents in their claim to land along the 
river in the Cape Fear region. He wrote on their behalf to the Board of Trade and was 
authorized to make a resurvey of land in connection with the case. Saunders, Colonial 
Records, IV, 308-315. 

16 This was probably the Chrisr. Wotton (Wooten) who was listed on the roll of Capt. 
Howell Tatum's company of the First North Carolina Battalion, commanded by Col. 
Thomas Clark. Clark, State Records, XV, 726; XVI, 1180. 

17 Blanford Be vain has not been identified. 

18 Isaac Anderson served for nine months in Ballard's company, Tenth North Carolina 
Regiment, Continental Line. He may have moved from the Cape Fear region to Rowan 
County at some time after the date of this document since an Isaac Anderson signed a 
petition to Gov. Thomas Burke made by John Crouse ca. 1781-1782. Crouse, a member of 
the Society of Dunkards, claimed ownership of land along Bear Creek. Clark, State 
Records, XVI, 1007; XVII, 190; XIX, 927. 

19 Edward Hazard has not been identified. 

20 Usher Espy received a 300-acre land grant in New Hanover County in June, 1739. In 
1754 he was a petitioner to Governor Dobbs for the construction of roads and ferries in 
New Hanover and the "Upper Counties." Two years later, in 1756, he was named to be a 
road commissioner for the Northwest District of New Hanover County. Clark, State 
Records, XXIII, 448; Saunders, Colonial Records, IV, 349, V, 166. 

21 Frederick Gregg was a prominent Wilmington merchant who "owned a town house, a 
large wharf with seven storehouses, a plantation on the sound, forty slaves, and a sawmill 
or sawmills on Island Creek near the present-day boundary between New Hanover and 
Pender counties." Ill health prompted him to leave America in 1773, and his estate was 
confiscated by the state. As late as 1788 Gregg was still living in Londonderry, Northern 
Ireland. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 29n-30n. 

22 No identification of these three men has been made. The name Thomas Martin 
appears frequently in the colonial records and early state records, but there possibly was 
more than one man with this name. Thomas Palin served as justice of the peace and juror 
(Clark, State Records, XXV, 187; Saunders, Colonial Records, III, 234, IV, 519). The name 
of John Visen does not occur in the records. 

23 Samuel Ashe (1725-1813), son of John Baptista Ashe, was educated in northern 
schools but read law with his uncle, Samuel Swann, who undoubtedly influenced his 
student in his democratic ideas. Ashe was an ardent supporter of colonial and states' 
rights and an advocate of independence for the colonies. He was a member of the 
provincial congress of 1775, president of a thirteen -member council of safety, and a 
member of a committee appointed to draft a constitution. Ashe had a long and dis- 
tinguished legal career and during his governorship from 1795 to 1798 proved himself to 
be a strong and effective leader. Crabtree , North Carolina Governors, 54-55; Cyclopedia of 


Eminent and Representative Men of the Carolinas of the Nineteenth Century (Madison, 
Wis.: Brant and Fuller, 2 volumes, 1892 [Spartanburg: Reprint, 1973]), II, 302-303, 
hereinafter cited as Cyelopedia of Eminent Men. 

24 Caleb Grainger was a member of the influential Wilmington Grainger family. His 
father was Joshua Grainger, Sr. Caleb was a planter, innkeeper, representative to the 
General Assembly in 1746, and served his town and county in numerous capacities. He 
served in the French and Indian War and became a militia officer in the American 
Revolution. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 7n. 

25 James Moran, a native of Ireland, became deputy clerk for New Hanover County in 
1761 and in 1767 he became sheriff. He was commended by the county court for his 
conscientious work . Later he became register for the county and also served as a justice of 
the peace. He developed Prospect Hall, a plantation on the sound, where he died in 1774. 
Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 93n. 

26 Tought was rope used for lashing. 

27 The remainder of this document is a verbatim copy of the account of the murder just 
given and signed by Samuel Ashe and Caleb Grainger as a true bill. 

William TryOIl GetS Fries and others, eds. 

o j r Tv/r Records of the Moravians, 1, 301 

Seeds from Moravians (Bethabara Diary, 1765) 

March 24. A young man came [from Salisbury] with Loesch 1 and 
Gammern 2 [who had been to General Court]. He was sent by Lieutenant- 
Governor Tryon to get all kinds of seeds from us for the plantation 
which Tryon wishes to lay out. 

\Jacob Loesch (1722-1782), born in Shockery, New York, was one of the first colonists 
in Wachovia. It was he who was sent to Wilmington and elsewhere in the colony to 
investigate and report on the agricultural and commercial practices so the Moravians 
could best direct their own affairs. Loesch served as entrepreneur and was a liaison man 
between the settlement and the rest of the colony. Fries and others, Records of the 
Moravians, I, 73-486 passim. 

2 Abraham von Gammern (1717-1765) was a business leader for the Moravians. See 
also "Moravian Representatives Visit Brunswick," January 19, 1765, n. 2, in this volume. 

William Tryon to the pro co 5/299, ff . 122-123 

o j rrj, 1 MH-TLB.12 

Board of Trade a&h -tlb, 11 


The Lords Commissioners for Wilmington l s ^ April 1765 

Trade and Plantation 

I seize this Opportunity by a Ship which is to sail tomorrow from Fort 
Johnstone, to acquaint your Lordships, Gov. Dobbs died at Brunswick 
the 28 th of last month. 

I was escorting Lord Adam Gordon 1 thro' part of this province when 
the news of this Event reached me, I returned immediately & last night 


took into my Possession the great Seal of the Province and the Governors 
Commission: He delivered to me the 23^ of last month (a few hours 
before he was taken ill) His Majestys Instructions & many public Letters 
from your Lordships Board, but as they were in a Confused State, I have 
not yet made a complete Arrangement of them or Considered their 

I spent two months in a Tour thro' this province & am determined in 
my Opinion that the public Business of it can be carried on no where 
with so much Conveniency and Advantage to far the greatest part of the 
Inhabitants, as at Newberne, a Town situated on a Neck of Land at the 
Confluence of the Rivers Neuse & Trent. 

I expect a Sufficient Number of members to hold a Council in a day or 
two, when agreeable to His Majesty's Instructions. I shall take the 
advice of the Council relative to the Time & place of holding the 
Assembly. As soon as the usual Proclamations on these Occasions are 
issued I shall trouble your Lordship with such Observations as Occur to 
me on the present State of this Province; The Public Office & Records 
shall be the object of my Particular Attention. 

As I shall use my Utmost Diligence to send every Intelligence I think 
will give either Information or Satisfaction to your Lordships, so, on the 
other hand, I flatter myself my representations in behalf of the province 
will meet with a proper Consideration & Support from your Lordships, 
as such a Countenance will give fresh Life & Strength to my Inclinations 
& Endeavours, & cannot fail of producing the best Effects between His 
Majestys Governor & the people. 

I am with perfect Respect & Esteem 
My Lords 

Your Lordships' Most Obedient & Humble Servt 
W m Tryon 

'Lord Adam Gordon (1726?-1801), just passing through North Carolina at this time, 
was colonel of the Sixty-sixth Regiment stationed in Jamaica, 1762-1766. He later was 
commander of the forces in Scotland and was made a general in 1796. Dictionary of 
National Biography, XXII, 158. 

William Tryon to the pro co 5/310, Part 1, f. 36 

Earl of Halifax K5uo 12 

CR-VII, 3 

The Earl of Halifax Wilmington 2 April 1765 

My Lord, [Received June 15, 1765] 

Last Thursday Gov. Dobbs retired from the Strife and Cares of this 
World. Two days before his Death he was busily employed in packing 


up his Books for his passage to England. His physician had no other 
means to prevent his fatiguing himself, than by telling him he had better 
prepare himself for a much longer Voyage. I have got into my possession 
the Seal of the Province and many Public Papers. The Orders and 
Instructions from your Lordship shall be obeyed with all possible 
Dispatch. As my Patron, my Lord, I hope you will allow me to call on 
your Lordship's Goodness, to forward His Majesty's most gracious 
promise to appoint me Governor to this province. 

I am my Lord with very sincere respect & Esteem 
Your Lordships 

Most Obliged Humble Sert 
W Tryon 

North Carolina 
April 2, 1765 

Proclamation of the Lieutenant Governor a&h-go 

CR-VII, 4-5 

April 3, 1765 
North Carolina'ss 

By the Honble Colonel William Tryon 
Lieutenant Governor & Comdr in Chief 
For the said Province. 

A Proclamation 

Whereas it is necessary for the Peace and good Government of this 
Province that all Officers both Civil and Military should hold themselves 
continued in their several Places and Employments untill my Pleasure 
be further known; I have therefore thought fit to issue this Proclamation 
by and with the Advice and Consent of His Majesty's Council, and do 
hereby Order, Signify and Declare that all Persons who at the Time of 
the Death of His late Excellency Governor Dobbs, were duly and 
Lawfully possessed of or Invested in any Office, Place or Employment, 
Civil or Military in this Province, and who have not been since removed 
from such their Offices Places or Employments, shall be and hold 
themselves continued in the same Offices Places or Employments, as 
formerly they held and enjoyed the same untill my Pleasure be further 
known; and that the said Persons do not fail every one severally 
according to his Place, Office or Charge to proceed in the Performance 
and Execution of all Duties thereunto belonging; and further I do hereby 


Will and Command all and singular His Majestys Subjects in the 
Province, to be Aiding and Assisting all the Commandment of the said 
Officers, In the Performance and Execution of their Offices, as they shall 
Answer the contrary at their perils. 

Given Under my hand, and to which 
I have Caused the greal Seal of this 
Province to be Affixed at Wilmington 
this 3^ day of April In the fifth 
Year of His Majesty's Reign, and in 
the Year of Our Lord 1765 

Will m Tryon 

By His Honours Command 
Benjamin Heron Esq. 

William Tryon to Henry Eustace McCulloh 1 cr^vi? 6 

April 6, 1765 

Upon Complaint being exhibited to me in Council on Oath by John 
Polk 2 in Behalf of himself and others Settled on the Lands of George 
Selwyn Esq!" 3 on the Tract N° 3 I do by the Advice of His Majestys 
Council, desire You will desist from any steps in Law to disposses these 
People 'till we meet at the General Assembly to be held at New Bern 
the 2^ of May next, where I expect to see You, at which I hope such 
measures may be mediated as will tend to the Quieting the Minds of the 
Inhabitants, and securing the Peace of His Majestys Province, without 
Injury to the Proprietor of the said Land. 

I am Sir 

Your Most Obedient Servant 
Will m Tryon 

Henry Eustace McCulloh Esq!" 

Read Sundry Warrants for Land from N° 3 to N° 433. Inclusive 
which were Granted Except N° 41 and 74— withdrawn. 

1 Henry Eustace McCulloh, born in London, was brought to North Carolina as an infant 
in 1740 when his father, Henry McCulloh, came as "Commissioner for Inspecting and 


Controlling the Royal Revenues and grants of land in North Carolina." The McCullohs 
returned to England in 1747. The son studied law and was admitted to the Middle Temple 
in June, 1757. By 1761 Henry Eustace was again in North Carolina where he was 
nominally a member of the governor's council from 1762 until 1770 even though he 
returned to England ca. 1767 and therefore was not physically present in the colony. At 
various times during his residency he was a member of the high court of chancery and a 
justice of the peace; he was also a collector of the port of Roanoke (Edenton ). Among his 
many activities in the colony was that of serving as attorney for his father in problems 
concerning the vast McCulloh landholdings, which extended from the upper Cape Fear 
valley to Mecklenburg County. It was in this capacity that he came in contact with the 
Regulators under rather unpleasant circumstances. After his return to London Henry 
Eustace served for several years as North Carolina's agent there. John Cannon, "Henry 
McCulloch and Henry McCulloh," William and Mary Quarterly, XV January, 1958), 71- 
73, hereinafter cited as Cannon, "Henry McCulloch and Henry McCulloh." 

2 Polk was a leading citizen of Mecklenburg County , and his name appears as a member 
of various commissions until as late as 1773. 

3 George Augustus Selwyn (1719-1791), was McCulloh 's partner in various land deals 
although he was not in North Carolina. He was a member of Parliament, 1747-1780, and 
more noted for his wit than for anything else. Dictionary of National Biography, LI, 231. 

■ '. '■:■■;■ 

' y 

:,:.■■. .■ 

' ■ i : 



. ■■■:■■,■:■;.■■. 

"; ■:■' ■ 

Constantine John Phipps, Baron Mulgrave (1744-1792), was commander of the Diligence 
in November, 1765, when the controversial stamps were brought to North Carolina. 
Photograph courtesy of National Portrait Gallery, London, after a portrait executed by 
John Zaffany, Royal Academy. 


Constantine John Phipps 1 pro co 5/299, Part 2, ff . 139- 139b 

to William Tryon 

Diligence at Fort Johnston 

April 8, 1765 

[Read by BT,Oct. 10, 1765] 


The Sheriff of Brunswick imagining himself authorized to Search His 
Majesty's Sloop under my Command in Consequence of a Warrant, 
from a Justice of the Peace for that County to search All suspected 
Places for Alexander Simpson, came on board this day to inform me that 
He should search the Diligence upon Her Sailing from hence, I have 
refused to consent to Such a Search not apprehending him to be entitled 
to it by the Laws of England, or the Instructions I have received from 
the Lords of the Admiralty; I at the same time told him (as I knew how 
sollicitous the Government was to reapprehend the Murderer) that 
should he be apprehensive of any Opposition in searching the Merchant 
Ships; I should direct the Officers in my Absence to assist him with a 
Boat & Men armed or even with the Guns of the Ship if requisite; The 
Sheriff having said He was informed (he did not chuse to say by whom) 
that I was M r . Simpson's Friend, & intended to carry him out; I shall for 
Your Satisfaction, with Pleasure receive on Board, and assist in the 
strictest Examination, any Private Person you will send down either 
Now or at the Time of my sailing; I would at no Time obstruct the 
Course of Justice, or assist in Eluding the Vigilance of Magistracy; but 
in the Hands I have now the Pleasure of seeing it placed; I shall receive 
the greatest Satisfaction from every Opportunity of Shewing it the 
utmost Respect; As I am 

Constantine John Phipps (1744-1792), afterwards second Baron Mulgrave, a member 
of Parliament, a lord of the admiralty, and participant in a polar expedition in 1773, was at 
this time a young naval officer. He was commander of the Diligence which brought the 
stamps to North Carolina in November, 1765, to be distributed under the Stamp Act. 
Webster's Biographical Dictionary, 1180. 

William Tryon to pro co 5/299, Part 2, 

Constantine John Phipps cr-vii, 94 

April 9, 1765 

[Read by BT, Oct. 10, 1765] 


I am very sorry the Sheriff of Brunswick should claim at any time a 
right to search the Diligence in Virtue of a Warrant from one of His 


Majestys Justices of the Peace for the Said County, I am not sensible 
any Powers I am vested with authorize such a Proceeding. I am obliged 
to You Sir for your handsome Offer of Assistance in the Strictest Ex- 
amination after Alexander Simpson to any private Person I would send 
on board the Diligence and to Send your Boats & men Armed to Search 
the Merchant Ships in the River. I assure You I entertain too high a 
Sence [sic] of the Honor of the commanders of His Majestys Ships to 
harbour the least Suspicion of the Suggestions of MT Sheriff & think too 
well of You Sir to give the Report of any person the Preference to Your 
Own; for which Reasons You will excuse my sending any Person on 
board the Diligence as Searcher. If the Sheriff of Brunswick County 
should require any assistance from Your Men which does not interfere 
with Your Intentions to sail for Virginia Your Compliance in giving 
proper Orders to them, will oblige me. I had issued about 2 Hours before 
I had the favour of Your Letter, My Warrant to search on board Merchant 
Ships and other Vessels in the River. 

The Motive for my delivering to You a Copy of the Proclamation 
offering a Reward for the reapprehending Alexander Simpson another 
Copy of which proclamation I sent Cap? Lobb, & requesting the favour 
of You to have it made public on board the Diligence, was on Account of 
Information received some sailors had helped the said Simpson to make 
his Escape. The Said Proclamation was ordered to be read on board 
every Merchantship, as it was Concluded the more the Proclamation 
was made General, the more probability there appeared of making the 
Discovery where Simpson lay concealed. 

Be assured Sir, my Conduct in this Affair proceeds from a Sense of 
Justice, from an Interest I feel for the Honor and Credit of this Province, 
and from a desire to Convince the Board of Admiralty & Lord Colvil, 
this Government has given no Countenance to M r Simpson's Escape 

I shall take the Earliest Opportunity to Communicate to Lord Colvil, 
the Manner of M Y . Whitehurst's Death &c 

Leave of Absence to James Murray 1 mhim 

April 17, 1765 

North Carolina 

By The Hono^ e Colo! William Tryon 
Lieutt Governor and Commander in 
Chief in and over the Said Province 

Whereas James Murray Esq*" President of His Majesty's council of State 
for this Province hath represented unto me that He was admitted a 


Member of His Majesty's council here in February 1739 as by the 
council Journals doth appear, and that now His health and family 
Affaires require his presence in Boston in New England for some time 
and therefore has praid for Leave of Absence. 

License is therefore granted unto the said James Murray 
to depart this Province and to be absent for the period 
of twelve months from the time of His Departure 

Given under my hand and 

Seal at Arms at Wilmington 

the 17t h Aprile 1765 

W m Tryon 

'For biographical sketch of Murray see "William Tryon Assumes Office," October 27, 
1764, n.l. 

James Murray, Scottish merchant of Wilmington and New Hanover County planter, 
held a variety of offices including that of councillor for a number of years. He and Tryon 
were longtime friends and continued to correspond even after Murray moved to Boston. 
Photograph from the North Carolina Collection; original portrait painted by John Singletary 
and dated 1763. 


William Tryon to William Bull mh-tlb, 13 

A &H -TLB, 12 

Wilmington 22d April 1765 

William Bull, Esq. 

Mr. Maurice Moore 1 one of the Associate Judges of this Province, 
informed me that in Compliance of the Late Governor Dobbs's Instruc- 
tions to him, to enquire into the Conduct of Mr. McClenaghan, 2 relative 
to Mr. Hamilton's 3 Deposition inclosed in Your Letter of 13 February 
last to His Late Excellency, He had conversed with Mr. McClenaghan 
on the Subject, who acknowledged to have delivered the precept 
mentioned in Mr. Hamilton's Deposition, but says he was not sensible 
that the Deponent lived beyond the Southward Boundary Line of this 
Province: If this acknowledgement does not give Satisfaction to the 
party, I hope he will obtain Relief in a Course of Law; as I shall never 
give Countenance to such unwarrantable proceedings as complained of. 

I have the Honor to be &c 

P.S. I received the favour of Your answer to my Letter by Mr. Elwin 
who joins with me in Thanks for the Civilities shewn him. 

'Maurice Moore (1735-1777), of Brunswick, was a borough representative in the 
assembly and a member of the council. He was appointed an associate justice of North 
Carolina in 1765, but because of his active opposition to the Stamp Act he was suspended 
by Governor Tryon. He was afterward restored by order of the crown. Colonel of a 
company of volunteer light dragoons, Moore took part in Tryon s first expedition into 
the Regulator country. He was on the bench when some of the Regulators were tried in 
Hillsborough after the Battle of Alamance but was later inclined to be lenient toward 
them. It may have been Moore who as "Atticus" attacked Tryon 's policy toward the 
Regulators in a long letter published in the Virginia Gazette, November 7, 1771. The 
following year, in a liberal interpretation of the harsh riot law, he ruled that there could be 
no more prosecutions of these people. On the eve of the Revolution Moore was one of the 
commissioners appointed by the provincial congress to try to reconcile the Regulators to 
the patriots 'cause. Ashe, Biographical History, II, 293-298. 

2 Mr. McClenaghan has not been positively identified. 

3 Hamilton has not been identified. 


William Try on to Lord Colville 1 mh-tlb, 13-14 

A&HTLB, 12-13 

Wilmington 22^ April 1765 

Lord Colvill 

I have the Honour to inform Your Lordship by Cap* Lobb of an 
unfortunate Affair that happened in this Country last Month, between 
Lieut* Whitehurst and Alexander Simpson, both of the Viper Sloop. M r 
Simpson, chalenged M r Whitehurst to fight a Duel, the Consequences 
of which terminated in the Death of Lieut* Whitehurst about Six Days 
after he had had his Thigh broke by a Pistol Shot, and his Head 
wounded in Several places by the Butt End of a Horse pistol, the Butt 
End of which with the Pan, was broke by the Violence of the Blows he 
received on the Head from M r Simpson. Cap* Lobb is capable of giving 
Your Lordship a Minute detail of this Affair, and I have ordered the 
Depositions, taken before Governor Dobbs and Myself of Two Midship- 
men belonging to the Viper, previous to M r Whitehurst's Death, with a 
Copy of the Inquest on his Body; the Commitment of Alexander 
Simpson, his Escape, proclamation for the reapprehending of him, with 
the Depositions in a Court of Law, taken, of the Manner of his Escape; 
All which proceedings, I have ordered to be fairly copied, and shall be 
transmitted to You as soon as possible; wherein I am satisfied, this 
Government will not be found by the Lords of Admiralty or Your 
Lordship, to have given the least Countenance to M r Simpson's Escape. 
As M r Simpson's Conduct appears to have been actuated by the most 
savage Principles of Revenge, I own I was very desirous of putting him 
on his Trial. He was severely wounded by a Shot that passed under One 
of his Shoulders and came out at his Arm. It is generally believed he 
was carried to Virginia, as it was imagined he was in too weak a state to 
be carried to Europe. I shall write to Lieu* Governor Fauquier 2 on this 

I am My Lord with great Respect &c. 

1 For a brief biographical note on Colville, see p. 31, n.4. 

2 Francis Fauquier (1704?-1768) was lieutenant governor of Virginia (1758-1768) when 
Sir Jeffrey Amherst was governor. It was Fauquier who dissolved the Virginia House of 
Burgesses when it passed Patrick Henry's resolutions on taxation (1765). Jeffrey 
Amherst, J. R. V. Daniel (eds.), A Hornbook of Virginia History (Richmond: Division of 
History, Virginia Department of Conservation and Development, 1949), 6, 7; Webster's 
Biographical Dictionary, 506. 


William Tryon pro co 5/299, Part 2, 

to" [Richard?] Hughes* pro co "S f 27 

[with enclosure] PRO ADM, 106/1140 

North Carolina 
Apl 24th 1765 


The Bearer Capt Parker of the Heron Ship will deliver to you three 
plank of forty five feet in length each, and three Inches thick. There is 
no charges but that of the Freight. The inclosed is some observations on 
the Pine &ca of this Part of the Continent. If you upon Trial find the 
Plank will answer well for flooring the Decks of His Majesties Capital 
Ships, a Bounty from Parliament equal to that on Gov Timber, might 
encourage the Exportation of Plank of the above length, to Great 

There are many Saw Mills in this Province, upwards of Thirty in 
Cape Fear River and its Branches, but they are framed to Cut Plank 
from twenty five, to thirty feet only in length. I shall Send another 
Sample of the same Plank to the Navy Board in London, and in the 
Mean time should be extremely glad to receive your Sentiments, and 
report on the Plank I send you, as I wish to see this Country Contribute 
every thing in her Power to the Benefit of the Mother Country. I am 
obliged to you Sir for the Civilities you Shewed Me at Portsmouth on 
my Embarkation for this Province. I beg to be remembered to Admiral 
Holbourn 2 and Mr. Commisor [Commissary?] of the Victualing Office. I 
had the happiness to Land all my family safe in this Country, a Province 
at this Present time inhabited by not so few as 120000 Souls White & 
Black and much the larger proportion White People. 

I am Sir your Most Obedt Servt 

Wm Tryon 

[Enclosure (in the hand of John Rutherfurd?)] 

North Carolina 

Ships built in America are now very commonly planked with yellow 
pine, and which is reckoned to last equally as long as English oak plank; 
and in South Carolina where they build very fine ships of live oak and 
cedar timbers, and yellow pine plank, they make no scruple of asserting 
that their ships are of equal value with ships built in the River Thames. 
Such ships will not however bear striking or touch ground as English 
built ships, neither is the yellow pine plank fit for large ships of war, 


because very apt to split or shiver; It will however do better than any 
furr for light Frigates, and exceeding well for large Men of Wars decks, 
not only on account of its durableness, and being easily worked, but also 
on account of its being to be had in plenty of great length in America, 
which is a vast advantage in ship building. 

The white pine is reckoned the best for Masts, on account of its 
toughness and lightness, for which reason many prefer them for planking 
Merchant mens decks. This kind of plank is not reckoned equal in 
goodness to the others for ships sides. 

The white pine grows to a vast height and bigness, and there is 
another sort known by the name of pitch pine; I have not learnt that the 
plank of this sort is in any esteem for ship work. 

I beg leave to mention a circumstance that happened in this port, not 
many years agoe [sic], when a dead whale had drove in with the tide. 
The Messrs Waldrons then pilots for this harbour, cut up the Whale, 
and filled a canoe with the Blubber. Tho the worms biles [bites?] 
excessively at Cape Fear, and nothing as was there thought could 
prevent them, yet Mr. Waldron assured me they would not touch that 
canoe that was soak'd through and through with the Blubber oil. 

[Added in Tryon's Hand:] 

N B These Remarks &c made by J Rutherfurd, Esqr Receiver Genl of 

the Quit Rents of this Province 

1 While this letter seems to have been intended for Richard Hughes, the commissioner, 
the reply of Hughes dated August 27, 1765, was signed by R. Hughes and copies have the 
signature Robert Hughes, which might have been a clerk's error. Sir Richard Hughes 
( 1729?-1812 ), naval officer stationed at the base of Portsmouth, England, succeeded to the 
baronetcy in 1781 and was an admiral at the time of his death. Hughes sent on to the Navy 
Board this letter and a covering letter dated June 22, 1765, with this comment: "The 
Inclosed Letter I have received from Colonel William Tryon, Lieutenant Governor of 
North Carolina, by a Ship of Mr. John Vinning Heron's [the Heron], just arrived at this 
Port, offering Three Planks of 3 ins thick, for an Experiment, cut out of the Yellow Pine, 
the product of that Country, (which he has order'd to be delivered to me, on Paying 
Freight)...." Dictionary of National Biography, XXVIII, 186; Saunders, Colonial Records, 
VII, 112-113. 

2 Francis Holburne (1704-1771) began his naval career in 1720 as a volunteer aboard 
the 5/. Albans. He held the post of commander in chief at Portsmouth for eight years 
(1757-1765) and was one of the lords of the admiralty for almost a year, 1770-1771. 
Dictionary of National Biography, XXVII, 112-113. 


Henry Eustace M c Culloh a&h-go, no 

to Tryon and the Council CRVI1 12 " 34 

April 25, 1765 

To the Honbl e Col. William Tryon Lieutenant Governor of 
His Majesty's Province of North Carolina &c&c and the 
Honble Members of His Majestys Council for the same. 

The Memorial of Henry Eustace M c Culloh. 

Humbly Sheweth: 

That on the 17 tn day of this Instant April, Your Memorialist receiv^ a 
Letter addressed to him by His Honour the Lieutenant Governor in the 
following Words — 


"Upon a Complaint being exhibited to me in Council on Oath by John 
Polk, on behalf of himself and others settled on the Lands of George 
Selwin Esq r in the Tract No. 3, I do by the Advice of His Majesty's 
Council desire you will desist from any Steps in Law to dispossess these 
People, 'till we meet at the General Assembly to be held at Newbern the 
2" of May next where I expect to see you; at which time I hope such 
Measures may be mediated, as will tend to the quieting the Minds of 
the Inhabitants, and securing the Peace of His Majesty's Province, 
without injury to the Proprietor of the said Land." 

That on the perusal thereof, Your Memorialist could not help 
observing with the utmost surprise and concern, that there had been 
Attempts made to prejudice him in the Opinion of this Honourable 
Board, in relation to his Conduct in the Management of the Trust 
repos'd in him by M r Selwin; and that too perhaps not altogether 
without effect, as Your Memorialist can hardly conceive, that this 
Honourable Board would have thought proper to have taken this, (as he 
most humbly submits it) extraordinary step, unless they had it in their 
Opinion, that he was intending to exercise whatsoever Power might be 
in his hands, in a manner repugnant to natural Equity; and to the Peace 
and Prosperity of the Province. But altho upon this occasion Your 
Memorialist finds himself under an absolute necessity of Insisting as 
well on behalf of himself, as of every other of his Majesty's subjects in 
this Province, (but at the same time with all due submission to Your 
Honours Superior Wisdom and Judgment) That this Honourable Board 
cannot have any Right, consistent with Law, to interfere in a summary 
manner in the decision or direction of disputes concerning private 
Property; Yet Your Memorialist is, and at all times will be ready to pay a 
chearful obedience to Your Honours desires (as far forth, as he can do it, 
consistent with the Principles of Law) and to that end shall most 


chearfully embrace the opportunity which is hereby afforded him, of 
submitting himself and his Conduct in Life to the impartial Examination 
of the Honourable Board, and of the Public; Happy in the assurance of 
His own Mind, that there requires nothing more than a plain summary 
of such his Conduct, to defeat every improper impression which could 
possibly have been made by the most artful Misrepresentations of his 
Enemies; and that when this Honorable Board and the Public have the 
facts before them, they will be convinced, it has been the principal 
Motive of Your Memorialist's whole exertions to deserve and obtain the 
sanction of an approving Conscience in the first place, and the good 
opinion of the worthy & Judicious part of Mankind in the next 

That from His Honor the Lieut^ Gov rs Letter before set forth, Your 
Memorialist is given to understand that there is a Complaint lodged by 
one Polk, whether against him or not, does not appear, but that he is the 
subject of it— remains no doubt: but Your Memorialist having never 
seen any Copy of the Complaint, and not having been able to learn the 
particulars thereof, (notwithstanding he has heard it is very Voluminous, 
and has made every enquiry in his power for that purpose) it cannot be 
expected that he should make answer thereto particularly: neither 
indeed does Your Memo rs ^ apprehend himself under any legal necessity 
of answering anything of this Nature before this Hon^^ e Board, further 
than with a submissive View of Manifesting his respect, and the desire 
he has to meet with Your Hon rs entire Approbation— Unconscious to 
himself from what part of His Conduct it is, that Your Memo s ^ is to have 
Accusations or reflections formed against him, he most humbly begs 
Your Hon rs Indulgence to lay the whole before you; and if from the 
Nature of the subject, he should be drawn in to make this Memorial of 
any considerable length, he flatters himself from the importance of the 
subject (it being in the defence of the dearest Good which any Man can 
possess,— his Character) will with Your Honours most sufficiently plead 
his excuse, and engage your impartial attention. 

That Your Memoes Father and several others in the Year 1737, 
Obtained an Order in Council from His late Majesty King George the 
second, for a large Grant of Lands in the frontier, and then unsettled 
parts of this Province; and in consequence thereof, sundry Grants were 
issued under the Seal of this Province to him and to his associates, (of 
whom the present M r Selwyns Father was one) which Grants bear Date 
the 3" day of March 1745 (0 S) and are now on record in the Secretarys 
Office. That on or about the Year 1747 when Your Memoes Father was 
about to leave this Province, Your Memo s ^ has been informed that he 
published advertisements, declaring that any Person who should settle 
on any part of his Lands within two Years from that time, and take up 
their places contiguous, should have the Land at 5£ Sterling the 
hundred acres ready Money. That Your Memo s ^ mentions this fact from 
memory of a Conversation passing between his said Father and himself 


on the subject; as he never saw the said Advertisement, or could ever 
meet with any Person who could give the least certain or intelligible 
account thereof; and therefore insists that such was the Tenor of the 
said advertisement.— Your Memo ts Father soon after going to England 
and being engaged in sundry disputes with the late Right Honbl e Jq]^ 
Earl Granville concerning the said Lands, they in a manner lay dormant 
for many Years, that is to say from the Year 1745 to the Year 1755, 
when the said Earl and Your Memoes said Father coming to an 
agreement, Your Memoes Father constituted the Hon^ e Alexander 
M c Culloh Esq n and John Campbell Esq: 2 together with some Gentle- 
men in Charles Town, his Attorneys to manage his Concerns in this 
Country. That Matters continuing in much confusion, occasioned by the 
Misrepresentations of the Title which were continually instilled into the 
Minds of the People seated on the Lands, by designing persons who 
might, propose to themselves some view of sharing in the Spoils of Your 
Memoes Father's said Property, could they by spreading disgust 
between him and the People, finally oppress him out of his Right,— 
Your Memoes Father's said Attorneys (notwithstanding their most 
friendly and Zealous exertions) found themselves unable to advantage 
his Concerns in the manner they could have wished, and gave him 
notice thereof; Upon which he in the Year 1761 thought proper to send 
over Your Memo s ^ with full Powers to Act for him. 

That upon Your Memoes arrival in a strange Country, Young in Life, 
Knowledge, and Experience, and totally unacquainted with the real 
circumstances of his Fathers affairs (having everything to apprehend 
from the Underhand designs of his Fathers Enemies; having scenes of 
Business to enter upon, which had been ever perplexed and confused, 
and a multitude of People to deal with of different dispositions tempers, 
and capacities (for in an open Property free for every one, such as your 
Memo ts Fathers, he submits there was the greatest probability that it 
would in many parts be seated by persons desperate in Circumstances, 
Character and Knowledge) Your Memo s ^ concluded within himself to 
lay down a few settled Rules for his conduct and after he had squared 
those Rules according to the best light of his reason and Conscience, 
most steadily and invariably to pursue them. 

That accordingly in a few Months after his arrival, Your Memo s ^ 
went up to his Fathers Lands in Rowan County, the settlers of which 
had not long before that, been instigated to some very illegal acts of 
opposition; That Your Memo s ^ calling them together laid his Terms 
before them, the general substance of which were as follows; — That his 
Price was from £12 to £5 sterling a hundred acres, according to the 
Quality of the Land; and that every Man should have the refusal of his 
place without the least Charge or advance for situation or Improvement. 
(And upon this head your Memorialist most humbly begs Your Honours 
Indulgence to make an observation, that could Your Memo st or His 


Father have reconciled it to their way of thinking, they might have 
made many Thousands more out of their Property than they have done, 
as the Law gave them as indefeazible and undoubted a right to the 
Improvement as it did to the soil: and further that the Value of the 
Improvements on their Lands much exceeded the Value of the soil.) To 
go on, — Upon hearing these Terms, some of the settlers observed to 
Your Memo st upon such his Fathers Advertisement, upon which Your 
Memorialist made answer, that altho he was a stranger to the existence 
of any such advertisement, yet he would readily agree to let them have 
the Lands upon the Terms thereof: which Your Memorialist might well 
have done as it would have amounted to much more than the Price he 
demanded: For as Your Memorialist then observed to those settlers, 
and now begs leave to submit to Your Honours cool reflection,— 
Supposing the advertisement to direct the Terms of the sale, the Party 
settling and purchasing could not have expected otherwise than to have 
paid the Quit Rents from the time of such settlement and Purchase; and 
the Party selling and receiving the Money would certainly from that 
time to this, have enjoyed at least the Legal benefit of its use: That 
Interest is what the Laws of all well regulated societies allow in lieu of 
the use or advantage of a ready receipt of Money, and is consistent with 
the more tender Principles of Natural Equity; and that if your Memoes 
Father was to Abide by such his agreement, it must be taken in toto as 
well for him as against him, and consequently the Quit Rents of the 
Lands, and the Interest of the Purchase Money became instantly his 
absolute Right. — This plain Deduction of reasoning they could not but 
be immediately sensible of, and accordingly finding (as the truth is) that 
the Price demanded by your Memorialist at an average £8-10-0 Sterling 
[per] hundred was not much more than equal to one half of what the 
Terms Under Your Memorialists Fathers said Advertisement would 
Amount to, they universally and most Cheerfully complied with such 
Your Memorialists Terms; in which Conduct they have been since 
imitated by all the several different settlements on Your Memoes 
Fathers Lands. 

That in Consequence of this happy situation of affairs between Your 
Memorialist and his Fathers Tenants, he proceded to lay off their 
several Plantations, in doing of which Your Memo s ^ even suffered them 
to direct the Compass, and hardly ever interfered, except to determine 
such disputes as might arise between Neighbors concerning their Lines 
when they could not be prevailed upon by his pressing Recommenda- 
tions to settle the Matter (as he always wished they would do) between 
themselves. That it is now going on four Years since Your Memorialist 
has been most Assiduously employed in those Affairs, during which 
time Your Memorialist has laid off and disposed of the whole of his 
Fathers Tract to the Westward, to the Persons Seated thereon and 
others and given Titles for the same. And Your Memorialist here most 


humbly begs leave to observe to this Hono^ Board, that it has ever 
been the boast of his own Mind, that in the Management of a Concern, 
so extensive in itself, so various in its Circumstances, and depending 
upon so many different Parties, he never had the least dispute or 
difference with any one, or occasion to Commence any but one single 
suit against one Sheppard, 3 who had put his Fathers Title to defiance, 
and whom nevertheless Your Memorialist afterwards upon his sub- 
mission forgave, and let him have his place without any advance. That 
Your Memorialist humbly insists the means he made use of to accom- 
plish his Business in this much to be desired way, was to endeavour to 
do equal Justice to all; to grant every indulgence of time which honest 
poverty could ask, and never to add to the distresses of the unfortunate 
by a rigorous demand of the performance of their Contracts. That in the 
whole of your Memoes proceedings he ever gave the refusal of the place 
to the Party seated on it, without any Charge for the improvement 
(except in a Manner which by Your Memoes Father express Orders 
had been laid out for him on the Yadkin River, several Years before 
Your Memorialists came into the Province) That in so doing he had 
often disposed of Places for £30 or £40 the Improvement of which many 
Years before had sold from One to Two Hundred Pistoles; That 
throughout all the Tracts which he has had the Management of, the 
Number of Persons who have declined purchasing their Places is 
altogether trifling, the settlers having almost to a Man very chearfully 
accepted of the Terms; which Your Memo s ^ must submit is a strong 
proof of their having been reasonable and agreeable to the settlers, and 
happily calculated for the Ease and Advantage of the poorer sort of his 
Tenants; which Your Memo s ^ flatters himself he has great reason to 
insist they were, as he never made the least difference between those 
who had Money to pay for their Places, and those who had none. And 
Your Memo st begs leave to observe, that tho in the course of such a 
Concern it may necessarily be imagined that he must have received 
Bonds from the People, to the amount of several Thousand Pounds, and 
that many of them must have much overrun the time of payment, Yet 
he submits to Your Honour, that he never suffered his necessities to 
influence him to bring so much as a single suit upon them. 

Such may it please Your Honour, Your Memorialist insists has been 
his Conduct in the Management of his Fathers Property. He will not 
now subjoin those Observations which he submits naturally arise from 
the facts but defer them to the close of this Memorial, and shall now 
proceed to the Occasion thereof, his Behaviour as it relates to the 
discharge of the trust imposed in him by M r Selwyn. 

As your Memorialist before observed M r Selwyn's Father was one of 
the Original Associates; that part of the Lands which fell to his share lay 
under much the same circumstances as Your Memoes Fathers, 'till 
sometime in or about the Year 1757 when the present M r Selwyn 


impowered the Hon^^ e Richard Speight Esq 1 " 4 deceased, & the Hon^ 
Alexander M c Culloh to act for him, who on account of the disturbance 
occasioned by the Indian war, found themselves unable to render him 
any service. That soon after the Death of M r Speight it was mentioned 
to your Memo s t to accept of a power to act for M r Selwyn which he then 
declined, being well acquainted with the many disagreeable scenes, and 
heavy exertions both of Mind and Body that would attend the just 
discharge of a Trust of that Nature; But Your Memorialist's Father 
afterwards observing that there was some Intercourse of Business 
depending between M r Selwyn and him, and apprehending it might be 
of service to M r Selwyn to have his affairs in your Memorialists Hands, 
unknown to your Memo s ^ undertook for him (Your Memo s ^) to M r 
Selwyn who thereupon appointed Your Memoes Father and Your 
Memo s t his joint and separate Attorneys for the managem 11 ^ of His 
Interest in this Country; which Power of Attorney he received in May 
last and had immediately recorded in the Secretary's Office. 

That upon Your Memo s ^ receiving the said power and agreeing to 
Act under it, he took upon himself as bound in Honour and Conscience 
to act for M r Selwyn 's Interest, in the same manner and with the same 
Zeal he had done for His Fathers, and being well acquainted with the 
unsettled and Arbitrary Notions of the Persons who had seated them- 
selves down upon M r Selwyn's Lands, he expected to meet with much 
Trouble in the Discharge of the said Trust; which he might reasonably 
imagine might be the Case when he reflected upon the injurious & 
contumelious Treatment His late Excellency had met with in the same 
Parts, and upon a similar occasion.— That Your Memo s ^ therefore in 
order to prepare matters for an amicable Settlement of Affairs in the 
Months of June, July & August last, undertook a Journey to those Lands 
which lie in Mecklenburgh County, for the purposes aforesaid, and for 
the purpose of running the Outlines of the Tract No 4 adjoining to M r 
Selwyns wherein Your Memo st holds a considerable quantity of Land 
in his own Right. 

That upon Your Memo s ^ arrival, he was given to understand that 
many of the Settlers upon M r Selwyns Lands and the late Governors 
intended to hold to the South (as they termed it) and oppose their 
running any Lines; giving out at the same time the greatest threats 
against his Life and Person;— That Your Memo s ^ nevertheless pro- 
ceded to run the said Boundary Lines, accompanied with a number of 
his Friends Armed, which he did unmolested, altho he had been well 
informed and believes that the said persons had a meeting that day to 
execute their designs, but upon further consideration thought proper to 
drop them. 

That a very large number of these South Men residing on M r 
Selwyn's Lands, Your Memo st dread arose altogether from them , as the 
other Settlers seemed very well disposed— That Your Memorialist 


considering it would be extremely burdensome to him to make his 
Terms known to every individual in the Tract, recommended it to the 
Settlers to have a meeting and to choose and Authorize 4 Persons to 
meet and treat with him on the Subject; that accordingly they did so; 
and in a day or two after, Your Memo s ^ met those Persons, whose 
Names were, James Norris, Thomas Polk, 5 James Flannagin, & George 
Allen, with whom Your Memo s ^ had a long Conference, the result of 
which was, that they thought his Terms just and reasonable, and that 
the People might be well satisfied therewith: and upon their desire, that 
he would give the substance of them in Writing, Your Memo s ^ drew up 
and signed a Paper containing his said Terms Copies of which he 
delivered to each of them & which is in the following words 

"Terms Offered to the Settlers on M r Selwyn's Lands by Henry 
"Eustace M c Culloh as Attorney for the said Selwyn. 

First "Every Person settled shall have the first Refusal of his place 
without being liable to any Charge for Situation or Improvement; or the 
risk of losing the same by reason of any greater Offers, provided he is 
willing to satisfy the Proprietor for the same as Wood Land, according 
to the Valuation to be fixed thereon. 

Such as may not be able to pay down the Purchase Money, shall have 
every reasonable indulgence of Time granted for that purpose; So that 
poor and Rich shall stand one equal Chance to secure their Labour and 
their Hopes. 

Such as may repent of any Agreements which they may enter into 
with me, within 3 Years shall have an absolute Right to demand from 
me, a Cancelling of the same and a return not only of the Principal, but 
the Use or Interest of their Money in full: which may convince any Man 
of the least Reason, that he cannot with me possibly make a bad 
Bargain as he may at any time within 3 Years take which end of it he 
pleases.— This I flatter myself must Absolutely stop the Mouth of 

To do equal Justice to all, the Lands shall be sold ad Valorem, that is 
according to Value, the price of the best £12 Sterling [per] hundred, and 
the meanest £8 (N B Your Memo s ^ afterwards offered to reduce the last 
to £5 and so in proportion according to Quality.) Circumstances of Time, 
Expences, and the real Value of equal Lands considered, I must insist 
that the Regard which the Proprietor shews to the supreme Law of 
Natural Conscience and Equity, has induced him to part with his Lands 
for one third the real, Intrinsic and inherent Value thereof, for this I 
appeal to facts and the reflection and recollection of the Gentlem 11 
whom the People Elected to meet and settle the Terms with me. 

Provided no Injury is thereby offered to any Neighbouring Lands or 
Plantations, the places shall be run to the greatest advantage as to 
Wood, Water, and Soil without regard to Courses or Corners. 


I do not propose to sell less than 200 Acres and no Man I think would 
wish it otherwise; but where the particular situation of the Places make 
it reasonable that I should do so, I have it in my will as well as in my 
Power to do otherwise. 

Such as stand Ejectments, have no favour to expect. Quit Rents shall 
only be demanded from the time they were actually paid out of Pocket 
by the Proprietor; that is from the 25™ of March 1760— And where the 
Party has not been so long in Possession from the Time of such 
Possession only. 

The Title Deeds may be agreed upon by the People and shall meet 
my Acceptance. 

I shall not look upon myself as absolutely bound to anything in this 
Paper, so as to prevent my being grateful to my Friends and just to my 

No Persons are to settle upon any part of the Lands from this Day. 

These are in general the substance of what passed in Conversation, 
and seemed reasonable and Equitable to Mess rs Polk, Norris, Flannagin, 
& George Allen, the Gentlemen whom the Settlers chose to meet and 
consult me on this head— Such as they are, the people may depend 
upon my Resolution to support them, and to vindicate the Rights of my 
Employer. Conscious as I am of their extream Lennity and that sacrifice 
of Interest which is offered to insure a favourable acceptance of them 
from the People, I must, and do hope, and insist, that I shall meet with 
that return from them which I may deserve: and they may depend upon 
finding me in every Instance, the thing I profess —Compassionate to the 
Poor, fond of my Friends— and not willing to remain indebted to my 

In January I shall return to lay off the Lands. 

These May it please Your Hon rs are the Terms at large, which Your 
Memo st as Attorney for M r Selwyn offered to the Persons seated on his 
Lands: And altho Your Memo st intends to defer his observation to the 
close of his Memorial, yet he cannot here refrain from humbly de- 
manding the opinion of this Hon D ^ e Board and of the Public— Whether 
these Terms indicate oppression, hardness of Heart, or want of 
Compassion to the poor? Whether consistent with the least pretensions 
to Honour, Conscience, or the sacred Nature of a Trust, he should have 
offered M r Selwyns Property of equal Value with Your Memo st Father's 
Property, for a lesser Price. 

To go on with the narrative of Your Memo st Behaviour, he is to 
observe to your Hon rs that after having laid these Terms before the 
People he proceeded down the Country, with an assurance of having 
removed every dread of opposition, and with an intention of returning 
to lay off the Lands at the time appointed; and that accordingly in 
February last he came up into these parts with that design, not at all 
imagining he should meet with the least opposition from the Settlers. 


And altho Your Memo st was given to understand on his coming up, that 
several of them had combined together to oppose him yet he did not pay 
the least regard to any such Informations, till upon his coming upon the 
4th day of last March to his Lands in Rocky River, he was informed that 
there had been that day between 30 & 40 of the Settlers on M r 
Selwyn's Lands there, with a design to oppose his coming upon the 
Tract. That your Memo s ^ unknowing how he could have given them 
cause for offence, and steadily determined not to give up the Cause of 
his Employer, on the next day proceeded to the house of Captain 
Abraham Alexander 6 on Shugaw Creek (one of the Settlers on M r 
Selwyn's Lands) where he found 150 Persons assembled as near as he 
could judge: That some little time after his arrival, Your Memo s ^ called 
in the People and produced to them Copies of M r Selwyn's Patents 
taken from the Records in the Secretary s Office, and duly Certified:— That 
warm & labouring under a sense of their ill return to his kind intentions 
to them being then well acquainted with their having joined themselves 
together in an illegal Bond, under the forfeiture of all they possessed in 
the World, to oppose M r Selwyn's Right, and provoked at their then 
manifest designs of endeavouring to terrify Your Memo st into dis- 
honourable Concessions, he readily owns he did without much cere- 
mony lay the folly and consequences of such their intentions before 
them, and that he did declare in the solemn Name of God, that in case 
they persisted in them they should from him never meet with for- 
giveness. That they thereupon told him they would take some time to 
consider of what had been said; and in about an hours time upon Your 
Memo^ s going out among them, they came up and surrounded him and 
made him an offer of £10 Proc a Hundred, which Your Memo st rejected 
with becoming Warmth, as such their Offer was made with the utmost 
insolence, and the most manifest designs of terrifying his Resolutions 
and was accompanied with the most contemptuous expressions of 
defiance;— that they continuing to press upon, Your Memorialist alone 
among them, he solemnly declared it was his then opinion they had a 
design upon his Person; that these people at the same time gave Your 
Memo s t a Paper for his Perusal, which he then thought it prudent to 
return them and never afterwards could get a Copy of it, tho he well 
recollects that the substance thereof, was as follows— That the People 
to the number of 143 had joined together not to suffer him to act for M r 
Selwyn unless he would agree to let them have the Land from £10 to 
£12 Proc: [per] hundred —that if Your Memo st would not agree to those 
Terms they would not permit him to survey or suffer any Sheriff or 
other Officer to serve any process on them on behalf of M r Selwyn. Your 
Memo st justly irritated, at this Treatment and declaration, and the 
insolent Language with which he was used (they continually gathering 
round him and talking to him in the most insulting manner) Your 
Memo st does allow, that he did endeavour to manifest the steadiness of 


his purpose, by repeated and proper declarations of his Resolutions to 
survey the next day; on which declaration some of them had the 
insolence to defy Your Memo st in the most affecting manner, and 
others to tell him by way of friendly advice (as they insultingly 
pretended) not to try, for that if he did, the best usage he should expect 
to meet with, would be to be tied Neck and heels and be carried over the 
Yadkin, and that he might think himself happy if he got off so. Your 
Memo st continuing still firm in his Intentions, told them the Hour and 
Place he intended to survey at the next day, and they departed 
declaring they would keep a Guard over him to watch him all the while 
he stayed, and that he never should; and dropping Expressions which 
would have given the justest apprehensions to any Man to fear for the 
safety of his Life.— Distressfully situated as Your Memo st was, he was 
yet firmly resolved to abide the Issue of the next day— as he was 
sensible to retreat was to sacrifice every hope of success, and perhaps 
for many Years to deprive M r Selwyn of the benefits of his Property. 

The next day being Wednesday the 6 tn of March on Your Memo sts 
rising in the Morning the first sight he saw was two of the Persons who 
had been there the day before ) sitting upon the Fence with Guns in their 
hands, and by Nine °Clock Your Memo s ^ apprehends there might be 
near a hundred of them gathered together.— At that time Your Memo st 
declares that he little suspected that the present head and Chief of these 
People, (Thomas Polk) was one of their number, as he had ever 
endeavoured to distinguish him, and had no longer than the day before 
given him assurances that he should meet with every favour from him 
that he could reasonably ask, but that in a Conversation had between 
Your Memo st and the said Polk on Wednesday Morning, Your Memo st 
found out he had been deceived in him, and upon his declaring so, the 
said Polk answered that Your Memo st might depend upon it neither he 
nor the People would ever suffer any Sheriff or other Officer, to serve 
any precepts upon them on M r Selwyns behalf; or permit Your Memo st 
to run out any of the Land, not even for persons who were desirous 
to agree to the Terms & purchase from M r Selwyn.— Amazed at such 
a Conduct from a person Your Memo st little expected it from, and 
fixed in his opinion that there was the greatest probability of their 
design to injure either his Life or Person, Your Memo st does with 
concern acknowlege, that in a Moment when he was not himself, the 
said Polk by his taunting Language and insolent Behaviour, provoked 
Your Memo st into a single expression concerning His late Excellency 
Governor Dobbs, which he is fully sensible nothing but a consideration 
of his then distressing situation, and feelings, and of his subsequent 
Behaviour, could possibly excuse, and which has ever given him a 
proper concern. At sundry times when Your Memo st was surrounded 
by these People they put several questions to him about the surveying 
and other things, but Your Memo st confesses that full of the sense of 


their injurious Treatment, and determined to the uttermost not to Yield 
to the meanest of all Motives (the Law of brutal force) Your Memo st 
told them his body was in their power, his Will in his own, that they 
might tear him Limb from Limb but should not compel him to hold any 
Converse with persons who behaved to him more like Wolves than 
rational Beings; and Your Memo st does not recollect that he made use 
of any other expression of aggravation to them, except the Above, & 
now and then telling them (what he thought) that they were a parcel of 
Blockheads; all which a Consideration of Your Memo s ^ most singular 
situation, he flatters himself will sufficiently excuse.— At the hour 
appointed Your Memo st proceeded to the Plantation of M r James Norris 
(who came to him and expressed his desire to have the same laid out) 
accompanied by the said Polk and large of 100 more of his Gang many 
of whom were Armed with Guns— who incompassed Your Memo s ^ in a 
most ignominious and taunting manner; and among other pieces of 
Insolence some of them asked Your Memo s ^ whether he had not great 
honour done him, and whether he thought he would have as many Men 
attend him to his Grave or not? and whether that day was to have been 
the last of his Life or not, Your Memo s ^ most solemnly declares before 
God he was for many hours uncertain.— Please Your Hon rs but for a 
moment suppose Yourselves in Your Memo s ^ then situation, and judge 
for him of the Treatment he has receiv'd from these People who 
represented themselves as fit objects of Your Hon rs Compassion & 
interposition!— When all came to the Place where M r Norris chose to 
make his beginning, Your Memo s ^ asked him whether he was willing to 
have his place surveyed for him by Your Memo s ^ as Attorney for M r 
Selwyn? to which he replied in the Affirmative, and told the people that 
he wanted none of their interposition: Upon this Your Memo s ^ turned to 
them, and asked by what Authority they pretended to hinder him? they 
replied they would not then tell him:— Your Memo s ^ then demanded 
whether it arose from any doubts of M r Selwyns Rights, or his Power to 
Act for him? to this Sundry s answered, without any Contradiction from 
the rest, that they did not deny either M r Selwyn's Right, or Your 
Memo s t Power to Act for him : Your Memo^ Surveyor then proceeding 
to fix his Compass and the Chain Carriers having the Chain in their 
hands,— M r Polk's People— gathered tumultously round them, and 
notwithstanding Your Memo^ made a solemn and a legal Proclamation 
in the Majesty's sacred Name to disperse the Riot, they paid no regard 
thereto, but contemptuously seized and broke the Surveying Chain in 
several pieces;— And Tom Polk (as Your Memo s ^ is well informed and 
believes, for tho Your Memo s ^ was within 4 foot, the Press was so great 
he could not plainly distinguish) with his own hands took the Compass 
off the Staff. After this was done, and Your Memo st found that to persist 
would be to no other purpose than to incur the greatest risk of losing his 
Life— the said Polk in the Name of the whole made Your Memo st a 


proposal of £15 Proc a Hundred, in a general manner, and whether in 
earnest or with a View to try Your Memo st he cannot say. In Answer 
thereto Your Memo st gave them no ill Language at all, but only told 
them, the day might come when they should repent of what they had 
done; that it was true his Life was in their power, and that they might 
take it before he would be guilty of the meanness of entering into any 
Treaty. Upon which Polk told him that they would wait his Answer; 
which Your Memo s ^ agreed to give them in Writings; and accordingly 
the next day when his Recollection had in some measure got the better 
of his just resentment he wrote to the said Polk as follows 

In Compliance to the Word I gave Yesterday to you as Leader and 
Spokesman of that unthinking Multitude who have by the most daring 
opposition to the Laws of this Country, subjected themselves to certain 
ruin, I am to inform You, and thro' you them, that I shall not comply 
with the Terms you dictated." [The next eight MS pages of this 
document are missing.— Editor.] daring breach of the Peace of His 
Majesty's Government, endeavored to awe and terrify one of his 
subjects, at the dread of his Life, to dispose of his property at such a rate 
as they thought proper to dictate. Sure, may it please this Honorable 
Board, such Proceedings cannot justly demand the powerful Inter- 
position of the Chief supporters of His Majestys Peace and Government 
in this Province. What hardships what Injuries have offered them? 
What toils do they dread that they have most deliberately brought upon 
themselves by their unlawful Conduct? 

There are some particular Circumstances in the Conduct of the said 
Mr. Polk, which your Memo s ^ apprehends are worthy of being observed 
upon; being the only Man who has any pretence to sense or weight 
among these deluded People, your Memo s ^ has been creditably in- 
formed, that if he had not declared himself for them the second day they 
would have submitted; and Your Memo s ^ asserts that he is the sole 
apparent Cause of the Opposition M r Selwyn meets with in his just 
Rights. Another Circumstance of his private Behaviour justly indicates 
his Principals of Action.— Sometime ago under the most solemn 
assurances of returning it, he obtained from a Friend of Your Memo s ^ 
the liberty of Perusing M r Selwyn 's Original Power to Your Memo s ^ 
and having in that manner got it into his hands refuses now, in Breach of 
every sacred Right of Trust and Honour, to deliver up Altho Your 
Memo sts Right thereto is undoubted; But Your Memo st makes no doubt 
he will receive it in Command from this Honourable Board so to do, And 
Your Memo st submits this fact to Your Honours reflection as a proof of 
the unjust and abhorent means which are made use of against him. 

Another fact which marks the Spirit with which these People are 
Actuated is, that on Your Memo st having subpoened some indifferent 
persons to attend and give Evidence on His Majestys Behalf before the 


Grand Jury, they publicly declared that if they offered to pay Obedience 
thereto, they would tie them; and further that if any of their Associates 
should be put in Salisbury Jail, they would come with an Armed force 
and tear the Prison down, and loose them; and tho' Occasion was not 
given them to execute such their avowed purpose, they thought proper 
to serve the several Persons Subpoened as above with a Written Paper, 
discharging them from giving their Attendance in Obedience to such 
His Majestys Precept, and containing several implied Threats against 
them if they did not pay a due regard to such their superior Authority. 

Your Memo st having thus gone thro' the Chief facts of his Conduct, 
shall beg Your Honours further Indulgence to add a few general 
Reflections which seem to arrise from the Nature of the Subject; tho he 
most humbly insists that nothing more is requisite to Vindicate his 
Behaviour from every aspersion of Injustice, or want of Consideration, 
than a Naked View of facts and things. He flatters himself that it will 
appear to this Hon" 3 ^ Board and the Public, that he has ever endeavored 
to act upon the strictest Rules of Honour and Conscience; that he has 
made a sacrifice to his own feelings, of many Thousand Pounds worth 
of a Property, which the Law absolutely vested in him; that he has ever 
acted so as to put in the Power of the poorest Man upon his Lands, to 
secure his place as well as the richest, Never paying any regard to 
Offers of ready Money ; that he has never suffered his own pressing calls 
for Money to urge him to demand a rigorous performance of the peoples 
Contracts; that the Price fixed upon his Lands was far under the real 
and Intrinsic Value thereof, as is evident from a Comparison of it with 
the Price which Property of equal Quality and situation is selling at now; 
that he ever declared and hereby declares, that if any Person whom- 
soever, with whom he ever had any Dealings or agreements, conceived 
or conceives himself aggrieved or dissatisfied, he was, is and ever will 
be ready to return the Money and take back the Land. That proceeding 
upon these principals Your Memo s ^ has ever conceived himself happy 
in the Universally favourable acceptance of his Conduct by every 
person with whom he has had dealings.— That in relation to his Conduct 
in the Execution of the Trust reposed in him by M r Selwyn he hopes it 
is such, that upon the strictest examination will do him honour with 
every thinking Man: For his own part Your Memo s ^ is at a Loss to 
Judge what other Conduct was left him to pursue; unless he had tamely 
given up and betrayed the just and Conscientious Interests of a person 
who had put a Trust in his hands; and unless he had meanly submitted 
himself to be terrified into Concessions by the Brutal Law of force: 
which alternatives he flatters himself no Man will hesitate to pronounce 
him right in despising. 

Your Memo s t submits that it must strike Your Honours, that the 
Terms proposed to M r Selwyn's Tenants were most Conscientiously 
just: and far more favourable than those which had been received with 


the utmost Chearfulness by the settlers on his Fathers several large 
Tracts. That he cannot conceive the particular Circumstances that 
make them Injustice to the People alone— That as to their being 
obliged to leave the Province, in case they find they cannot succeed in 
their designs to force the Proprietor to submit to their determinations, 
Your Memo st conceives it mere matter of Exaggeration; as he asserts 
that it would not (most probably) have been the Case, as his intention 
was to have contented himself with making Examples of some of the 
Ringleaders. But granting for argument sake, that their illegal and 
insolent Behaviour should produce that Effect, Your Memorialist owns 
he is at a loss to conceive, how the prosperity of the Province would be 
affected by the removal of a few Men, who have by their actions plainly 
declared themselves above the Power of the Laws of their Country, 
further than as it might suit their Conveniency, and who for many Years 
past, taking advantage of the disputes subsisting between this Province 
and South Carolina, have refused paying obedience to the Laws, or 
contributing to the support of the Government of either. Your Memo s ^ 
rather insists it would be an advantage to this part of the Province, as 
thereby that Leaven of Riot and opposition to Law which has so long 
subsisted here, would be removed; and the places of these factious 
persons supplied by honest quiet and industrious Families from the 
Northward. And should the Effect of a few of them removing take place, 
Your Memo s t engages there will not be one Vacancy the more in 
eighteen months time; and this every Man who knows the state of this 
part of the Country, and is acquainted with the present Migrations from 
the Northward, must be sensible of —so that your Memo s ^ Insists that 
this Evil so dreadful in its appearances (a Consideration of which he 
apprehends has been the Cause which chiefly moved Your Honours to 
interpose in these matters) on examination appears to be matter of 
Declamation and no more. 

Your Memo st humbly begs Your Honours seriously to reflect upon 
the Behaviour of these People, and to Contrast it with his Conduct on 
this occasion— Will it not thereupon appear manifest to this Honorable 
Board, That these people without having received the possibility of 
umbrage from Your Memo s ^ (as will appear from his never having had 
any Connections in Business with them) without having the least just 
Objection to the Terms offered them, associated themselves together 
under heavy Penalties to trample upon the Laws of their Country, and 
to oppose Your Memo s ^ in the just prosecution of an acknowledged 
Right? That by every appearance of force and terrifying measures in 
Contempt of the Peace of the Country, and in Total subversion of that 
quiet Enjoyment and use of Property, which the Wisdom of our Laws 
has provided for such Persons as appear justly entitled to that Property, 
they actually endeavoured to force Your Memo st to dispose of such his 
Property against his Will, and at the risk of the forfeiture of his Life if he 


refused a compliance with their Terms? Has not Your Memo st by this 
their Conduct been deprived of that freedom of action in the disposal of 
his property, which the meanest of His Majesty's subjects under our 
thrice happy constitution has an undoubted Right to? Was not Your 
Memo st at the same time engaged in the Lawful and Conscientious 
prosecution of a just Right? Were not his Terms such as might have 
reasonably given him Cause to expect a very contrary Behaviour from 
those People? Has he not been insulted, surrounded threatened and put 
in Manifest fear of his Life by those very Persons who have represented 
themselves to Your Honours as subjects of his oppression?— And 
injured as he was, has not Your Memo s ^ throughout the whole 
transaction, manifested the most Compassionate sense of their Errors, 
the most forgiving frame of Mind— Though Your Memo st declares, if 
there is anything he never can forgive, it is the unmerited attack which 
may have been made upon his character. 

And here Your Memo s ^ begs leave to submit it to Your Honours as a 
Matter worthy of Your serious consideration, to reflect upon the un- 
generous construction which these Deluded People put upon his Letter 
before set forth, wherein he offered to forget all that had passed; which 
construction was, that he (Your Memo s ^) would never have made them 
that offer; if he had not been Conscious to himself that the Title was not 
good. With Men thus acting, thus viewing every thing thro the false 
medium of their own deluded Opinions, How is your Memo s ^ to act? It 
plainly appears that to offer Terms to them, is only to provoke Insolence 
and Contempt, and strengthen the hands of infatuated Opposition. 

Your Memo s t is sensible he has great reason to ask the Indulgence of 
this Honorable Board for the Length of this Memorial; and he flatters 
himself he shall the readier meet with it, as the pains he has taken to set 
matters in a fair and full light before Your Honours and the Public, 
cannot but arise from the most submissive and warm desire of Obviating 
every Prejudice which may have taken place from the Misrepresenta- 
tions of his Enemies, and to secure to himself the favourable Opinion of 
this Hon°l e Board, and of the public. 

Characters may it please Your Honours are sacred things and it is 
with pain Your Memo st is forced to observe, That it seems in the power 
of Persons appearing under the most suspicious circumstances of 
Malice and Interest, to bring them in Question. Your Memo st had it 
once in his Intention to have enlarged much on this Reflection, but as he 
apprehends it is a consideration which every man may put home to his 
own Breast, he shall decline it, further than to observe, That if it is to be 
laid down as a Rule, that any Man may with Impunity make attacks 
upon Characters, in the Nature or by way of Complaint or Deposition 
before this Honorable Board and is allowed therein to rake out every 
irrelative Error of a Mans Life, he fears there is no Person whatsoever 
who can hope ever to escape safe and untouched by the Fangs of 


Malice; and further that every Man whose good Name is dear to him 
must with your Memo s * reflect with pain upon such a Prospect. 

For his own part Your Memo st humbly insists that it has ever been 
the first view of all his Actions, to merit and obtain the Good Opinion of 
the worthy and Judicious part of Mankind, and that too from the justest 
cause, a strict Regard, and adherence to the Rules of Honour and 
Conscience in his Proceedings: That when Your Memo s ^ considers 
himself in that Light, and thinks that he may safely put the Malice of 
the World to Defiance to prove a deliberate Instance wherein he has 
acted contrary to the Principles he professes, he owns he cannot but 
most sensibly feel the most distant apprehension of any attack which 
may have been made upon him: Though he is convinced that when this 
Honorable Board come seriously to consider the facts before them, he 
shall by their favorable opinion of his conduct, be amply recompensed 
for any uneasiness which may have been given him by reason of any 
such attack. Your Memo st does not insist upon any circumstances of his 
situation in Life, as Aggravations of the fault of these People, Though 
when he reflects upon the Honour he enjoys of being a Member of this 
Board, he cannot but think himself in some measure more particularly 
entitled to Your Honours Vindication of his conduct, in case you shall 
see it in a favourable Light. 

It will naturally suggest itself to Your Honours, that your Memo st 
(being far from the place of his Residence and very much straitened in 
point of time) has not had the opportunities of making this Representa- 
tion so perfect as he could have wished. The facts alone he all along 
submits, are sufficient to do him all the Justice as to the Opinion of the 
World, he deserves; and as to the Authenticity of those facts, Your 
Memo s t begs leave to assure this Honorable Board, that he has not 
advanced anything in this his Memorial, which according to the best of 
his present Knowledge and Remembrance he would not willingly give 
Testimony to in the most Solemn manner. And on this head Your 
Memo st further Observes, that it is with the most heartfelt pleasure he 
is able to assure Your Honours, he makes no doubt he could procure 
almost every Man with whom he ever had dealings to testify the 
Uprightness of the Principles upon which he proceeded; the Lenity of 
his Behaviour, and the favourable character he bears among those who 
have had any connections in Business with him. Your Memo s ^ insists if 
necessary and time was afforded him he could procure the Depositions 
of large, of a Thousand Persons to this purpose: And altho Your 
Memo s t humbly apprehends there was not the least Necessity for such 
a step, he has nevertheless desired three or four persons of undoubted 
Probity and character in this part of the country to give a short 
Deposition on this head, which he has directed to be laid before Your 
Hon rs ; and these Persons having been the longest, best and most 
intimately acquainted with your Memo s ^ Conduct, he submits are 


certainly most properly Qualified to give an account thereof. 

Your Memo st shall now hasten to conclude, with observing to this 
Honorable Board, That strong in the assurances of his own Mind, that 
he has no occasion to be Ashamed of the Conduct he has pursued, he 
has chearfully embraced this opportunity of submitting himself his 
actions, and their motives to the impartial Examination of this Honorable 
Board and of the public assuring himself that altho Misrepresentations 
may for a while obscure the face of truth, It ultimately must prevail. 

ON THE WHOLE Your Memo st submits it to the Impartial consideration 
of this Honorable Board and of the Public, that it will appear evident, 
That he has throughout his whole conduct endeavoured to manifest not 
only the utmost Justice, but the utmost reasonable and compassionate 
Indulgence to the settlers in his Fathers Lands; and that he has been 
particularly happy in their favourable acceptance of his conduct; and as 
to his Behaviour in the Execution of the Trust reposed in him by M r 
Selwyn. That those very Persons who have endeavoured to impose 
themselves upon Your Honours Compassion, as subjects of his 
Oppression, in truth and in fact are guilty of a Premeditated and 
unprovoked Association to oppose Your Memo s ^ in the legal prosecution 
of his Business; and that in Consequence thereof they actually proceeded 
to the commission of the most illegal Acts of Force, Terror, Constraint, 
and Violence, in open contempt and defiance of the Laws of their 
country, and to the Evil Example of all other His Majestys Loyal and 
Peaceable subjects; That allowing for those Improprieties which Your 
Memo st truly distressful and trying situation might naturally give 
occasion to (& he hopes in some measure excuse) he acted upon the 
whole with steady Integrity, for the just and conscientious Interests of 
his Employer and with a becoming Spirit of Resentment of the violent 
and ungenerous usage he met with:— And that notwithstanding he was 
thus Insulted, threatened and used by those deluded and Infatuated 
People, he has all along manifested the most considerate, and 
compassionate sense of their conduct, and a warm desire that they 
might see their Errors and not compell him into measures which were 
truly disagreeable to his Nature. 

All Your Memo st has to pray, is, that You will seriously consider the 
premises; and it appears that an unmerited Accusation has been 
attempted to be made against him that you will do him that Justice 
which to Your Honours in your Wisdom & Goodness shall seem meet 
and particuarly that you will direct M r Polk to return Your Memo s ^ M r 
Selwyn's Power of Attorney which he obtained and detains in manner 

And Your Memorialist &c. &c a &c a 

Henry E M c Culloh 


Mecklenburgh County 
25 th April 1765. 


'Alexander McCulloch (McCulloh) (d. after 1797) did not reside in the Sugar Creek 
area, but at Elk Marsh near Halifax. He was a man of considerable wealth and was very 
active in colonial affairs until the Revolution. His political philosophy was somewhat 
ambiguous in that he supported the crown but was sympathetic with the idea of colonial 
liberties in 1775. Higginbotham, The Papers of James Iredell, I, 20-21, n.12. 

-This was probably the John Campbell (ca. 1700-1781) who bought land in Bertie 
County in 1737. He was active in provincial affairs and a wealthy landowner with 
property in at least three eastern counties and over 12,000 acres in Anson. There are 
numerous references to Campbell in Saunders, Colonial Records, V-X, as well as scattered 
references in Clark, State Records. 

'Sheppard was a very common name in the area, making it impossible to identify 
definitely this particular one. 

4 This was no doubt a reference to Richard Spaight (Speight), a nephew and secretary of 
Governor Dobbs. 

5 Thomas Polk (ca. 1732-1794) moved into the Sugar Creek area in 1753, along with his 
brothers Ezekiel and Charles. His grandfather, Robert Polk (Pollock), had been active in 
Oliver Cromwell's campaign against Charles I. Thomas, son of William and Priscilla 
Roberts Polk, married Susan Spratt, whose family also resided in Mecklenburg County. 
In 1771 Polk was a surveyor appointed by Tryon to establish the boundary between the 
Carolinas; in the same year he supported Tryon against the Regulators. Ashe, 
Biographical History, V, 316-321. 

6 Abraham Alexander (1718-1786) was a ruling elder in the Presbyterian church and an 
infuential man in the Sugar Creek area. Ashe, Biographical History, I, 37-38. 

William Tryon to Charles Pinfold 1 mh-tlb, 14 


His Excellency Charles Pinfold, Newbern 30t n April 1765. 

Governor of the Island Barbadoes. 

I take the Earliest Opportunity of acquainting you with the Death of 
Governor Dobbs & of my succeeding him in the Administration of this 
Province, as Lieutenant Governor, till His Majesty's pleasure is further 
known. His Excellency died at Brunswick the 28? n of March last. If at 
any time, Sir, you should have occasion to Communicate Intelligence to 
me, either of a public or private Import, you may depend on my punctual 
Attention to your Correspondence. 

I have the honor to be &c. 

'Charles Pinfold (1709-1788), a graduate of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, was an admiralty 
advocate, 1751-1756, and governor of Barbados, 1756-1767. J. C. Sainty, Admiralty 
Officials, 16601870 (London: University of London, Institute of Historical Research, 
Athlone Press, 1975), 146, hereinafter cited as Sainty, Admiralty Officials. 


Memorandum of Letter from mh-tlb, 14 

William Try on to Robert Melville (Melvil) 1 a&h-tlb, 13 

His Excellency Brig*" Genl Robert Melvil, of Grenada. 

Acquainted him of the Death of Gov*" Dobbs . . . 
30? h April 1765. 

'Robert Melville (1723-1809) had a long and distinguished military career and was a 
well-known personality in Edinburgh society. He invented a piece of carriage ordnance 
(1759) which was first manufactured for the navy in 1779 and was a very effective 
weapon, used until ca. 1850 in both the British and American navies. Melville was 
governor of the West Indian islands that were ceded to the British by the Treaty of Paris. 
Dictionary of National Biography, XXXVII, 246-247. 

William Tryon to the Assembly a&h-lp 

PRO CO 5/351, 

ff. 142b-144 
CR-VII, 41-44 

May 3, 1765 

Honourable Gentlemen, Mr Speaker, and Gentlemen of the House of 

His Majesty, having been Graciously pleased, to appoint me to 
preside as Lieutenant Governor in this Province, I have called you 
together, immediately after my taking the Government upon me, that I 
might have your Assistance in my Endeavours, to Compensate the 
Province, for the Death of a Gentleman, who has so long, and so very 
ably discharged, the Important Trust reposed in Him by His Majesty, 
and, by His Royal Predecessor, of Happy Memory. 

It has been a great Happiness to the Inhabitants of this province, to 
have enjoyed, I might almost say, a General Security, and Repose, 
while Others of His Majestys Colonies on the Continent, have been 
harrassed both by Indian, and European Enemies. 

They now enjoy, with Us, the Blessings of that General Tranquility, 
which the Good Providence of Almighty God, the Wisdom of His 
Majestys Councils, and Conduct, and Bravery, of His Commanders, and 
Troops; have so happily obtained, and Established. 

Altho', Gentlemen, you have had little Experience of the Calamities of 
War, I am yet confident you are not the less Sensible, of the Advantages 
of Peace; nor the less thankfull to Our Gracious Sovereign, who so 
ardently, and so effectually laboured to restore it to His people. 

I doubt not but you will avail yourselves accordingly of this Season of 
Tranquility to promote the Welfare, and Prosperity of this Flourishing 
Colony;— as the best means to do so, give me leave to recommend to 


you a Strict Examination into the State of your public Funds, and an 
Inviolable Observance of Public Faith; which cannot fail to give the 
People of Great Britain, a good Opinion of the Credit of this Province; 
and must in its Consequences, essentially tend to promote the Trade, 
Commerce, and Welfare of this Colony: the effect of which good 
Purposes, I shall endeavour by my future Conduct, to Convince you, I 
have extreamly at heart. 

I have received Instructions to recommend to you the re-enacting, "an 
Act for making Provision for an Orthodox Clergy," passed in 1762, free 
from the Objections which were made to that Act; a Copy of which 
Instruction, with the Objections to the said Act, I have ordered to be laid 
before you for your Consideration; and at the same time, recommend to 
you, the establishing One Clergyman for each parish, at the General 
Expence of the Public, to be paid by the public Treasurers:— a number, 
so small, in respect to the Extent of the parishes, that, were not the good 
Ends to be effected, which I most ardently wish, and Sincerely believe, 
will accrue from such appointments, the Burden would be inconsiderable 
to the Province, and the Salary, need never extend to any greater 
Number of Clergy, under the same Limitations. In this Instance, I must 
more particularly, address myself to the Members of the Church of 
England, and desire them to reflect on the present State of Religion in 
this Province, and of the little prospect there appears of its ever being 
properly established, if they but a little while longer suffer their 
Persuasion to lay under a General Neglect. I ground my opinion on the 
increasing Numbers of the different Sectaries in this province; who in a 
short period of time, may be the majority in all public assemblies, each 
of which, may then possibly incline to establish his own persuasion, in 
preference to the Established Religion at Home. If I have pointed out 
any Consequences, that are likely to attend a Continuance of the Neglect 
of Our Religion, I hope no persons of a different Persuasion, will imagine, 
I am an Enemy to Toleration: I profess myself a warm advocate for it, in 
the fullest extent of His Majesty's Indulgence; yet I must inform Them, 
I never heard Toleration in any Country, made use of, as an argument to 
exempt Dissenters, from bearing their Share of the support of the 
Established Religion: I therefore hope to meet with your Joint Con- 
currence, in framing this act; and trust you will be convinced, it is for the 
Happiness of the Country that Religion should have but one Head, how 
many Members so ever there may be, to the Body. 

Gentlemen of the House of Assembly 

I shall lay before you a Letter from His Majesty's principal Secretary 
of State, relative to the Establishing a post, throughout this Extensive 
Continent; and I hope, you will make such Ample Provision to defray 
the Expence, the Postmaster General may find necessary in the Route 


he directs to be taken thro' this Province, as will render, His Majesty's, 
Intentions the most effectual. 

I am sorry for the Loss you have sustained by the Death of the Late 
Treasurer for the Southern District, 1 and wish, a person may be found 
to succeed Him, whose Abilities, Character, and Experience in public 
affairs, may give reasonable Hopes, of his acting in that Important 
Office, with the Integrity & punctuality, equal to that of His prede- 
cessor. As this Busy season of the year, will necessarily require your 
Attention to your Domestic Affairs, I shall defer mentioning other 
Considerations I have to recommend to you, to a more favorable Oppor- 
tunity; when I shall also be better prepared to lay them before you. 

Honourable Gentlemen, 
and Gentlemen of the House of Assembly 

Let Unanimity and Dispatch cement our Endeavours for the Public 
Service; and let our actions be directed, solely by Principles, of public 
Utility— For my own part, I can with the Utmost Sincerity declare that 
no other Consideration shall have any Influence on my Conduct: — 
Convinced, that by acting from such Motives, I can best fulfill, His 
Majestys, most Gracious Intentions in sending me here, as well as my 
own Endeavours to render acceptable Service to this Country. 

Guided by the same principles, I shall ever think it equally my Duty, 
to preserve the People, in their Constitutional Liberty; as to maintain 
Inviolate, the Just, and necessary Rights of the Crown. 

'John Starkey (d. 1765), one of the first settlers on New River, was in 1743 appointed a 
justice of the peace. He was a religious and political leader and the proponent of the first 
bill to establish a free school in North Carolina; the bill passed in the assembly in 1749 but 
was not approved by the governor. One of Starkey's public offices was that of treasurer for 
the southern counties. There was marked hostility between Starkey and Governor Dobbs 
because of the assemblyman's zealous protection of colonial rights. Ashe, Biographical 
History, V, 379-382. 

The Council to William Tryon cr-vii, 44-45 

May 6, 1765 

To The Hon!^ e q 1o William Tryon Lieutenant Governor and Com- 
mander in Chief in and over His Majestys Province of North Carolina 

The Humble address of his Majestys Council to the said Province. 


We His Majestys most dutiful and Loyal subjects the members of his 
Council beg leave to return your Honor our sincere and hearty thanks 


for your speech at the opening of this session. We Embrace the 
opportunity of congratulating your Hon r on your Accession to the 
Government and with hearts filled with Gratitude Acknowledge His 
Majestys Paternal goodness in appointing a Gentleman of your Hon r 
Ability & Integrity to preside over us, the Greatest compensation we 
could have had for the loss we sustained by the Death of his Excellency 
our late worthy Governor. 

Your Honour may be assured that our best Endeavours shall be 
exerted to render y r Administration Happy and Prosperous 

The Calamities of the war, of which we have had some small 
Experience has taught us to set a true value on the Inestimable 
blessings of Peace Procured to us under the Divine Providence by the 
Wisdom of his Majesty the Steadiness of his Councils and the bravery of 
his Troops, and to Avail ourselves of those Advantages we shall 
heartily Join in promoting the Interest and Welfare of this Province 
Examining the State of our funds, suffering no breach to be made in the 
Public Faith and thereby promote the Increase and Trade of this 

It is with singular satisfaction we observe your Honours Attachment 
to the Established Church, of which we profess ourselves members 
That Christian Spirit void of Enthusiasm or Bigotry which so fully 
appears in your sentiments, gives us hopes that it will Influence the 
other House to join us in Passing an Act for Establishing an Orthodox 
Clergy free from those objections made to the last Act passed for that 
purpose. We are fully convinced that nothing can tend more to Inculcate 
the principals of Piety and Virtue than to Establish the Clergy on a 
respectable footing. 

The other matters your Honour has been pleased to recommend, we 
shall take into our Serious consideration and shall heartily join the other 
House in passing such Bills as may best answer the Good Purposes your 
Honour has in view. 

We must Acknowledge ourselves at a loss to express our feelings at 
that candor and goodness of heart which appears in your Honours 
sentiments. Permit us however S r to say that we shall endeavour to 
banish Discord (the bane of Government) and Imitate those amiable 
qualities of Benevolence and love for the Public good so Conspicuous in 
your Honour and hope our Conduct in all cases will deserve your 


The Assembly to William Tryon pro co 5/351, 

ff. 144b-145b 
CR-VII, 63-64 

[May 6, 1765] 

North Carolina— ss 

To the HonPl e William Tryon Esq*" e Lieutenant GovF and Commander 
in Chief in and over His Majesty's Province of North Carolina 

The Humble Address of the Assembly of the s? Province 


We His Majesty's most dutifull and Loyal Subjects the Members of 
the Assembly of North Carolina beg leave to return your Hon*" our 
Hearty thanks for your Speech at the Opening of this Session. 

With the Greatest Pleasure we Congratulate your Hon*" on your 
Accession to this Government; and Esteem our selves under the highest 
obligation for the early opportunity you have been pleased to give us of 
expressing our gratitude to His Majesty for His care and attention to the 
Welfare of this Province, in appointing a Gent n as our Commander in 
Chief from whose abilities and Integrity the Community have just 
reason to expect every happy Consequence. The Blessings of Peace 
which we so happily enjoy, and which next to the Providence of 
Almighty God, we owe to the Wisdom of His Majesty's Council: and the 
Conduct and Bravery of His Commanders and Troops, excite in us the 
warmest sensations of gratitude to our most gracious Sovereign: under 
whose benign Government and Direction, this Felicity was obtained, 
and we beg leave to assure your Hon*" that we will endeavour to avail 
ourselves of this Season of Tranquility, by paying due attention to the 
several matters you have so judiciously Recommended; and by pur- 
suing every other Method of Public Utility. Your Hon*" s good Intentions 
to this Province, so affectingly declared, yield us the greatest Pleasure, 
merit our warmest acknowledgements, and render it incumbent on us to 
pursue every measure that can make your Administration easy and 

Yet pleasing as the assurances you give us are, they were not 
wanting to convince us that all your Actions must proceed from the most 
laudable motives, and that consequently your future conduct, on which 
you so obligingly desire us to rely will be such as must do Credit to His 
Majesty's Appointment Honour to yourself and render this Province 
flourishing and Happy. Persuaded of this Sir, how pleasing are our 
prospects and how happy are we, in reflecting that to obtain the good 


opinion Favour and Protection of our Governor we have only to deserve 
them, and to deserve them need only to pursue Such Measures as the 
real Interests of our Country and the Sentiments of Honour dictate, 
which must at the same time render us acceptable to our Constituents 
and gain us the Applause of our own hearts. 

Your Honr may be assured that we shall most Heartily unite with the 
Members of His Majesty's HonP^ e Council in all Matters productive of 
Public good, and that nothing would give us more Satisfaction than to be 
able to promote your Happiness. 

William Try on to the Council pro co 5/352, f. 115 


May 7, 1765 
Honble Gentlemen 

Your dutiful and Loyal Sentiments of Affection for our Sovereign 
cannot fail to give his Majesty satisfaction; and your assurance to Exert 
your endeavours for the Public advantage and the Happiness of my 
administration are most acceptable to me. 

I thank you for your serious attention to the necessary consideration I 
have recommended to you, and am pleased to find you coincide with my 
wishes to see Religion on a respectable Establishment in this Province. 

The principles you lay down for your Conduct are Justly com- 
mendable, and be assured you Will find me always ready to cooperate 
with his Majestys Council in such measures as are likely to produce the 
most salutary effects. 

William Tryon Appoints shc-d 

John McKildo Sheriff 1 

May 8, 1765 


The Honourable 

His Majesty's Lieutenant-Governor, and Commander in Chief, in and 
over the said Province. 

To John M c Kildo 2 of Tyrrel County Esquire, Greeting OUT of the The 
Assurance I Have of Your Loyalty and Integrity, I DO hereby Nominate, 


Constitute, and Appoint You, the said John M c Kildo to be Sheriff of the 
said County of Tyrrel To Have, Hold, Use, Exercise, and Enjoy the said 
Office of Sheriff of the County of Tyrrel DURING MY PLEASURE: Togeth- 
er, with ALL Powers and Authorities, Fees, Privileges and Emoluments, 
which to the said Office of Sheriff Doth, or may of Right, Belong or 

GIVEN under My Hand and the Seal of the Said Province at Newbern 
this Eighth Day of May in the Year of Our Lord One Thousand Seven 
Hundred and Sixty Five and in the Fifth Year of His Majesty's Reign. 

•This is a printed form filled in in manuscript. 

2 John McKildo (McKildoe ) is listed on a roll of the militiamen of Chowan County under 
the command of Capt. Miles Gale, November 25, 1754. In 1767 John McKildo was listed 
as a resident of Tyrell County owing a public debt. Since "Suit good" is noted after the 
amount, McKildo apparently paid it. He evidently died ca. 1773 since his executors were 
empowered at that time and on numerous occasions later to collect county debts in arrears; 
reference is made to him as the "late sheriff," so he must have held the position for about 
eight years after his appointment. Clark, State Records, XXII, 40, 326; Saunders, Colonial 
Records, VIII, 280-281, IX, 60-61, 399-660 passim. 

William Tryon to the Assembly hro c:o 5/351, ff. 146-147 

CR -VII, 65-66 

[May 8, 1765] 

Mr Speaker & GentmP of the House of Assembly. 

The Testimonies of Duty, Loyalty and Gratitude you so warmly 
Express, for our most gracious Sovereign will I am persuaded be highly 
agreeable to His Majesty. 

It gives me the most sensible satisfaction to have met with your 
Approbation in the Matters I have recommended to you, and I am 
convinced the happy Establishment of our Religion will be the only solid 
Foundation on which the future prosperity of this Colony can Depend. 

I am obliged to you Gent n for the early good Opinion you Express of 
me, and feel the most grateful Sense of your Inclinations, to pursue 
every measure which can contribute to the Ease and Happiness of my 
Administration. In the Integrity of my Heart I must declare I look for 
neither Happiness nor Satisfaction in this Country but in Proportion to 
the Assistance I meet with in my Endeavours to promote the Prosperity 
of its Inhabitants. 


Proclamation of the mh-cj, 333-334 

Lieutenant Governor c*viPn° 7 

[May 9, 1765] 

North Carolina— ss 

By the Honorable William Tryon Esq Lieutenant Governor and 
Commander in Chief in and over the said Province, 


Whereas, it hath been represented to me in Council That several 
Persons hold Lands in this Province by Virtue of Patents Granted in 
South Carolina, before the running the temporary Boundary Line 
between the Two Provinces in September Last— In Order therefore to 
discover what Lands are truly and bona fide, so held; to prevent 
disputes and future Grants of such Lands; and for Quieting People in 
their Possessions; I have thought fit, by and with the Advice and 
consent of his Majestys Council, to issue this Proclamation, hereby 
strictly enjoining and requiring all Persons, who in virtue of a Patent or 
Patents issued by the Governor or Commander in Chief of South 
Carolina, before the 24 tn of September last, are possessed of any Lands 
within the precinct of this Province, according to the Line run by the 
Commissioners of the said Province, to produce such Patent or Patents 
before me in Council, at Wilmington, on or before the 25^ n day of April 
next, that proper Orders may be given for recording the same in the 
Secretary's Office, as a failure herein may operate to the Damages of the 
Party neglecting. 

Given under my hand and seal of the Province at Newbern the 9th 
day of May Anno Domini 1765 


W m Tryon 

By his Honours Command 
Ben Heron — Seer 'y 1 

God save the King 

'From 1762 until his death in 1770 Benjamin Heron was secretary of the province. See 
also "William Tryon Assumes Office," October 27, 1764, n. 7. 


John Ashe 1 to William Try on pro co 5/351, f. 147 

CR-VH, 66-67 

[May 9, 1765] 

To the Honourable William Tryon EsqT e Lieutenant Governor etc? 


MT John Starkey one of the Members for Onslow County, and M Y . 
Thomas Smith 2 one of the Members for Hyde County are dead, 
therefore desire your Hon: will be pleased to direct the Clerk of the 
Crown to issue Writs for Electing a representative for each of the said 
Counties to sit and Vote in this present assembly in the room and stead 
of said John Starkey and Thomas Smith. 

John Ashe. Speaker 

Uohn Ashe (1720-1781), son of John Baptista Ashe, was orphaned at age fourteen; his 
uncle, Sam Swann, became his guardian. In 1751 Ashe became a justice of the peace in 
New Hanover County and in 1752 was elected to the General Assembly and appointed to 
the governor's council. Ashe was serving as speaker of the assembly in 1765 when the 
colony became so violently incensed at the efforts of the royal governor to enforce the 
Stamp Act. He was a leader of the revolutionary element of the populace and in 1778 was 
commissioned a major-general of the patriot forces. Ashe survived smallpox contracted 
while he was a prisoner of the British in Wilmington but died suddenly soon after his 
release in the fall of 1781, so he did not live to see freedom achieved by the colonies. An 
exceptionally fine orator and influential statesman in peacetime, he was a zealous patriot 
and effective officer in wartime. Ashe, Biographical History, IV, 36-52. 

2 Thomas Smith (d. 1765) had been in the province as early as 1738, had served as 
deputy auditor, and had represented Hyde County in the assembly for a number of years 
beginning in 1755. Saunders, Colonial Records, V, 510-1088 passim; VI, 95-1152 passim. 

William Tryon to the Assembly pro co 5/351, f. 150b 


May 10, 1765 

Mr Speaker & Gent n of the House of Assembly. 

I send you some Minutes of the Lords Commissioners for Trade and 
Plantations bearing date the 13 tn of December 1763, and desire to be 
informed what were the objections made to that Act and likewise what 
was the request made by the Assembly to His Majesty referred to by 
the Minutes. 

W m Tryon 
Fryday 10 th May 1765. 


John Ashe to William Tryon a&h-cgp 

CR-VII, 73-74 


May 13, 1765 

To the Hon^ e William Tryon Esq!" Lieutenant Gov*" &c. 


In answer to your Message of the 10" 1 Instant Saturday last you will 
be pleased to understand that the Act of Assembly referred to by the 
Extract of the Minutes of the proceedings of the Lords Commissioners 
for Trade & Plantations, sent with your Message, is an Act intituled 
[sic] "An Act for granting to His Majesty the sum of forty Thousand 
pounds &tc." by which among other Things the Sum of £18,000 
Proclamation is appropriated for erecting Public Schools & purchasing 
Glebes in the several Parishes in this Province, Subject to a Suspending 
Clause in the said Act until His Majesty's Royal approbation thereof 
should be had; Soon after passing the said Act the Assembly instructed 
their Agent to apply for such his Majesty's approbation on which 
occasion it seems their Lordships were of opinion that it was improper to 
report the said Act as fit to receive the royal Sanction on account of 
several objections, which were pointed out & the late Governor 
instructed to lay before the Assembly in order that it might be amended 
in the particulars objected to; But for what Reason we know not the said 
objections have never yet been laid before the Assembly. We therefore 
request of your Honour to represent the state of this Case truly to His 
Majesty that the Assembly may thereby be Acquited [sic] from the 
imputation of having neglected to pay a dutiful obedience to His 
Majesty's Commands and the impropriety of making a second appli- 
cation to the Board of Trade without taking proper notice of the Answer 
given by their Lordships to their first request. And this House would 
further request that your Honour will obtain a Copy of the said 
objections and lay them before the Assembly that they may have an 
opportunity of Manifesting their rediness [sic] to comply with His 
Majesty's Instructions in amending the said Act as far as may be 
compatible with the Interest of the Country and that duty which the 
Members of Assembly owe to their Constituants [sic]. 

John Ashe Speaker 

Dat<* 13th May 1765 


William Tryon to the Assembly pro cos/351, f. 154 


May 14, 1765 

MT Speaker & Gentlemen of the House of Assembly. 

The enclosed Papers I sent you were delivered to me in Behalf of M Y . 
Clear. If you are of Opinion with me that the loss he declares to have 
Sustained in Proclamation Money is well attested, I recommend the 
same to be taken into your Consideration. 1 

W m Tryon 

Tuesday the 14? h of May 1765 

J On the following day the House "resolved that the said Peter Clear the Petitioner with 
Papers referred to, be allowed and paid the sum of seventy six Pounds out of the money 
that shall be paid into the Committee of Accounts (at the next Session of the Assembly ) on 
the Sinking Fund." Saunders, Colonial Records, VII, 77. One Timothy Clear kept the toll 
books and was a road overseer. See also "Inhabitants of New Bern and Craven County to 
William Tryon," May 16, 1765, n. 20. 

John Asne to the Council pro co 5/352, f. 118 

CR -VII. 79-80 

May 15, 1765 

GentP of His Majesty's HonP* e Council 

The Assembly having taken into Consideration the general Ad- 
vantage that will arise to this province from having a public post 
established therein, — & that the common profits arising on the Con- 
veyance of pacquets and Letters will not be sufficient to defray the 
Expenses thereof & being desirous that a Matter of such public Utility 
should take Effect, but not having received proper Information what 
Sum will be a suitable Encouragement for the Post- Master General to 
establish such a Post, on which Account it is thought, in some Measure, 
premature to pass any Law relative to the said Matter I have therefore 
resolved that Mr John Harvey 1 MV Corbin 2 MT Pollock 3 M!" Samuel 
Johnston 4 and MV Charles Blount 5 be & they are appointed a Committee 
to contract & agree with the Post-Master General or his Deputy, to 
cause a person or persons to ride post through this Province & to carry 
all public Dispatches and Letters to & from Suffolk in Virginia, to the 
Southern Boundary of this Government, as often as conveniently may 


be, and to allow to the said Post Master General or his Deputy for the 
due performance of such Service a Sum not Exceeding the Rate of One 
Hundred thirty three pounds Six Shillings and Eight pence P Annum 
proclamation Money to be paid out of the publick Treasury by a 
Warrant from the Governour or commander in chief for the Time being, 
and to report their proceedings therein to the next General Assembly. 
And the Agreement which the said Committee, or Majority of th[em] 
shall so enter into for the purposes aforesaid, shall be and remain in full 
force for the Space of one Year, from and after a public post shall be 
established as aforesaid and from thence to the End of the next Session 
of Assembly & no longer and desire yT Honours Concurrence 

John Ashe Speaker 

15 th May 1765 
By Order W m Herritage 6 Clk 
Sent by Mr. Simpson 
Mr. Wynns 7 

In the upper House 16^ n May 1765 the foregoing Resolve was 
taken under Consideration & Concurred with 
By Order Ja s Hasell President 

J Burgwin Clk 8 

Concurred with 

W m Tryon 
17 th May 1765 

'John Harvey (1725-1775) of Perquimans County and son of Governor Thomas 
Harvey, first appeared in public life as a member of the assembly in 1746, and from 1754 
until his death he sat at every session. He was speaker of the House from 1765 until his 
death and moderator of the first two provincial congresses. In these posts he played a 
leading role in the early revolutionary activity. Ashe, Biographical History, IV, 163-175. 

2 This is probably Francis Corbin, agent of Earl Granville. Corbin, an assemblyman and 
a member of the governor's council, was one of the chief targets of those who sought to 
regulate the fees and actions of government officials. Saunders, Colonial Records, IV, V, 
VI passim; William S. Powell, James K. Huhta, Thomas J. Farnham, The Regulators in 
North Carolina (Raleigh: State Department of Archives and History, 1971), 5, 9, 10, 11, 
14, 224, 307, hereinafter cited as Powell and others, Regulators. 

3 Cullen Pollok, or Pollock (1731-1795), was a member of the prominent Thomas Pollok 
family. This is probably Cullen Pollok III; Thomas, Cullen, and George were names used 
for males in several generations. A man of considerable affluence, Cullen Pollok was not 
active in politics but amassed a fortune by exporting agricultural products from his 
plantation in the ships of his Newport friend, Aaron Lopez. Higginbotham, The Papers of 
James Iredell, I, 219n-220n; Virginia B. Piatt, "Tar, Staves, and New England Rum: The 
Trade of Aaron Lopez of Newport, Rhode Island, with Colonial North Carolina," North 
Carolina Historical Review, XLVIII (January, 1971), 1-22. 

4 Samuel Johnston (1733-1816) came to America from Scotland in 1736. One of the most 
influential men of his day, Johnston was an ardent advocate of independence for the 
colonies. He served in the General Assembly, was clerk of the superior court, was a 
member of the committee of correspondence, and was an outstanding member of the 


provincial congresses as well as of the Continental Congress. Johnston was governor of 
North Carolina from 1787 to 1789. He felt strongly that individual rights should be 
respected but not at the expense of law and order. Johnston's plantation house, Hayes, is a 
fine example of colonial architecture. Crabtree, North Carolina Governors, 51-53. 

^Charles Blount, prominent Chowan County merchant, was a partner of Joseph Hewes. 
In 1756 he was involved in a case in which he was accused by the widow Sarah Blount of 
not managing her estate in the best interests of her children and herself. Higginbotham, 
The Papers of James Iredell, I, xliii ; Sarah McCulloh Lemmon, Parson Pettigrewofthe "Old 
Church": 1744-1807 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1970), 33n. 

6 William Herritage (d. 1769), of Craven County, was in the colony as early as 1739 
when he qualified as clerk of the assembly, a position he was still holding as late as 
December 5, 1768. His name appears frequently in actions reported in Saunders, Colonial 
Records, especially in volumes IV, V, VI, and VII passim. His daughter Sarah married 
Richard Caswell. 

7 Benjamin Wynns from Hertford County and John Simpson from Pitt were serving in 
the assembly. 

8 John Burg win was clerk at this time and James Hasell was president of the council. 

Inhabitants of New Bern and Craven County cr-vii, 35-36 
to William Tryon 

[May 16, 1765] 

To the Honorable William Tryon Esq 1 " Commander in Chief 
in and over the Province of North Carolina 

The memorial of the Inhabitants of the Town of Newbern and County 
of Craven in the said Province 
Humbly Sheweth. 

That there never has been in this Province any regular settled 

That Thomas Thomlinson 1 arrived from England about 15 Months 
ago well recommended with regard to his abilities Sobriety and good 
Conduct and at our Request opened a school at the said Town of 

That to encourage said Thomas Thomlinson as much as in our power 
a Number of the Inhabitants of the said town and County as well as 
several of the adjacent counties who are very desirous to have their 
children under the Tuition of the said T. Thomlinson have subscribed 
considerable Sums of money Part of which is already expended in 
purchasing Materials for the Building of a large and commodious School 
house that the said T. Thomlinson may be enabled to take a greater 
Number of Scholars under his Care and provide himself with proper 

That being fully sensible of the great advantage it must be to the 
rising Generation to have a good Schoolmaster settled in the Town of 
Newbern they are very desirous that the said T. Thomlinson should 


continue amongst them as a Schoolmaster whom to their general satis- 
faction they have experienced to be well qualified by Precept and 
Example to instruct their children in such Branches of useful learning as 
are necessary in several of the Offices and Stations in Life and imprint 
on their tender Minds the Principles of the Christian Religion agreeable 
to the Establishment of the Church of England. And your Memorialists 
having been informed that Salaries have been and continue to be 
granted for the Encouragement of Schoolmasters in Infant Colonies by 
the Honorable and Reverend Society for Propogating the Gospel in 
foreign Parts and being sensible that your Honour has much at Heart 
the prosperity of this colony by having strongly recommended the Case 
of Religion and Virtue to the General Assembly of this Province. 

Your Memorialists therefore humbly hope for your Honour's Applica- 
tion in favor of the said T. Thomlinson to the Society for the 
propagating the Gospel in foreign Parts that for his encouragement he 
may be allowed from Home such a yearly Salary as to the said Society 
may seem meet. 

And as in Duty bound your Memorialists shall ever pray. 

That the Honorable and Reverend Society may be well satisfied with 
Regard to his Abilities and Character the said T. Thomlinson has 
begged leave to refer to the Rev d John Brown D. D. Chaplain to the late 
Lord Bishop of London. 

Newbern 16. May 1765. 
Copy of the Original and of the Gentlemen's Names who attested it. 

James Reed 2 Missionary 
Tho s Cliff d Howe 3 
Samuel Cornell 4 
John Williams 5 
Rich d Cogdell 6 
Rich d Caswell 7 
James Davis 8 
Peter Conway 9 
John Clitherall 10 
Jacob Blount 11 
Rich d Ellis 12 
Francis Macilwean 13 
Alex dr Gaston 14 
Phil Ambrose 15 
Jacob Sheppard 16 
Jos. Jones 17 
John Daly 18 
Will Euen 19 
Timo. Clear 20 
Jn° Pindar 21 

Pat Gordon 22 

John Franck 23 

Tho Pollock 24 

Bernard Parkinson 25 

Wm. Wilton 26 

Christ. Neale 27 

Tho s Sitgreaves 28 

Corn Grosnendeyk 29 

Jn° Green 30 

John Fonville 31 

Longfield Cox 32 

Jno Smith 33 

Cullen Pollock 

Rich d Fenner 34 

Amb. Cox Bagley [Bayley?] 35 

And 1 " Scott 36 

Andr Stewart 37 

Eliu Cotting 38 

Jno. Moore 39 

Alex. Eagles 40 


Thomas Thomlinson (1736?-1805), native of Cumberland County, England, taught 
school in England and in Maryland before removing to New Bern in December, 1763, 
where he began teaching the next month. With the establishment of the New Bern 
Academy in 1764 he became a teacher there and continued in this role until 1771. In 
September, 1772, he removed to Rhode Island . At his death Thomlinson left an endowment 
for several schools in his native county. Saunders, Colonial Records, VI, 1048, VII, 98, 99, 
104, 689, IX, 245-248, 317-318; William Whellan, The History and Topography of the 
Counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland (Pontefract: W. Whellan and Co., 1860), 252, 

2 James Reed, an Anglican minister in New Bern, ran into trouble with his congregation 
early in the American Revolution. By recommendation of the Continental Congress the 
day of July 20, 1775, was to be celebrated as a day of fasting, humiliation, and prayer. 
Although his parishioners begged Reed to preside over services in his church, the 
clergyman refused to do so. Despite the absence of their minister Reed's congregation 
gathered at the church, and a "very animated and spirited discourse was read by a 
member of the committee, to a very crowded audience." The Whig committee successfully 
sought Reed's resignation after the affair. Sabine, American Loyalists, II, 212. See also 
Reed's letter to the secretary of the S.P.G., December 21, 1764. 

3 Thomas Clifford Howe (d. 1770?) was probably born in Bladen or New Hanover 
County where his father, Job Howe, owned large tracts of land which he acquired between 
1736 and 1760. The elder Howe was elected to the assembly from New Hanover County 
in 1734. By 1758 Thomas Howe was also acquiring land. In 1762 he was in Edenton, but 
from 1764 until 1769 he represented Craven County in the assembly and served on 
several significant committees, frequently on one charged with drawing up replies on 
behalf of the House to the governor's messages. On numerous occasions he delivered bills 
from the lower to the upper house and associated with the outstanding leaders of the 
province. He was also on committees for building a school in New Bern and for building 
other public structures. In 1766 he was one of six commissioners for Port Beaufort. He 
and his wife, Elizabeth, as administrators of the estate of Richard Spaight, were selling 
Spaight's cattle in Dobbs County in 1764. Their home on East Front Street in New Bern 
was made available to Governor Tryon when he first went there. Clark, State Records, 
XXIII, 667, 744, 781, 782, 827, XXIV, 848, 849; Saunders, Colonial Records, VI, 1154- 
1210 passim. 

4 Samuel Cornell (1730-1781), native of Long Island, New York, settled in New Bern 
about 1754 as a merchant. By 1764 he was one of the wealthiest men in the province. In 
1767 he lent the government £8,000 for the construction of the executive mansion (Tryon 
Palace ) in New Bern , and out of gratitude Tryon appointed him to the council . Cornell also 
made available £6,000 for the expedition against the Regulators, a campaign in which he 
served as a general. Fearing that he might have to underwrite the currency being issued 
by the provincial congresses, Cornell sailed for New York in the summer of 1775 but 
returned in 1777 to inventory his household goods and collect some of his servants. He 
spent the remainder of the war in New York but was regarded by North Carolinians as a 
tory. He conveyed his property to his children by deeds of gift; nevertheless, the property 
was seized and sold. His daughter's claim of land bought by Spyres Singleton was denied 
by the court. Sabine , American Loyalists, 299. 

5 There are several men named John Williams recorded in the colonial and early state 
records, but it seems plausible that this was the Williams of New Bern listed as a school 
trustee and as town and fort commissioner. Clark, State Records, XXV, 253, 254, 448. 

6 Richard Cogdell (1724-1787) was the son of George and Margaret Bell Cogdell, 
descendants of a member of Baron de Graffenried's colony at New Bern; Cogdell is a 
derivation of the Swiss name Coxdaile. Richard Cogdell was a lieutenant colonel in 
Tryon 's army, so he assisted in quelling the Regulators in 1771. However, Colonel 
Cogdell fully supported the patriots in their protests against Great Britain and was a 
Craven County delegate to the provincial congresses in New Bern and Hillsborough. He 
was elected judge of the court of admiralty in 1776. Cogdell became a trustee of the New 
Bern Academy. Of the nine children born to Cogdell and his wife, nee Lydia Duncan, one 


daughter became Mrs. John Wright Stanly and another (Lydia) became Mrs. Thomas 
Badger. Ashe, Biographical History, II, 64-66. 

7 Richard Caswell (1729-1789) was born in Maryland and came to North Carolina at the 
age of seventeen. Within a few years he had acquired over 6,000 acres of land, and he 
became deputy surveyor of the province in 1750. After two years he was made clerk of 
the court in Orange County and in 1754 entered the assembly where he remained for 
twenty-one years. As a colonel of militia Caswell accompanied Tryon on the expedition 
against the Regulators and with the same rank he fought at the Battle of Moore's Creek 
Bridge. He played a key role in the early revolutionary movement and was named first 
governor of the state of North Carolina. Ashe, Biographical History, VIII, 65-80; Crabtree, 
North Carolina Governors, 45-46. 

8 James Davis (1721-1785), first printer in the colony, was born in Virginia and was 
living in Williamsburg by 1745. He came to North Carolina in 1749 as public printer; he 
printed official documents for the government and also published a newspaper, books, and 
pamphlets for the public. A member of the assembly, he also served as sheriff of Craven 
County, postmaster, and justice of the peace. At the beginning of the revolutionary 
movement he was a member of the New Bern Council of Safety, and in 1777 was a judge 
of the admiralty court. In 1871 he became a member of the council of state. Ashe, 
Biographical History, VIII, 139-149. 

9 Peter Conway was ordered to be paid for his services in providing a meeting place, 
fire, and candles for the North Carolina Assembly in December, 1762. The secretary, 
John Burgwin, signed the request and James Hasell, president of the council, presented 
the order to the assembly. Aside from this item recorded in Saunders, Colonial Records, 
VI. 892, 964, little is known of Conway. 

10 John Clitherall (Clitheral, Clithereal ) was in the colony as early in 1746 since in June of 
that year he petitioned for a warrant to secure land in Carteret County. He served as a 
commissioner on navigation and roads and as a commissioner of the fort. Saunders, 
Colonial Records, IV, 805, 953, 970, 1038; XXIII, 221, 293. 

u Jacob Blount, son of Thomas and Ann Elizabeth Blount, married Barbara Gray of Bertie 
County in 1748. For some years they lived on Barbara's property near Windsor, but ca. 
1759 they moved, possibly into Craven County. From his uncle, Churchill Reading, Jacob 
Blount inherited a sizable tract of land on Contentnea Creek which was the nucleus for a 
very large estate. A prosperous merchant, Blount was active in community and political 
affairs. In the Battle of Alamance he acted with Tryon against the Regulators, but in the 
years following this affair his sympathy lay with the colonists. He was a member of the 
provincial congresses at New Bern, Hillsborough, and Halifax; a member of the 
Committee of Safety of Pitt County, the county of Craven, and the town of New Bern. His 
home, Blount Hall, was sturdy but not elegant. Blount's second wife was Hannah Salter 
Baker; his third, Mary Adams. Six of his children lived to maturity. Alice Barnwell Keith 
and William Henry Masterson, The John Gray Blount Papers (Raleigh: State Department 
of Archives and History, 3 volumes, 1952-1965), I, xiv-xvii. 

12 Richard Ellis was a New Bern representative to the provincial congress at 
Hillsborough in August, 1775. At the provincial council meeting in Johnston County 
(December, 1775) he was appointed to be a commissioner at Port Brunswick and as such 
was one of several entrusted with purchasing, arming, and outfitting vessels to guard the 
main ports of the colony. In June, 1775, he was instrumental in arranging a meeting 
between Governor Caswell and French representatives en route to Philadelphia. A letter 
to Caswell of February 9, 1778, indicates that Ellis was well informed about English 
affairs. He was in charge of outfitting the Pennsylvania Farmer in October, 1776, and the 
Caswell in June, 1778. Ellis, it was said, "has been accustomed to the sea from his youth, 
& consequently pretty well acquainted with maritime affairs." He was one of the men 
commissioned to seize and sell the personal estate of Josiah Martin (December, 1776). 
Clark, State Records, XI, 486-487, 528, 532-533, 710, XIII, 36, 174-175, XIV, 237; 
Saunders, Colonial Records, VIII, 261, 545, X, 166, 167, 173, 352, 831-832, 962. 

13 Francis Mackilwean is first mentioned in the colonial records when a petition for a 
warrant of land in Craven County was read at a council meeting in New Bern on April 5, 


1749. Another warrant for land in Anson County was read on the same day. Thereafter a 
number of grants were made to him. As a major in Tryon's army he marched against the 
Regulators, but he served as an assemblyman for a number of terms between 1750 and 
1775. In 1764 he was appointed to be a commissioner to determine the boundary line 
between Craven and Dobbs counties. Clark, State Records, XXIII, 630; Powell and others, 
Regulators, 366, 420-450 passim; Saunders, Colonial Records, IV, 946-1248 passim, V, 
164-166, scattered references in VI, VII, IX. 

14 Alexander Gaston, youngest son of William Gaston, was of French Huguenot 
ancestry. He studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland and served for 
awhile in the royal navy before he resigned his position and emigrated to New Bern, N.C. 
In 1775 Gaston married Margaret Sharpe. Their daughter Jane married John Louis 
Taylor, chief justice of the North Carolina Supreme Court (1819-1829); their son William 
held the same post from 1833 to 1844. Alexander Gaston practiced and acted as 
apothecary for the town, but he also served as a justice of the peace and as judge of the 
court of oyer and terminer for the district of New Bern. He was a patriot and was fatally 
wounded by the tories on August, 1781, when he vainly attempted to escape capture by 
crossing the Trent River in a canoe. Col. John Green had been dining with Gaston in his 
home when the two were alerted to the tory plans. Ashe, Biographical History, VII, 

15 Phillip Ambrose evidently was in the area as early as 1758 since two legal actions 
involving him in that year were recorded . Signers for his bond in an indemnity suit against 
him were James Parkinson, Jeremiah Vail, and Nathan[iel?] Richardson. Saunders, 
Colonial Records, V, 929-930, 990. 

16 Jacob Sheppard could not be identified, although a man of that name was a com- 
missioner for a proposed town in Surry County in 1790. Clark, State Records, XXV, 112. 

17 Joseph Jones was a member of the assembly and of the provincial congresses which 
met in New Bern and Hillsborough. He was on the Edenton Council of Safety . Clark, State 
Records, XII, XVI passim; Saunders, Colonial Records, VI -X passim. 

18 As early as 1740 John Daly (Dayley, Dailey ) was mentioned in the colonial records as 
a messenger to the assembly. In 1771 he was one of the petitioners who appealed to Gov. 
Josiah Martin to pardon John Fruit, the Regulator. In May, 1776, Daly was appointed 
commander and commissary of Hanging Point Fort. In December of that year he was 
ordered by the provincial congress meeting in Halifax to bring in William Heath of New 
Bern, accused of being a tory. Saunders, Colonial Records, IV, 93-94; X, 520, 558, 954. 

19 In the list of expenses incurred by assemblymen and personnel involved with the 
Assembly of 1773, one pound was owed to Will (Wm., William) Euen for copying a bill 
"last session," which suggests that he may have acted as a clerk. In the sale of Josiah 
Martin's property in November, 1777, Euen purchased several items, most of them small 
except for one "mohogany stand, bottle and basin." Clark, State Records, XXII, 880, 881, 
883, 884, 887, 888. Saunders, Colonial Records, IX, 590. 

20 Timothy Clear (Clare) is mentioned fairly often in Saunders, Colonial Records, I. He 
bought land in Perquimans Precinct in 1694, was frequently a juror, kept the toll books, 
and was a road overseer. However, by 1765 this man would have been quite old, and the 
signer of this document might have been a son or near relative of Timothy Clear, resident 
of Perquimans Precinct. 

21 Jn? Pindar has not been identified. 

22 This was Patrick [Duff] Gordon, Scottish-born attorney, who moved to America in 
1757. He changed his name from Patrick Gordon Duff at that time because it was said he 
had wasted the estate of some minors to whom he was guardian. Although he seems 
generally to have served well in North Carolina, his reputation was not entirely without 
blemish. See Saunders, Colonial Records, VII, 350, 352; Clark, State Records, XIX, 67. See 
also pp. 530-531, n.l in this volume. Gordon died in 1773, leaving a widow and three 
young children. 

2i John Franck (Franks ) was in New Bern by 1750, since his land grant was approved in 
a council meeting on April 3 of that year. In 1788 he was named to be a commissioner to 
run the boundary line in an act to annex Dobbs County to Jones. Clark, State Records, 
XXIV, 958; Saunders, Colonial Records, IV, 1034, 1043. 


24 Thomas Pollock II was the son of Thomas Pollock, president of the council and for a 
short time governor of the colony. Thomas II was a chief justice of North Carolina. His 
brother was Cullen Pollock. Ashe, Biographical History, I, 411-412. 

25 Bernard Parkinson has not been identified. 

26 Little is known about William Wilton beyond the fact that he was a port commissioner 
for Port Beaufort, named in 1766. Saunders, Colonial Records, XXIII, 667. 

27 Christopher Neale received a grant for 500 acres of land in Currituck County in 1745, 
but by 1760 he was living in Craven County. From 1764 until 1782 he was active in a 
variety of public affairs. At one time or another, sometimes simultaneously, he repre- 
sented Craven County in the assembly, served as clerk of the assembly, was clerk of court 
in the county, and captain of the militia (on the Regulator expedition ); as a member of the 
provincial congress in 1776 he served on the committee to draft a state constitution. Soon 
afterward he was deputy secretary of state. During the Revolution he was charged with 
seeing that harbors were cleared; he delivered prisoners from North Carolina to Virginia; 
and he was one of the commissioners to sell the abandoned property of Royal Governor 
Martin . In 1784 he was active in the management of a company formed to cut a canal from 
Clubfoot Creek to Harlow Creek. There are innumerable references to Neale in several 
volumes of Saunders, Colonial Records. 

28 Thomas Sitgreaves (1757-1802) served under General Caswell during the Revolu- 
tion. He was also entrusted with such wartime activities as buying vessels to be used by 
the colony and overseeing the purchase of such supplies as tobacco. In addition he was 
register of the court of admiralty and acted as coroner. In 1787 Sitgreaves was speaker of 
the House, and in 1788 was a member of the constitutional convention which met in 
Hillsborough. At his death in 1802 he was serving as a federal judge, a post he had held 
for some time. Ashe, Biographical History, II, 398-400; Clark, State Records, XII, 20-21, 
25, 43-45, 623, 641, 742. XIII, 605-606, 608; Saunders, Colonial Records, IX, 298, X, 542. 

29 Efforts to identify Corn Grosnendeyk have been unsuccessful. 

30 In 1775 John Green was one of the commissioners at Port Beaufort delegated to outfit 
an armed vessel to protect trade at the port. He, along with others, was ordered to seize 
the brigantine William lying in Port Beaufort at that time (April 10, 1776) — an order 
issued by the provincial congress meeting at Halifax. Green was co-owner of a sloop, the 
Polly, seized by Georgia through mistake in November, 1776. Green was an assembly- 
man, marshal of the court of admiralty, and a subscriber for the post road. Clark, State 
Records, XII, 43, 44, 265, 328, 329, 330, 331, 349, 368, 405;Higginbotham, The Papers of 
James Iredell, I, 304; Saunders, Colonial Records, IX, 1116, X, 352, 508, 638, 821, 948, 
XII, 43, 44. 

31 John Fonville (Fonviele, Fonvealle, Fonvoille, Fonveal, Fonvielle) was appointed to 
be a justice of the peace for the Pasquotank Precinct; in 1734 [1735] he was appointed a 
justice of the Craven Precinct. There are various references to him as an assemblyman in 
Saunders, Colonial Records (volumes IV, V, VI). In 1758 he was serving as a commissioner 
for public buildings. 

32 Longfield Cox (Coxe ) apparently had a position comparable to that of custodian of the 
Capitol. One incident related in Ashe's Biographical History (VII, 113) is that Coxe and 
others tried to burn the homes of tories in New Bern and that the tories retaliated in kind. 
Clark, State Records, XV, 627; XVI, 161, 163. 

33 There are so many men with the name John Smith mentioned in the colonial records 
for this period that it is impossible to determine which one this is. 

34 In 1757 and 1758 Richard Fenner was not only acting as deputy secretary to 
Governor Dobbs but was also deputy clerk of the council and deputy register of the court 
of chancery. In addition, he was a justice of the peace and in March, 1764, was named to 
be a trustee for the New Bern school. Clark, State Records, XXV, 484; Saunders, Colonial 
Records, V, 768, 817, 932. 

35 Amb. Cox Bagley has not been identified, although he was probably Ambrose Cox 
Bayley, clerk of the superior court. 


36 Dr. Andrew Scott's name was added to the list of justices of the peace at a council 
meeting in New Bern, May 4, 1758. He was paid four pounds for performing an operation 
on a slave, as ordered by the court in New Bern. He was paid at the same time for 
medicines provided for the soldiers of Waddell and Paine. Clark, State Records, XXII, 819, 
822; Saunders, Colonial Records, V, 992. 

37 Perhaps this is Andrew Steuart, the printer who moved to North Carolina in June, 
1763, from Philadelphia expecting to become the provincial printer. He arrived too late to 
print the laws and journals of that year, however, and his appointment became a political 
question between Governor Dobbs and the assembly. His earliest imprint probably did 
not appear until 1765. Saunders, Colonial Records, VI, xxvii-xxix, 1248, 1301-1314 
passim, VII, vi, 124-125, 168a, 168c, 187-188, 335, 336, 417, 418; A. T. Dill, Governor 
Tryon and His Palace (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1955), 75-76, 91; 
Douglas C. McMurtrie, Eighteenth Century North Carolina Imprints, 1749-1800 (Chapel 
Hill: University of North Carolina Prints, 1938), 57, 61, 196. 

38 Efforts to identify Eliu Cotting have been futile. 

39 There are many references to John Moore and quite likely there were two or more 
men of this name. One John Moore was involved in land grant transactions (Saunders, 
Colonial Records, IV, 333, 619, 631, 638, 704, 710, 711, 765, 804). 

40 Efforts to identify Alex Eagles have been futile. 

Proclamation of the pro cos/350, if. 5959b 

Lieutenant Governor !f!?oSv^no^n 

A&H-LJ, 309-310 
CR-VII, 38 


May 18, 1765 

By the Honble Will™ Tryon Esqr 
Lieut: Governor & Commdr 
in Chief in and over the s? 

A Proclamation 

Whereas Information on Oath hath been made to me in Council, that 
on the 7 tn day of this Instant May in the County of Mecklenburgh 
several Rioters to the number of twelve or more black 'd and disguised 
and Armed with Guns and Clubs to the great Breach and Disturbance of 
His Majesty's Peace and Government; Did Violently Outrageously, and 
Ritously [Riotously?] assault and Beat, John Frohock Esqr 1 and others 
employed by the Honble Henry Eustace M c Culloh in Surveying and 
running out some Surveys for Persons settled on the Lands belonging to 
George Augustus Selwyn Esq*" 


In Order therefore for the Discovery of the said Rioters, and that they 
be punished agreeable to Law I have thought fit By and with the Advice 
and Consent of His Majestys Council to issue a Proclamation hereby 
Publishing and Declaring That any two Persons concerned in the said 
Riot; who shall first appear and make Information to His Honor the 
Lieut Governor or His Majesty's Attorney General, of the Names of the 
several Rioters, that they may be Convicted; The said Persons so giving 
Information shall be Exonerated and freed from the Punishment which 
the Justice of the Laws of this Country will require to be inflicted on 
them for the Commission of the said Offence. 

Given Under my hand and the 
Seal of this Province at New Bern 
May 18 th Anno Dom 1765 .... 
Will m Tryon 

By His Honor 


Benjamin Heron Secry 

God save the King 

'John Frohock (d. 1772), of Rowan County, was in the province by 1760 and was clerk 
of the court by early 1765, a position he held for the remainder of his life . He also served in 
the assembly from 1760 until 1768, and in the latter year was one of the commissioners 
for the new town of Charlotte. He was associated with Henry E. McCulloh and George A. 
Selwyn in land ventures and was considered an enemy by the Regulators. Although he 
was commander of the Rowan County militia, he was only indirectly involved in the 
Regulator troubles. Powell and others, Regulators, 579. 

William Tryon to General Gage 1 miu-c-g 

N9 Carolina, Newbern 18* May 1765 

I take the earliest Opportunity of acquainting You with the Death of 
Governor Dobbs, and of my succeeding Him in the Administration of 
this province, as Lieutenant Governor, till his Majestys Pleasure is 
further known 

His Excellency died at Brunswick the 28 of March last. 

If at any time Sir, You should have Occasion to Communicate 
Intelligence to Me, either of a Public or Private Import You may depend 
on my Punctual Attention to Your Correspondence 


I have the Honour to be Sir, 
Your Most Obedient 
& Humble Servant 
W m Tryon 

'Thomas Gage (1721-1787) came to America in 1754 with the rank of lieutenant 
colonel and served in the French and Indian War. Promoted to brigadier general and later 
lieutenant general, he was British commander in chief in the colonies from 1763 until 
1773. Mark M. Boatner III, Encyclopedia of the American Revolution (New York: David 
McKay Company, Inc., 1966), 405-409, hereinafter cited as Boatner, Encyclopedia of the 
American Revolution. 

William Tryon to General Gage Miu-c-G 

N: Carolina Newbern 19* M ay 1765 


I take the liberty at Lord Adam Gordons request to trouble you with 
the inclosed 1 who I imagine will be at New York at the time you receive 
this letter. I have not yet been able to inform myself what Steps 
Governor Dobbs took in Consequence of the information you Sent him 
of the General Peace concluded between His Majesties Subjects in this 
Continent and the Indian Nations nor exactly know how far the 
inhabitants of this Province are concerned in Trade with their 
Bordering Indian Tribes. As soon as I can get Satisfactory information 
on these points, I shall recommend to the Genl Assembly the 
consideration of granting, by the Governors Licence, a liberty only to a 
Certain Number of Persons to carry on Trade with the Indians and that 
at fixed Posts. Mrs Tryon an Old Tunbridge accquaintance of yours 
under Nomination at that time, of Miss Wake, desires to be remembered 
to you I have the Honor to be 

Sir your Most Obed^ Servant 

W Tryon 


The Resolutions the Assembly of this Province came to respecting 
the Indian Commerce, I will take care to communicate to you Sir 

See Tryon 's letter to Gage, May 18, which precedes this document. 


William Try on to Francis Fauquier 1 mh-tlb, 15 

A&H-TLB, 13 
CR-VII, 39-40 

Newbern 20? h May 1765 

The Honble Francis Fauquier 
Lieutenant Governor of Virginia 

As the Event of the Duel fought in March last at Brunswick, between 
Lieutenant Whitehurst & Alexander Simpson, Master, both of the Viper 
Sloop of War, has appeared in Your public papers, I shall only acquaint 
You of the Escape of the Latter, from Confinement, after a Coroners 
Inquest had brought in a Verdict of Wilfull Murder against him: In 
Consequence of which Escape, I issued a Proclamation, offering a 
Reward of £50 Proclamation Money to whoever should re-apprehend 
him: I have Occasion to trouble You with this Intelligence, as it is 
Conjectured he has been Conveyed into Your Province by the Assistance 
of some small Craft or Boat. M* Simpson married some Months ago, 
Miss Anne Pierson, Daughter of M*" s Ramsburg, whose Husband keeps 
a Tavern in Norfolk. MT S Simpson's Return to Virginia, gives some 
Reason to Suspect He is gone to Her Relations; the Weak State of his 
Health, and the dangerous Condition of his wound Strengthen this 
Conjecture; as in this Situation it is not probable, he Should undertake a 
long Voyage. 

If You, Sir, should receive any Intelligence of M r Simpson, I beg leave 
to trouble You to communicate it to me; as I think Justice demands 
further Enquiry into a Conduct, so extraordinary, as M*" Simpson's 
appears to have been in this unhappy Event. 

P.S. I acquainted You by a Line by Cap? Phipps of the Death of the late 
Gov*" Dobbs. 

'For a biographical sketch of Francis Fauquier see William Tryon to Lord Colville, 
April 22, 1765, n. 1 in this volume. 

William Tryon to Colonel Boyde 1 mh-tlb, 16 

[with enclosure] A&H-TLB, 15 

Brunswick 7F 1 June 1765 
Col9 Boyde, 

I shall give You a Commission, which I trust to Your Friendship and 
Address will be executed properly. It is to deliver my Inclosed Letter to 


the Secretary at War; 2 but before You see him, inquire of SV Jeffery 
Amhurst 3 the Character of Capt Dalrymple, as I am told He is well 
acquainted with his Military Genius & how far he was the best Adjutant 
in the Army. The Inclosed Letters I Received yesterday from Mr. 
Dalrymple; If You think they should be laid before the secretary at War, 
I have not the least Objection; it seems indeed, a Justice that they 
should: Should a Commission be obtained for Mr. Robert Howe, Mess rs 
Drummond 4 upon Your Application will pay the Fees of the Commission 
and inclose it to me. I assure you that not withstanding the Military 
Genius of my Friend, I stand in Need of a Person who can with Spirit 
support in the Assembly, the Measures of the Crown; and he seems well 
inclined to give his Aid, consistent with the Interest of his Constituents. 
I expect Mr. Dalrymple every Day will arrive and demand of me the 
Possession of Fort Johnston. If He produces His Majestys Commission, I 
shall admit him to take charge of the Fort, and at the same time acquaint 
him I have wrote home to get an other Officer appointed to the Fort as 
Commander. I am &c 

•Robert Boyd (1710-1794) was a civilian storekeeper at the garrison of Gibraltar prior 
to 1758 when he was commissioned lieutenant colonel —recognition of his bravery in 
attempting to deliver dispatches in view of the enemy. At this time he was serving with 
the Thirty -ninth Regiment of Foot. Boyd was afterwards knighted, attained the rank of 
general, and became governor of Gibraltar. Dictionary of National Biography, II, 

-'This very probably is a reference to the letter which immediately follows this 
document. Dated May 26, Tryon's letter to Welbore Ellis, secretary of war, reviews the 
Dalrymple-Dobbs affair. Biographical notes on Howe, Dalrymple, and Ellis will be found 
with enclosure. 

3 Sir Jeffrey Amherst (1717-1789) had been a major general in America during the 
French and Indian War, governor-general of British North America (1761-1763), and 
titular governor of Virginia (1759-1768). Clarke, Arthur Dobbs, Esquire, 145, 147, 159, 

161, 180, 183. 

4 Drummond & Co. was a firm at Charing Cross entrusted with handling financial 
transactions for Tryon. In one letter Tryon requested the firm to attend to all details 
involved with having paper currency for the colony produced. He specified the denomina- 
tions of the bills and implied that there was a desperate need for currency and that 
counterfeiting in the colony had been a real problem. Saunders , Colonial Records , VII, 158, 

162, 163,260,280-282. 

[Enclosure] MH-TLB, 15-16 

William Tryon to Welbore Ellis 1 cr-vii, 40' 

Welbore Ellis, Esq, His Majesty's Secretary at War. 

Brunswick 26 th May 1765 

Governor Dobbs, a few Weeks before his Death, acquainted me Cap? 
John Dalrymple 2 obtained in 1761 or the beginning of 1762 a Com- 


mission from His Majesty, appointing him Captain and Commander of 
Fort Johnston on Cape Fear River. That on his Arrival in this Province, 
he behaved in a very disrespectfull Manner to the Governor, insisting 
he was not under the Governors Authority, but acting solely under the 
Command of His Majesty's Commander in Chief of the Forces in 
America: in Consequence of which Conduct, the Governor put M r 
Dalrymple under an Arrest; which Arrest I understood M r Dalrymple 
broke, left the Province in 1762, and has never returned Since. I hope as 
this Fort is the only one, remaining in the Province, and this, very Weak 
in its Construction, I may be allowed to recommend a Gentleman, whose 
Spirit, Diligence and Integrity I entertain a good Opinion of: I do 
therefore requst the favour of You, Sir, to lay before His Majesty, the 
Name of M r Robert Howe, 3 as an Officer Qualified to bear His Majestys 
Commission, as Commander of Fort Johnston: He is a Native of 
Carolina, Served in the last Wars against the Indians and is at present a 
Representative in the House of Assembly. Lord Adam Gordon, who did 
me the Honour of passing a few Days with me in his Tour thro' 
America, will speak to the Character of this Gentleman. 

I am with all due Respect &c. 

! Welbore Ellis (1713-1802), formerly a member of Parliament, lord of the admiralty, 
and privy councilor, was now secretary of war, as this letter indicates, a position he held 
from 1762 until 1765. He later was treasurer of the navy and in 1782 bore the rather 
hollow title of secretary of state for America. He was created Baron Mendip in 1794. 
Dictionary of National Biography, VI, 710-712. 

2 John Dalrymple (d. 1766), captain in the Twenty-sixth Regiment, claimed to be the 
second son of a Scottish baronet; he had served thirty years in the British army when he 
was made commander of Fort Johnston by Gen. Edward Braddock. This appointment did 
not please Governor Dobbs, who had commented unfavorably on Dalrymple to Governor 
Dinwiddie of Virginia in 1755; and when the newly appointed commander arrived, Dobbs 
refused to accept him. Dalrymple returned to England and secured an appointment from 
the crown, but when he reported to Governor Dobbs in 1762 he was confined under 
guard . By 1765, however, he was in command at the fort and later reported to Tryon on the 
condition of the guns there. Dalrymple appears to have been a capable and experienced 
officer, acceptable to Tryon if not to Dobbs. Dalrymple died in Fort Johnston on July 13, 
1766, and his wife shortly afterwards was allowed certain funds due him. His will was 
proved in the New Hanover County court in 1767, and he had relatives living in the area. 
Clark, State Records, XI, 154-155, XXII, 824, 850; Saunders, Colonial Records, VII, 40, 91, 
170, 173, 180-182, 244, 249, 291, 445. 

3 Robert Howe (1732-1786), native of Brunswick County, apparently gained military 
experience during the French and Indian War. He was a justice of the peace in Bladen 
County in 1756, while between 1760 and 1775 he was almost continuously a member of 
the House of Commons for either Brunswick or Bladen. As commander of Fort Johnston 
he was custodian of the province's most important store of military supplies, and Tryon 
called on him during the course of the Regulator troubles for arms and ammunition. A 
more impressive fate awaited Howe, and during the Revolutionary War he became a 
major general, the highest ranking officer from the state. Boatner, Encylopedia of the 
American Revolution, 521-522. 


William Tryon to William Nunn 1 cr-vii, 91 

[June 10, 1765] 
North Carolina— ss. 

The HonPl e William Tryon Esq*" his Majesty's Lieutenant Governor 
and Commander in Chief in and over the said Province — 
To William Nunn Esquire of Orange County Greeting 

Out of the assurance I have of Your Loyalty and Integrity I do hereby 
Nominate, Constitute, and appoint you the said William Nunn to be 
Sheriff of the said County of Orange To have, hold, use Exercise, and 
Enjoy the said office of Sheriff of the County of Orange During my 
Pleasure, Together with all Powers and Authorities, Fees Privileges 
and Emoluments, which to the said office of Sheriff Dothe or may of 
Right belong or appertain. 

Given under my hand and seal of the said Province at Brunswick this 
Tenth day of June In the Year of Our Lord One Thousand Seven 
hundred and sixty five and in the Fifth Year of his Majestys Reign. 

W m Tryon 
By his Honours Command Tho s Rutherford D: SecY 2 

'William Nunn appears in Orange County records in 1759 as a commissioner of the new 
town which became Hillsborough, but in 1762 he was named coroner of Rowan County. 
By the document above he became sheriff and continued in that post at least until 1768. In 
1770 his name appears on a petition denouncing the Regulators and in 1771 he was back 
in Orange County. He became a benefactor of the young University of North Carolina and 
in 1795 opened an inn in Chapel Hill where he was still living in 1799 when he was 
appointed a member of a commission to lay out a road from the University to Raleigh. 
Clark, State Records, XXV, 402; R.D.W. Connor (ed.), A Documentary History of the 
University of North Carolina, 1776-1799, (Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 
2 vols., 1953), I, 439, II, 78, 104, 392; Hugh Lefler and Paul Wager (eds.), Orange County, 
1752-1952 (Chapel Hill: Orange Printshop, 1953), 33, 355; Saunders, Colonial Records, 
VI, 799, VII, 91. 

2 Thomas Rutherford had a grant for land in Cumberland County before 1757, was clerk 
of the council in 1763 and in the same year was also deputy secretary of the province. He 
held the latter post under both Dobbs and Tryon. In 1772 he was referred to as a colonel 
when he was surveyor of the North Carolina -South Carolina boundary, and in the same 
year he was also clerk of the court in Cumberland County. He attended all four provincial 
congresses (1774-1776) as a delegate from Cumberland and also sat in the 1775 
assembly; yet on February 13, 1776, as a colonel, he issued a call for the king's loyal 
subjects to take up arms in defense of the British cause, and he was present at the Battle 
of Moore's Creek Bridge as a tory. By an act of the legislature in 1784 his property was 
ordered to be seized. Sabine, A merican Loyalists, II, 248-249. 


The Board of Trade pro cos/325, f. 122 

to the Earl of Halifax PK() a)5/:no - Part ] < f 38 

[June 17, 1765] 

My Lord 

We beg leave to acquaint your Lordship, that we have this day 
received a Letter from Col9 Tryon, Lieut- Governor of North Carolina, 
acquainting us, that Gov*" Dobbs died at Brunswick in that Province on 
the 28t n day of March last. We are, 

My Lord, & c. 

Soame Jenyns 
Ed: Bacon 
Bamber Gascoyne 1 

June 17t h 1765 

Camber Gascoyne (1725-1791), a brewer, was lord mayor of London, 1752-1753. His 
maternal grandfather, John Bamber, was a wealthy London physician. A very influential 
member of the Board of Trade and Plantations, Gascoyne opposed repeal of the Stamp 
Act in 1766. Valentine, The British Establishment, I, 356. 

Memorandum of a Letter pro adm 50/4 

from Alexander Colville 1 to William Tryon A&H: 72 2488 1 2 

June 21, 1765 

Moored in Halifax Harbour 

Wrote to Lt. Gov. Tryon of No. Carolina acknowledging the receipt of 
Letters by Capt. Lobb with an account of the Proceedings against 
Alexander Simpson for the Murder of Lt. Whitehurst. 

Alexander Colville, Lord Colville of Culross (1717-1770), a rear admiral, was in 
command in America from 1755 until 1766 when he returned to his native Scotland 
(White, The Complete Peerage, III, 384). Admiral Colville appointed Alexander Scott as a 
crewman on the Viper in place of Alexander Simpson, "absconded on account of the Death 
of Lieut. Whitehurst," and Lt. Thomas Lloyd of the Romney to be "Lieut, of the Viper in 
room of Lieut. Whitehurst killed in a Duel" (PRO ADM 50/4). 


William Tryon to the Board of Trade mh-tlb, 18-19 

N° Carolina Brunswick 
24 th June 1765 

My Lords, 

I received with no small surprize a Letter from M r William Hunter 
of which the Inclosed is a Copy; 1 As it gives me Intelligence of a very 
Extraordinary Representation laid before your Lordships of my Conduct 
towards M Y . Jouvancell and M Y Bridgen, I think it Justice to myself to 
explain the whole of my Transactions with those Gentlemen. 

At the Time I had the Honor of being Appointed to this Province, M Y 
Jouvancell waited on me in Grosvenor Street to Congratulate me on my 
Commission as Lieutenant Governor; to Offer his Services, to inform me 
he was Agent to the Province, and to Solicit my Interest in his Behalf, as 
he said it was reported, I had a Gentleman to recommend to the 
Province as Agent; I acknowledged, a Gentleman had been recom- 
mended to me as a proper Person to be Agent, at the same time added 
the province was extreamly dissatisfied, if my Information was true, at 
his Negligence in suffering the Rice-Bill to pass thro' the Parliament 
without including North Carolina in the same Privileges in the Exporta- 
tion of Rice, with South Carolina & Georgia; His Answer I thought 
particular; "That the Agents for those Provinces had carried on their 
Business so secretly that the Bill had been read Twice in the Committee 
before He had Notice of it"; I openly assured Him that if I found the 
Province determined to change their Agent, and were in want of a 
Person to represent them, I should lay before Them the name and 
Character of a Gentleman recommended to me; but if on the Contrary I 
found the Province satisfied with his Conduct, and in the Inclination to 
Continue him, I should not have the least Objection. 

M Y Bridgen my other Accuser as great a stranger to me as M r 
Jouvencell presented his Offer of Services; He intimated also he had 
heard I had an Agent to recommend; My Answer was, I had an Agent 
sealed up in my Pocket, if I should find the Province in want of a Good 
one; He then sollicited me to recommend him if my Pocket Agent should 
be rejected; I replied, if they did not approve of the First, I should not 
trouble them with a Second; he lastly hoped I should not oppose his 

This, My Lords was all I recollect to have passed between me and my 
two Occult and Cat paw Enemies. 

At the General Assembly soon after my Arrival in this Province, the 
Choice of a New Agent I found was the voice of All, I then thought 
myself at Liberty to lay before a few of the Members of the Assembly 
on the Merits of M Y Knox 2 of Bruton Street, but found in General they 
were Engaged to Nominate M Y Barker, 3 a Gentleman whom I believe to 


be now in England, and Who had been some Years Treasurer for the 
Northern District of the Province. 

Upon Mr Barker & Mr Knox being proposed to the House of 
Assembly, it was Carried for the former by a large Majority, and his 
name sent to the Council for their Concurrence to appoint him Agent, 
but for reasons best known to those Gentlemen, M r I3arker was 
rejected, & Mr Bridgen recommended in his stead; This Recommenda- 
tion however not meeting with the Approbation of the Assembly no 
further Step was taken as I was informed by Gentlemen of the Council 
and Assembly. 

I have been my Lords the More particular in this Detail as My 
conduct has been misrepresented to Gentlemen in whose Opinion I 
should be sorry to be prejudiced, Unheard. 

I never to my knowledge saw M r Abercrombie, or ever had any 
private, or public Concern with him. I can therefore give no reason for 
his declaring Me already in a Scrape, or for his sanguine Expectations of 
seeing me deep in the Mire. 

I am with all possible Respect 
My Lords 

Your Lordships 
Most Obedient and 
Most Humble Servant 
W m Tryon 

M r . W m Hunter lives near 
Fenchurch Street 

'The letter in question very probably was the one of March 2, William Hunter to Tryon, 
in this volume. 

2 William Knox (1732-1810) had been provost- marshal of Georgia (1757-1761) and 
agent in Great Britain for Georgia and East Florida. In Georgia he was a large rice planter, 
but his support of the Stamp Act caused him to lose favor in the colonies. He afterwards 
became undersecretary of state to Lord Hillsborough and other secretaries. Dictionary of 
National Biography, XXXI, 226; Lonn, Colonial Agents, 280; Sainty, Officials of the 
Secretaries of State, 85. 

3 Thomas Barker (1713-1787) was considered to be a resident of Edenton although he 
spent much time —once a period of seventeen years —in England . Some of the biographical 
facts about Barker cannot be determined, but it is believed he was born in Pembroke, 
Massachusetts. Certainly he lived there prior to 1732 when he removed to Edenton to 
study law with his uncle, William Little, chief justice of North Carolina. Barker bought 
property in Bertie County and town lots in Edenton; he was a justice of the peace in Bertie 
and represented that county in the assembly, but later on he represented the town of 
Edenton— and even later, Chowan County. Barker in 1746 had been appointed by Gov. 
Gabriel Johnston to be treasurer of the northern counties. He was also collector of customs 
at Port Roanoke. Both his first wife and his second (Penelope Craven) were wealthy 
women through their own inheritance. The Barker House in Edenton is now a museum 
and the headquarters for "Historic Edenton." Clark, State Records and Saunders, Colonial 
Records, numerous references in several volumes; Higginbotham, The Papers of James 
Iredell, I, 103n-104n, from Chowan and Bertie records; information provided by Mr. 
Henry Lewis of Chapel Hill. 


William Tryon to the Board of Trade pro cos/299, 

Part 2, ff. 126126b 
MH-TLB, 17-18 
CR-VII, 94 
A&H-TLB, 16 

The Lords Commissioners Brunswick 24t n June 1765 

for Trade and Plantations 

The Inclosed papers 1 will give your Lordships a particular detail of an 
unfortunate Duel fought at Brunswick the 18 tn of March last between 
Lieutenant Whitehurst and Alexander Simpson, Master, both of His 
Majesty's Sloop the Viper; the Consequences of which terminated in the 
Death of Lieutenant Whitehurst; his Thigh was broke by a Pistol shot, 
and his Head Wounded in several places with the said pistol, the butt 
End of which, and the Pan, was broke by the Violence of the Blows, he 
received. Mr. Simpson received a shot behind his right shoulder, the 
Ball came out under the Arm. The Depositions of James Brewster and 
James Mooringe, both Midshipmen of the Viper, were taken by Justice 
Hill in the presence of Late Governor Dobbs and Myself; the Copy of 
the Coroners Inquest on Lieut. Whitehurst 's Body; the Verdict against 
Mr. Simpson; his Commitment; the Proclamation for Reapprehending of 
him on his Escape, with the Proceedings taken in the Superior Court at 
Wilmington, will, I am Satisfied, convince your Lordships, and the 
Lords of Admiralty, that no Assistance or Connivance was given by the 
Legislature in this Province to favor his Escape. 

Capt Phipps's Letter, a Copy of which I send Your Lordships, 2 with 
my Answer annexed, was in Consequence of Justice Hill's proclamation 
of Hue and Cry to reapprehend Mr. Simpson: I own so uncommon a 
Spirit of Revenge appeared in Mr. Simpson's Conduct & Treatment of 
Lieut. Whitehurst, that I was very sollicitous of putting him on his Trial; 
His Escape was effected the Night before the Governor died, at which 
period I was 70 Miles from Brunswick, escorting Lord Adam Gordon 
thro' part of this Province. His Lordship is acquainted with the 
Circumstances of this Duel; Woman, I was told, sowed the first Seeds of 
their Dissentions. I have sent a Copy of these Papers to Lord Colvil, and 
acquainted him I should send Duplicates of the same to The Lords of 
Admiralty, which I do, through Your Lordships Board, agreeable to the 
Governors Instructions. 

I am My Lords with all possible Respect 
Your Lordships 

Most Obedient & most Humble Servant 
W m Tryon 

'The enclosed papers were copies of accounts of the Whitehurst -Simpson duel which 
have been presented earlier in this volume. 

2 See Constantine John Phipps to William Tryon, April 8, 1765, in this volume. 


Memorandum of Letter: pro adm so/4 

Alexander Colville to William Tryon 

June 26, 1765 

Moored in Halifax Harbour 

. . . Informed Lieut. Govr. Tryon of No. Carolina with my Sentiments in 
regard to the Escape of the Master of the Viper and assured him that if 
my Orders should be necessary to cause any Person under my 
Command to be delivered up to Justice for having assisted the 
Delinquent to escape that I would readily grant them. 

The Earl of Halifax to pro co 5/199, 

the Board of Trade ff 125125b 

St James's, June 26, 1765 

My Lords, 

The King having been pleased to appoint William Tryon Esq*" to be 
Captain General and Governor in Chief in and over His Majesty's 
Province of North Carolina, in America, in the Room of Arthur Dobbs 
Esq?", deceased, it is His Majesty's Pleasure, that the Draughts of this 
Commission and Instructions be prepared, in order to be laid before His 
Majesty for His Approbation. 

I am, 

My Lords, 

Your Lordships most obedient, humble Servant 
Dunk Halifax 

Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations 

North Carolina. 

Letter from the Earl of Halifax to the Board, dated June 26, 1765, 
notifying his Appointment of William Tryon Esq** to be Gov!" of North 
Carolina, & signifying the King's Pleasure, that Draughts of a 
Commission and Instructions be prepared. 

Rec^ June 26 yj^ 


E. 87 


Excerpt from Minutes of journal of the 

Board Of Trade Commissioners, 188 

June 26, 1765 

Read a letter from the Earl of Halifax to the Board, dated June 26 tn , 
1765 notifying the appointment of William Try on, esquire, to be 
governor of North Carolina, and signifying the King's pleasure that 
draughts of a Commission and instructions be prepared. 

The draught of a Commission appointing William Try on, esquire, 
Governor of North Carolina, having been accordingly prepared, was 
agreed to, and representation to his Majesty thereupon was signed. 

The Board of Trade to King George pro co 5/325, 

f. 122b 

June 26, 1765 

To the King's most Excellt Majesty 
May it please Your Majesty 

In obedience to Your Majesty's Commands signified to us by the Earl 
of Halifax, one of Your Majesty s principal Secretaries of State, in his 
Letter dated the 26^ n instant, We have prepared the Draught of a 
Commission constituting & appointing William Tryon Esq*" to be 
Captain Gen! & Governor in chief in and over your Majesty's Province 
of North Carolina in America, in the room of Arthur Dobbs Esqr 
deceased; which being in the usual form, we herewith humbly lay it 
before Your Majesty, and shall prepare the necessary Instructions for 
the said Governor with all possible dispatch. 

Which is most humbly submitted. 

Ed: Bacon. 

June 26 th 1765 

[Note in red ink:] 

The Commission was dated at Westminster the 19 day of July in the 5t n 

year of His Majesty's reign. 


The Earl of Halifax to the proadm 1/4126 

Commissioners of the Admiralty 

St. James's, June 26th 1765 
My Lords, 

The King having been pleased to appoint William Tryon Esqr. to be 
Captain General and Governor in Chief in and over His Majesty's 
Province of North Carolina in America in the Room of Arthur Dobbs 
Esqr., deceased, it is His Majesty's Pleasure, that Your Lordships 
should grant Him such Powers as have been usually granted to the 
Captains General of the Rest of His Majesty's Colonies and Provinces in 

I am, My Lords, 
Your Lordships 

most obedient humble Servant 
Dunk Halifax 

William Tryon Commissions Samuel Swann 1 a&h-go 

June 26, 1765 2 

The HonT^le William Tryon Esquire His Majestys Lieutenant Governor, 
and Commander in Chief, in and over the said Province — 

To Samuel Swann Esquire of New Hanover County 

Out of the Assurance I have of your Loyalty and Integrity I do hereby 
Nominate, Constitute, and Appoint you the said Samuel Swann Esquire 
to be Publick Treasurer for the Southern District of this Province; To 
have hold, Use Exercise and enjoy the said Office of Public Treasurer 
During my Pleasure, or to the end of the next Session of the General 
Assembly of the said Province, together with all Powers, and Authori- 
ties, Fees Priviledges and Emoluments which to the said Office of 
Publick Treasurer for the said District doth or may of right, belong or 

GIVEN under my hand and the Great Seal 
of the said Province at Brunswick this 
fourth day of June One Thousand Seven 


hundred and Sixty five, and in the fifth 
Year of His Majestys Reign 

W m (Seal) Tryon 

Record^ 1 June 26? h 1765. 

'Samuel Swann (1704-1771), son of Elizabeth Lillington and Major Samuel Swann,was 
probably the most influential man in the colony in his day . A surveyor by training, Swann 
went with the North Carolina commissioners appointed by Governor Everard to join with 
the Virginia commissioners to run the dividing line between the two colonies in 1729. He 
represented Perquimans County in the assembly for forty years. Succeeding his uncle, 
Edward Moseley, as speaker of the assembly, Swann occupied that post for twenty years. 
In 1746 Moseley and Swann worked together to revise the laws of the colony, a revision 
which was the first published book in the colony, A Collection of All the Public Acts of 
Assembly, of the Province of North-Carolina: Now in Force and Use (1751). Swann retired 
from the assembly in 1762 but practiced law for another decade. Cyclopedia of Eminent 
and Representative Men of the Carolinas of the Eighteenth Century, II, 302. 

2 The actual date of commissioning was June 4; the document was recorded on June 26. 

Commissioners of the Admiralty to a&h-er 

Sir Thomas Salisbury 1 

June 27, 1765 

Whereas We have thought fit to appoint William Tryon Esq 1 " Captain 
General and Governor in Chief of His Majestys Province of North 
Carolina in America, Vice Admiral of the same; These are therefore to 
direct & require you to cause Letters Patent for the Vice Admiralty of 
the said Province, to be forthwith to be issued out of the High Court of 
Admiralty for the said William Tryon accordingly, in His Majestys 
Name, in manner & form accustomed, and to continue in force til further 
order. For which this shall be your Warrant. Given under Our Hands & 
the Seal of the Office of Admiralty the 27 th of June 1765 

By&c. E. C. H. 2 


To Sir Thomas Salisbury 
Judge of the High Court of Admiralty 

'Sir Thomas Salisbury (1711-1773), a graduate of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, served as a 
judge of the admiralty court from 1751 until his death. John Venn and J. A. Venn, Alumni 
Cantabrigienses . . .from the Earliest Times to 1751 (Cambridge: At the University Press, 
4 vols., 1922-1927), IV, 7. 

2 Probably Egmont, Carysfort, and Howe. 


James Murray to William Try on mhi -m 

Boston July 3^ 1765 

By the Time I have the honour to kiss you thro' this, you will have 
had an experience of the temper of the climate & people where you 
preside, which I hope will not have lessend your good Opinion of either. 
If your Honour has had the Dexterity as I hear to get a church Bill to 
your wish you have done more good for the Province in your first 
Session than any, nay than all your Predecessors together since the 
settlement of the Colony— may you be equally Successful in erecting 
Schools, not to make good Scholars, but to make good Men and good 
planters of the rising generations of his Majesty's Subjects under your 
Government— then I think you will have little more to wish, (for the 
Court bells will go of Course & methods will probably be taken at home 
to obtain a Rent Roll) but to receive the plaudite "Well done thou good 
& faithful Servant &c". But, Politicks apart, give me leave to ask you 
how the Summer agrees with your Lady & Miss & how Mr El win 1 does, 
how do he and his Bretheren of the Land Office relish the Stamp Act — 
the Lawyers will also feel it— I see I cannot leave off politicks when I 
have the honour to speak or write to you, so it is lucky for you that I am 
at a distance & shall write but seldom for it is not improbable that you 
are already surfeited with politicks from other Quarters. 

If you remember, Sir, among your other Commissions, you bid me 
send hay, when I could get it freight free. The Vessel which carries this 
is commanded by Capt Cray 2 & owned by him & Capt Quince, 3 he 
(Cray) allows me to ship two tons, saying he will readily give his share 
of the freight & doubts not Messrs Quince will follow his Example, the 
Bill of lading is inclosed and Accot annexed. The fall will be the 
properest time for sending your Cattle when the passage will be short 
and the young Cattle Strong. 

fountain Elwin was private secretary to Tryon from 1764 to 1767 in addition to being 
a part of his family. See also Tryon 's letter to William Bull, February 14, 1765, n. 2. 

2 Possibly this is Captain John Cray. 

3 Richard Quince and his sons— John, Richard, and Parker— were important merchants 
and planters in the history of Brunswick Town and Wilmington . Parker Quince became a 
justice of the peace in 1769 and represented Brunswick Town in the General Assembly 
during 1775 and 1776. During the Revolution he served on the Brunswick County 
Committee of Safety and was a colonel of the Brunswick County militia in 1776. The 
following year he resigned from his post but was still active in local affairs. In 1785 he 
returned to England and died shortly afterward. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town 
Book, 187n. 


Warrant for Church Silver 


July 9, 1765 

William Tryon Esq*" 
Gov*" North Carolina 
Chapel -Plate 

These are to signify unto your Lordship His Majesty's Pleasure that 
you provide and deliver to His Excellency William Tryon, Governor of 
North Carolina, Two Flagons, One Chalice, a Patine and a Receiver to 
take the Offering in for the Use of His Majesty's Chapel there, 1 not 
Exceeding the Value of Eighty Pounds. And for so doing this shall be 
your Warrant Given under my Hand this 3: d Day of July 1765: For the 
Fifth Year of His Majesty's Reign 

Gower 2 
Let this Warrant be Executed 
Whitehall Treasury Chambers the 
9: th day of July 1765 

North 3 

John Turner 4 
Tho? Orby Hunter 5 

To The Earl of Darlington 6 
Master of His Majty s Jewel -Office, 
and to the rest of the Officers 

This Warrant will amount unto 
Eighty Pounds or thereabouts 


W: Egerton 7 

! St. Philip's Church, Brunswick, was under construction during the period 1754-1768. 

2 This is possibly Granville Leveson-Gower (1721-1803), second Earl Gower, first 
marquis of Stafford, who was educated at Oxford, was a member of Parliament (1744), 
lord of the privy seal (1755-1757, 1785-1794), and president of the council (1767-1779, 

1783-1784). Webster's Biographical Dictionary, 893. 

Frederick North (1732-1792), now a junior lord of the treasury, became chancellor of 
the exchequer in 1767 and first lord of the treasury in 1770. He was prime minister under 
George III and pursued the disastrous policies which led to the revolt of the colonies, 


including support of the Stamp Act and Townshend Acts. Lord North resigned in 1782 
but cooperated with Fox in opposing the Shelburne ministry; he became the second earl of 
Guilford in 1790. Webster's Biographical Dictionary, 1107. 

4 Sir John Turner, third baronet, was a commissioner of the treasury, 1762-1765. J. C. 
Sainty . Treasury Officials, 1660-1870 (London : University of London Institute of Historical 
Research, 1972), 155, hereinafter cited as Sainty, Treasury Officials. 

5 Thomas Orbv Hunter was a commissioner of the treasury, 1763-1765. Sainty, Treasury 
Officials, 134. 

6 Henry Vane, earl of Darlington (1726-1792), was at this time lord lieutenant of County 
Durham, governor of Carlisle, and master of the jewel office. The latter office he held from 
1763 until 1786. White, The Complete Peerage, IV, 82. 

'"Perhaps this was the William Egerton who was afterwards a clerk (1787-1792) in the 
treasury. Saintv, Treasury Officials, 124. 

^Hl ■ -; ' 

Now only a picturesque ruin, St. Philip's Church in Brunswick was no doubt a grand 
building when Tryon attended services there. In 1970 St. Philip's in its unrestored state 
was placed on the National Register of Historic Places. Photograph from the files of the 
Division of Archives and History. 


The Reverend James Reed to the Secretary, cr-vii, 97 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 1 N£ S pf er B()()k ' 


Newbernjuly 10 th 1765 

Rev d Sir: 

You must no doubt have heard of the death of M r Dobbs our late 
worthy Governor long before the receipt of this— The great loss which 
the Clergy have sustained by his decease will, I trust in God, be made 
up by Coll n Tryon his successor At an Assembly held the latter end of 
last May a bill was passed for the encouragement and establishment of 
an Orthodox Clergy and so warmly recommended by our Lieu^ 
Governour, as to meet with success. By this Law,— tho' our Stipinds are 
not augmented, yet some of our hardships and grievances are removed. 
The Right of presentation is given up to the Crown which has freed us 
from the insolence and tyranny of Vestries and a shorter and much 
easier method is appointed for the recovery of our Stipinds by Law 
wherever it may be necessary to have recourse to such a severe and 
desperate remedy. . . . 

'The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts was a missionary 
organization formed in England in 1701 to support the work of the Church of England 
abroad. In North Carolina between 1708 and 1783 it supported a total of thirty-three 
missionaries at twenty-two stations. 

Memorandum of Warrant pro co 324/41, 

Appointing Tryon Governor f 158 

July 10, 1765 

A warrant, directed to Mr Attorney, or Mr Solicitor General, to prepare 
a Bill for His Majesty's Royal Signature for constituting and appointing 
William Tryon Esqr. to be His Majesty's Captain General and Governor 
in Chief in and over His Majesty's Province of North Carolina in 
America dated as above [July 10, 1765]. 


William Tryon's Appointment a&h-er 

to be Governor 

July [10?] 1765 

William Tryon Esq 1 " 
Governor of North 

His Majesty is pleased to Constitute and Appoint William Tryon 
Esquire, to be His Captain General, and Governor in Chief, in, and over, 
His Majesty's Province of North Carolina, in America, for and during 
His Majesty's Pleasure, In the room of Arthur Dobbs Esquire, deceased. 
And such Powers and Clauses are therein Inserted, as were directed. 
Subscribed by Mr. Attorney General by Warrant under His Majesty's 
Royal Sign Manual Countersigned by the Earl of Halifax. 

Jn9 Larpent 1 Dept 


July 1765 
William Tryon Esqr 
Governor of North 

To the Most Noble 
Thomas Holler 
Duke of Newcastle 
Lord Privy Seal 

'John Larpent (1741-1824) served for forty-three years in the foreign office. For a time 
he was also secretary to the duke of Bedford and to the marquis of Hertford. He left office 
in March, 1782, when the Colonial Department was abolished. Sainty, Officials of the 
Secretaries of State, 86. 

Letters Patent Appointing William Tryon pro hca 50/12 

Vice Admiral of North Carolina 

[Editorial note: The "Letters Patent" was, of course, a form document. 
A clerk apparently was instructed to use the copy which had been sent 
in 1764 to James Grant, governor of East Florida. The terms the clerk 
was to substitute in the one to be sent to Tryon were written out on a 
separate sheet and have been inserted here by the editor. The 
whereabouts of the document actually received by Tryon is unknown.] 


July 13, 1765 

Letters Patent granted to William Tryon Esq?" 
Captain General and Governor in Chief of the 
Province of North Carolina in America for the Office 
of Vice Admiral of the said Province and of the same 
Tenor of the Letters Patent granted to James Grant EsqT 
(Folio 4) except the clauses underwritten: 

George the Third by the Grace of God of Great Britain France and 
Ireland King Defender of the Faith To our beloved WILLIAM TRYON 
your Fidelity, Care and Circumspection in this Behalf do by these 
Presents, Which are to continue during Our Pleasure only, ordain 
constitute and depute You the said WILLIAM TRYON ESQ R OUR CAPT. 
sary and Deputy in the Office of Vice Admiralty in Our Province of 
North Carolina & Territories thereon depending and in the Maritime 
parts of the same and thereto adjoining whatsoever with Power of 
taking and receiving all and every the Fees, Profits Advantages, Emol- 
uments Commoditys and Appurtenances whatsoever due and belonging 
to the said Office of Vice Admiral , Commissary and Deputy in OUR SAID 
Maritime Parts of the same and adjoining to Them whatsoever 
according to the Ordinances and Statutes of Our High Court of 
Admiralty of England, and We do hereby commit and grant unto You 
the aforesaid WILLIAM TRYON ESQ R Our Power and Authority in and 
through Our Province of North Carolina aforementioned and Territorys 
thereof and Maritime Parts whatsoever adjacent thereto and also 
throughout all and every the Sea Shores, Publick Streams, Ports, Fresh 
Waters, Rivers, Creeks and Arms as well of the Sea as of the Rivers and 
Coasts whatsoever of OUR S D PROVINCE OF NORTH CAROLINA and Ter- 
ritorys dependant thereon and Maritime Parts whatsoever of the same 
and thereto adjacent, as well within Libertys and Franchises as without, 
To take Cognizance of and proceed in all Causes Civil and Maritime 
and in Complaints, Contracts Offences or suspected Offenses, Crimes, 
Pleas, Debts, Exchanges, Accounts, Charter Parties, Agreements, 
Suits, Trespasses, Injurys, Extortions and Demands and Businesses 
Civil and Maritime whatsoever commenced or to be commenced between 
Merchants or between Owners and Proprietors of Ships and other 
Vessels and Merchants or Others whomsoever with such Owners and 
Proprietors of Ships and all other Vessels whatsoever imployed or used 
within the Maritime Jurisdiction of Our Vice Admiralty of OUR S D PRO- 


or between any other Persons whomsoever had, made, began or 
contracted for any Matter, Thing, Cause or Business whatsoever done 
or to be done within Our Maritime Jurisdiction aforesaid, together with 
all and singular their Incidents, Emergences, Dependences annexed 
and connexed Causes whatsoever, wheresoever or howsoever and such 
Causes, Complaints, Contracts and other the Premisses abovesaid or 
any of Them Which may happen to arise, be contracted, had or done. 
To hear and determine according to the Rights, statutes, Laws, 
Ordinances and Customs currently observed, And moreover in all and 
singular Complaints, Contracts, Agreements, Causes and Businesses 
Civil and Maritime to be performed beyond the Sea or contracted there 
howsoever arising or hap'ning And also in all and singular other Causes 
and Matters Which in any Manner whatsoever touch or any Way 
concern or anciently have and do or ought to belong unto the Maritime 
Jurisdiction of Our aforesaid Vice Admiralty in our s9 Province of North 
Carolina & Territorys thereupon depending and to the same adjoining 
whatsoever And generally in all and singular all other Causes, Suits, 
Crimes, Offences, Excesses, Injurys, Complaints, Misdemeanors or 
Suspected Misdemeanors, Trespasses, Regratings, Forestallings and 
Maritime Businesses whatsoever throughout the Places aforesaid 
within the Maritime Jurisdiction of Our Vice Admiralty of Our S9 
Province of North Carolina & Territorys thereon depending by Sea or 
Water or the Banks or Shores of the same howsoever done, committed, 
perpetrated or happning And also to inquire by the Oaths of honest and 
lawful Men of Our said Province of North Carolina & Territorys 
dependant thereon and Maritime Parts of the same and adjoining to 
Them whatsoever dwelling both within Libertys and Franchises and 
without, as well of all and singular such Matters and Things which of 
Right and by the statutes, Laws, Ordinances and Customs anciently 
observed were wont and ought to be inquired after as of Wreck of the 
Sea and of all and singular the Goods and Chattels of whatsoever 
Traitors, Pirates, Manslayers and Felons howsoever offending within 
the Maritime Jurisdiction of Our Vice Admiralty of Our said Province of 
North Carolina aforement? & Territorys thereunto belong? and of the 
Goods, Chattels and Debts of all and singular their Maintainers, 
Accessaries, Counsellors, Abettors or Assistants whomsoever And also 
of the Goods, Debts and Chattels of whatsoever Person or Persons, 
Felons of Them selves by what Means or howsoever coming to their 
Death within Our aforesaid Maritime jurisdiction wheresoever any such 
Goods, Debts and Chattels or any parcel thereof by Sea, Water or Land 
in Our sy Province of North Carolina & Territorys thereon dependant 
and Maritime Parts of the Same and thereto adjacent whatsoever as 
well within Libertys and Franchises as without, have been or shall be 
found forfeited or to be Forfeited or in being: And moreover as well of 
the Goods, Debts and Chattels of whatsoever other Traitors, Felons and 


Manslayers wheresoever offending and of the Goods, Debts and 
Chattels of their Maintainers, Accessories, Counsellors, Abettors or 
Assistants, as of the Goods, Debts and Chattels of all Fugitives, Persons 
convicted, attainted, condemned, outlawed or howsoever put or to be 
put in Exigent for Treason, Felony, Manslaughter or Murther or any 
other Offence or Crime whatsoever And also concerning Goods waving 
Flotzom, Jetzom, Lagon, Shares and Treasure found or to be found 
Deodands, And of the Goods of all Others whatsoever taken or to be 
taken as Derelict or by Chance found or to be found or howsoever due or 
to be due, And of all other Casualtys as well in, upon or by the Sea, and 
Shore, Creeks or Coasts of the Sea or Maritime Parts as in, upon or by 
all Fresh Waters, Ports, Publick Streams, Rivers or Creeks or Places 
overflown whatsoever within the Ebbing and Flowing of the Sea or 
High Water or upon the Shores or Banks of any of the Same within Our 
Maritime Jurisdiction aforesaid howsoever, whensoever or by what 
Means soever arising, hapning or proceeding or wheresoever such 
Goods, Debts and Chattels or other the Premisses or any Parcel thereof 
may or shall happen to be met with or found within Our Maritime 
Jurisdiction aforesaid and also concerning Anchorage, Lastage and 
Ballast of Ships and of Fishes Royal, Namely, Sturgeons, Whales, 
Porpusses, Dolphins, Riggs and Grampusses and generally of all other 
Fishes whatsoever Which are of a great or very large Bulk or Fatness 
anciently by Right or Custom or any Way appertaining or belonging to 
Us, And to ask, require, levy, take, collect, receive and obtain and to the 
Use of Us and the Office of Our High Admiral of Great Britain aforesaid 
for the Time being to keep and preserve the said Wreck of the Sea and 
the Goods, Debts, and Chattels and all and singular other the Premisses 
together with all and all Manner of Fines, Mulcts, Issues, Forfeitures, 
Amerciaments, Ransoms and Recognizances whatsoever forfeited or to 
be forfeited and pecuniary Punishments for Trespasses, Crimes, 
Injurys, Extortions, Contempfts] and other Misdemeanors whatsoever 
howsoever imposed or inflicted or to be imposed or inflicted for any 
Matter, Cause or Thing whatsoever in OUR sP PROVINCE OF NORTH 
of the same and thereto adjoining in any Court of Our Admiralty there 
held or to be held, presented or to be presented, assessed, brought, 
forfeited or adjudged, and also all Amercements, Issues, Fines, 
Perquisites, Mulcts and pecuniary Punishments whatsoever and 
forfeitures of all Manner of Recognizances before You or your Lieutenant 
TORYS THEREUNTO BELONGING and Maritime Parts of the same and 
thereto adjacent whatsoever hap ning or imposed or to be imposed or 
inflicted or by any Means assessed, presented, forfeited or adjudged or 
howsoever by Reason of the Premisses due or to be due in that Behalf to 
us or Our heirs and successors. And further to take all Manner of 


Recognizances, Cautions, Obligations and Stipulations as well to Our 
Use as at the Instance of any Partys for Agreements or Debts and other 
Causes whatsoever and to put the Same in Execution and to cause and 
command Them to be executed And also to arrest and cause and 
command to be arrested according to the Civil and Maritime Laws and 
ancient Customs of Our said Court all Ships, Persons, Things, Goods, 
Wares and Merchandizes for the Premisses and Every of Them and for 
other Causes whatsoever concerning the same wheresoever They shall 
be met with or found throughout OUR sP PROVINCE OF NORTH CAROLINA 
AND TERRITORYS THEREUNTO BELONGING and maritime parts thereof 
and thereto adjoining within Libertys and Franchises as without And 
likewise for all other Agreements, Causes or Debts howsoever con- 
tracted or arising so that the Goods or the Persons of the Debtors may 
be found within Our Jurisdiction aforesaid And to hear, examine, 
discuss and finally determine the Same with their Emergences, 
Dependences, Incidents, annexed and connexed Causes and Businesses 
whatsoever, together with all other Causes Civil and Maritime and 
Complaints, Contracts and all and every the respective Premisses 
whatsoever above expressed according to the Laws and Customs 
aforesaid And by all other lawful Ways, Means and Methods according 
to the best of your Skill and Knowledge And to compel all Manner of 
Persons in that Behalf, as the Case shall require, to appear and to 
answer with Power of using any temporal Coertion and of inflicting any 
other Penalty or mulct according to the Laws and Customs aforesaid 
And to do and minister Justice according to the right Order and Course 
of the Law summarily and plainly, looking only into the Truth of the 
Fact, and to fine, correct, punish, chastize, & reform and imprison and 
cause and command to be imprisoned in any Gaols being within 
BELONGING the Partys guilty and the contemners of the Law & the 
Jurisdiction of Our Admiralty aforesaid and Violators, Usurpers, 
Delinquents and contumacious Absenters & Masters of Ships, Mariners, 
Rowers, Fishermen, Shipwrights and other Workmen and Artificers 
whatsoever exercis[e] any Kind of Maritime Affairs according to the 
Rights, Statutes, Laws, Ordinances and Customs anciently observed 
And to deliver and absolutely discharge and cause and command to be 
discharged whatsoever Persons imprisoned in such Cases Who are to be 
delivered And to preserve and cause to be preserved the Publick 
Streams, Ports, Rivers, Fresh Waters and creeks whatsoever within 
Our maritime Jurisdiction aforesaid in what Place soever They be in 
BELONGING and Maritime Parts of the Same and thereto adjacent to 
whatsoever as well for the Preservation of Our Navy Royal and of the 
Fleets and Vessels of Our Kingdoms and Dominions aforesaid of 
whatsoever Fishes increasing in the Rivers and Places aforesaid And 


also to keep and cause to be executed and kept in OUR sP PROVINCE OF 
parts thereof and thereto adjacent whatsoever the Rights, Statutes, 
Laws, Ordinances and Customs anciently observed and to do, exercise, 
expedite and execute all and singular other Things in the Premisses 
and every of them as they by Right and according to the Laws and 
Statutes, Ordinances & Customs aforesaid should be done And 
moreover Nets too close and other unlawful Engines & to reform 
Instruments whatsoever for the Catching of Fishes wheresoever by Sea 
or Publick Streams, Ports, Rivers, Fresh Waters or creeks whatsoever 
TORYS DEPENDENT THEREON and Maritime Parts of the Same and 
thereto adjacent used or exercised by Water within our Maritime 
Jurisdiction aforesaid wheresoever And to punish and correct the 
Exercisers and Occupiers thereof according to the Statutes, Laws, 
Ordinances and Customs aforesaid And to pronounce, promulge and 
interpose all Manner of Sentences and Decrees and to put the Same in 
Execution with Cognizance and Jurisdiction whatsoever other Causes 
Civil and Maritime which relate to the Sea or which any Manner of 
Ways respect or concern the Sea or Passage over the Same or Naval or 
Maritime Voyages or Our said Maritime Jurisdiction or the Places or 
Limits of Our said Admiralty and Cognizance aforementioned and all 
other Things done or to be done, with Power also to proceed in the 
Same according to the Statutes, Laws, Ordinances and Customs afore- 
said anciently used, as well of meer office, mixt or promoted as at the 
Instence of any party as the Case shall require and seem convenient 
And likewise with Cognizance and Denizens of Wreck of the Sea, Great 
or Small, and of the Death, Drowning and View of dead Bodys of all 
Persons howsoever killed or drowned or murthered or which shall 
happen to be killed, drowned or murthered or by any other Means came 
to their Death in the Sea or Publick Steams, Ports, Fresh Waters or 
creeks whatsoever within the Flowing of the Sea and High Water Mark 
THEREUNTO BELONGING and maritime Parts of the Same and thereto 
adjacent or elsewhere within Our Maritime Jurisdiction aforesaid, 
together with the Cognizance of Mayhem in the aforesaid Places Within 
our Maritime Jurisdiction aforesaid and Flowing of the Sea and Water 
there happening with Power also of punishing all Delinquents in that 
Kind according to the Exigences of the Law and Customs aforesaid, 
And to do, exercise, expedite and execute all and singular other Things 
which in and about the Premisses only shall be necessary or thought 
meet according to the Rights, Statutes, Laws, Ordinances and Customs 
aforesaid, with power of deputing and surrogating in your Place for the 
Premisses one or more Deputy or Deputys as often as You shall think fit 
and also with power from Time to Time of naming, appointing, 


ordaining, assigning, making and constituting whatsoever other 
necessary, fit and convenient Officers and Ministers under You for the 
said Office and Execution thereof in OUR S n PROVINCE OF NORTH CARO- 
Same and thereto adjacent whatsoever (Saving always the Right of Our 
High Court of Admiralty of England and also of the Judge and Registrar 
of the said Court from whom or Either of Them it is not Our Intention in 
any Thing to derogate by these Presents, and saving to every one Who 
shall be wronged or grieved by any Definitive Sentence or interlocutory 
Decree which shall be given in the Vice Admiralty Court of OUR PROVINCE 
the Right of appealing to Our aforesaid High Court of Admiralty of 
England & Provided nevertheless and under this express Condition that 
if You the aforesaid WILLIAM TRYON Es9 OUR CAPT. GEN L & GOVERNOR 
IN CHIEF AFORES D shall not yearly (to wit) at the End of every Year 
between the Feasts of Saint Michael the Archangel and All Saints, duly 
certify and cause to be effectually certifyed (if You shall be thereunto 
required) to Us and Our Lieutenant, Official Principal and Commissary 
General and Special and Judge and President of the High Court of Our 
Admiralty of England aforesaid all that which from Time to Time by 
Virtue of these presents, You shall do, execute, collect or receive in the 
Premisses or any of Them, together with your full and faithful Account 
thereupon to be made in an authentick Form and Sealed with the Seal of 
Our Office remaining in your Custody, that from thence and after 
Default therein these Our Letters Patent of the Office of Vice Admiral 
aforesaid as above granted shall be null and void and of no force or 
effect Further & we do in Our Name command all and singular Our 
Governors, Justices, Mayors, Sheriffs, Captains, Marshals, Bailiffs, 
Keepers of all Our Goals [sic] and Prisons, Constables and all other Our 
Officers and faithful and liege Subjects whatsoever and every of Them 
as well within Libertys and Franchises as without, that, in and about the 
Execution of the Premisses and every of Them, They be aiding, 
favouring, assisting, submissive and yield Obedience in all Things as is 
fitting to You the aforesaid WILLIAM TRYON ESQ R OUR CAPT. GEN L AND 

and to your Deputy whomsoever and to all other Officers (by you 
appointed or to be appointed) of OUR PROVINCE OF NORTH CAROLINA 
the Same and thereto adjoining under Pain of the Law and the Peril 
which will fall thereon Given at London in the High Court of Our 
Admiralty of England aforesaid under the Great Seal thereof the 
Thirteenth day of July in the year of Our Lord one thousand seven 
hundred and sixty five and of Our Reign the Fifth. 


William Tryon to William Bull mh-tlb, 20 

CR-VII, 100 

Brunswick 16 th July 1765 
Governor of South Carolina 

The General post has just obtained by the Assiduity of some Gentle- 
men here a Communication thro' this Province, by which Opportunity I 
send you this Intelligence; I shall order the post to be carried regularly 
into Charlestown till I can receive Information how far the Province of 
South Carolina are willing to Contribute to an Establishment of such 
public Utility. The Legislation of this Province have made same provi- 
sion to assist the Post Master General in the Execution of this Plan, As 
North Carolina takes up the Letters from Suffolk in Virginia, it may 
possibly not be thought inconvenient for South Carolina province to 
deliver and receive the Mails at Wilmington; this however I leave to 
Your Consideration. 

I thank you for your kind offer of Civilities expressed in your last 
Letter to me and am with Truth and Esteem. &c 

Commission and Instructions to William Tryon, a&h-go 

July 19, 1765 

GEORGE THE THIRD By the Grace of God of Great Britain France and 
Ireland kind Defender of the Faith and so forth To Our Trusty and Well 
Beloved William Tryon Esq?" Greeting We reposing Espatial Trust and 
Confidence in the prudence courage and Loyalty of You the said 
William Tryon Of Our Espatial Grace certain Knowledge and mere 
Motion hath thought fit to constitute and appoint and by these presents 
do constitute and appoint You the said William Tryon to be Our Captain 
General and Governor in Chief in and Over Our province of North 
Carolina in America and We do hereby require & Command you to Do 
and Execute all things in due manner that shall Belong unto your said 
Command and the trust We have reposed in You according to the 
Several powers and Authoritys Granted or appointed you by this 
present Commission and the Instructions herewith Given you or by such 
further powers instructions and Authorities as shall at any time here 
after be Granted or appointed under Our Signet and Sign Manual or by 
Our Order in our privy Council and according to Such reasonable Laws 
and Statutes as now are in force or hereafter shall be made and agreed 


upon By you with the Advice and Consent of Our Council and the 
Assembly Of Our said province under your Government in such manner 
and form as is hereafter Expressed And Our Will and pleasure is that 
you the said William Tryon after the publication of these Our Letters 
patent Do in the first place take the Oaths appointed to be taken by an 
Act passed in the first year of the Reign of King George the first of 
Blessed Memory intitled an Act for the further Security of His Majestys 
person and Government and the Succession of the Crown in the Heirs of 
the Late princess Sophia being protestants and for Extinguishing the 
hopes of the pretended prince of Wales and his Open and Secret 
Abettors and also that You make and Subscribe the Declaration 
mentioned in an Act of Parliament made in the Twenty fifth year of the 
Reign of King Charles the Second Intitled an Act for preventing 
Dangers which may happen from popish Rescusants [recusants?] and 
likewise that you take such Oath as is Usually taken by the Governors 
of Our Colonies in America for the Due Execution of the Office and trust 
of Our Captain General and Governor of Our said province for the Due 
and impartial Administration of Justice and further that you take the 
Oath Required to be taken By Governor of plantation to Do their Utmost 
that the Several Laws Relating to the plantations be Observed which 
said Oaths and Declaration Our Council in Our Said Province or any 
three of the Members thereof have hereby full power and Authority and 
are required to tender and Administer unto You and in Your Absence to 
Our Lieutenant Governor if their [sic] be any upon the place all which 
being due performed You shall Administer unto the members of our 
said Council as also to Our Lieutenant Governor if there be any upon the 
place the said Oaths Mentioned in the Said Act Intitled an Act for the 
further Security of His Majestys person and Government and the 
Succession of the Crown in the heirs of the Late princess Sophia being 
protestants and for Extinguishing the hopes of the pretended prince of 
Wales and his Open and Secret Abettors as also to cause them to make 
and Subscribe the aforemention'd Declaration and to them the Oath for 
the due Execution of their places and trusts and We do hereby give and 
Grant unto You full power and authority to Suspend any of the 
members of Our said Council from sitting Voting and Assisting therein 
if you shall find Just Cause for so doing and if it shall at any time happen 
that by the Death Departure out of Our said province Suspension of 
any of Our said Councellors or Otherwise there shall be a Vacancie in 
Our said Council any three Whereof We do hereby appoint to be a 
quorum Our Will and pleasure is that you Signify the same unto us by 
the first Opportunity that We may under Our Signet and Sign Manual 
Constitute and appoint others in their stead but that Our affairs at that 
distance may not Suffer for want of a due number of Councellors if ever 
it should happen that there be less than seven of them Residing in Our 
said province We do hereby Give and Grant unto you the Said William 


King George III, George William Frederick (1738-1820), assumed the throne in 1760 
upon the death of his grandfather, George II. His reign was marked by struggle, 
controversy, and personal tragedy. He suffered four attacks of mental illness before 
becoming permanently deranged after 1811. The portrait pictured was executed by the 
artist Allan Ramsay (1713-1784), principal painter to the king after 1767. Photograph 
courtesy of National Portrait Gallery, London. 


Tryon full power and Authority to Choose as many persons out of the 
principal freeholders Inhabitants thereof as will make up the full 
number of Our said Council to be Seven and no more which persons So 
Chosen and appointed by you shall be to all Intents and purposes 
Councillors in Our Said province untill Either they Shall be confirmed 
by us or that by the nomination of others by us under Our Sign Manual 
and Signet Our said Council Shall have seven or more persons in it and 
We do hereby Give and Grant unto You full power and Authority with 
the Advice and Consent of Our Said Council from time to time as need 
shall require to Summon and Call General Assemblys of the said 
freeholders and planters within Your Government according to the 
Laws and Usages of our said province of North Carolina And Our Will 
and pleasure is that the persons thereupon duly Elected By the Major 
part of the freeholders of the Respective Counties and places and so 
Returned Shall before their sitting take the Oaths mentioned in the said 
Act Intitled an Act for the further Security of his Majesty s person and 
Government and the Succession of the Crown in the heirs of the Late 
princess Sophia being protestants and for Extinguishing the hopes of 
the pretended prince of Wales and his Open and Secret abbettors as also 
make and Subscribe the aforementioned Declaration which Oaths and 
Declaration You shall Commissionate fit persons under Our Seal of 
North Carolina to tender and Administer unto them and untill the same 
shall be so taken and Subscribed no person shall be capable of sitting 
though Elected and We do hereby Declare that the persons so Elected 
and qualified shall be called and Deemed the General Assembly of Our 
said province and Territory of North Carolina and that You the said 
William Tryon with the consent of the said Council and Assembly or the 
Major part of them respectively shall have full power and Authority to 
make and Constitute and Ordain Laws Statutes and Ordinances for the 
publick care Wellfare and Good Government of Our said province and 
of the people and Inhabitants thereof and such others as shall resort 
thereto And for the benefite of us Our heirs and Successors Which said 
Laws statutes and Ordinances are not to be repugnant but as near as 
may be agreeable to the Laws and Statutes of this Our Kingdom of 
Great Britain Provided that all such Laws Statutes and Ordinances of 
what nature or duration soever be with three months or sooner after the 
making thereof Transmitted unto us under our said seal of North 
Carolina for Our approbation or Disallowance of the same as also 
Duplicates thereof by the next conveyance and in case any or all of the 
said Laws statutes and Ordinances not before confirmed by us shall at 
any time be disallowed and not approved and Signified by us our heirs 
or successors under Our or their Signet or Sign manual Or By Order of 
Our or their privy Council unto You the said William Tryon or to the 
commander in Chief of Our said province for the time being Then Such 
and so many of the said Laws Statutes and Ordinances as shall be so 


disallowed and not approved shall from thenceforth cease and Deter- 
mine and become utterly Void and of none Effect any thing to the 
Contrary Notwithstanding And to the end that nothing may be passed 
as done By Our said Council or assembly to the prejudice of us Our heirs 
and Successors We Will and Ordain that you the said William Tryon 
shall have and Enjoy a Negative Voice in the making and passing of all 
Laws Statutes and Ordinancies as aforesaid and You shall and may 
Likewise from time to time as You shall Judge it necessary adjourn 
prorogue and Dissolve all General Assemblies as aforesaid Our further 
Will and pleasure is that You shall and may keep and use the publick 
Seal of Our said province of North Carolina for Sealing all things 
whatsoever that ought to pass the Seal of Our Said province under Your 
Government And We do further Give and Grant unto You the said 
William Tryon full power and Authority from time to time and at any 
time hereafter By Your Self or By any Other to be Authorized By You in 
that Behalf to Administer and Give the Oaths mentioned in the said Act 
for the further Security of his Majesty's person and Government and the 
Succession of the Crown in the heirs of the Late princess Sophia being 
protestants and for Extinguishing the Hopes of the pretended prince of 
Wales and his Open and Secret abettors to all and Every such person or 
persons as You shall think fit Who shall at any time or times pass into 
Our said province or Shall be resident or abiding there And We Do by 
these presents Give and Grant unto you the said William Tryon full 
power and Authority with the advice and consent of Our said Council to 
Erect Constitute and Establish such and so many Courts of Judicature 
and public Justice within Our said province as You and they Shall think 
fit and necessary for the hearing and determining of all Causes as well 
Criminal as civil according to Law and Equity and for Awarding of 
Execution thereupon with all reasonable & necessary power Authorities 
fees and privileges Belonging thereto as Also to appoint and 
Commissionate fit persons in the Several parts of Your Government to 
Administer the Oaths mentioned in the aforesaid Act as also to tender 
and Administer the aforesaid Declaration unto Such persons Belonging 
to the said Courts as shall be Oblidged to take the Same and We Do 
hereby Authorize and impower You to Constitute and Appoint Judges 
and in Cases Requisite Commissioners of Oyer and Terminer Justices of 
the peace and Other necessary Officers and Ministers in Our said 
province for the better Administration of Justice and putting the Laws in 
Execution and to Administer and Cause to be Administered unto them 
Such Oath or Oaths as are usually Given for the due Execution and 
performance of Offices and places and for the Clearing of Truth in 
Judicial causes AND We Do hereby give and Grant unto You full power 
and Authority Where you shall see cause or shall Judge any Offender or 
Offenders in Criminal matters or for any fines or forfeitures due unto us 
fit Objects of Our Mercy to pardon all such Offenders and to Remit all 


Such Offences fines and forfeitures Treason & Willful Murder Only 
Excepted in Which case You shall likewise have power upon Extra- 
ordinary Occasions to Grant Reprieves to the Offenders untill and to the 
Intent Our Royal pleasure may be known therein AND We Do by these 
presents Authorize and impower You to Collate any person or persons 
to any Churches Chappels or Other Eclesiastical benefices within Our 
Said province and Territory aforesaid to which We Our heirs and 
Successors are or Shall be Intitled to Collate as Often as any of them 
shall happen to be void AND we do hereby Give and Grant unto You the 
said William Tryon By Your self as By Your Captains or Commanders 
By you to be Authorized full power and Authority to Levy Arm Muster 
Command and Employ all persons Whatsoever residing within Our said 
province and Territory of North Carolina and as Occasion shall serve to 
March from One place to another and to Embark them for the resisting 
and Withstanding of all Enemies pirates and Rebells both at Land and 
Sea And to Transport Such forces to any of Our plantations in America 
if necessity Shall require for the Defence of the Same against the 
Invation Or attemps of any of Our Enimies And Enimies Pirates and 
Rebells if there Shall be Occasion to pursue and prosecute in or out of 
the Limits of Our Said province and plantations or any of them and if it 
Shall so please God them to Vanquish apprehend and take and Being 
taken according to Law to put to Death or keep and Receive alive at 
Your Discretion and to Execute Martial Law in Time of Invasion or 
other Times where by Law it may be executed and to Do and Execute 
all and every other thing and things Which to Our Captain General or 
Governor in Chief Doth or Ought of Right to Belong AND We Do here- 
by give and Grant unto You full power and Authority By and with the 
advice and consent of Our said Council of North Carolina to Erect raise 
and Build in Our Said province and Territory Such and So many Forts 
and platforms Castles Citys Boroughs Towns and Fortifications as You 
By the advice aforesaid shall Judge necessary and the same or any of 
them to fortify and furnish with Ordinances amunition and all sorts of 
Arms fit and necessary for the security and Defence of our said province 
and By the Advice aforesaid the same again or any of them to Demolish 
or Dismantle as may be most convenient and for as much as Divers 
mutinies and disorders may happen By persons Shipt and employed at 
sea during the time of war and to the end that such as shall be shipt and 
employed at sea during the time of War may be better Governed and 
Ordered we Do hereby Give and Grant unto You the said William 
Tryon full power and Authority to constitute and appoint Captains 
Lieutenants Masters of ships and other Commanders and Officers and 
to grant unto Such Captains Lieutenants masters of Ships and Other 
Commanders and Officers Commissions to Execute the Marshal law 
During the time of War according to the Directions of an Act passed in 
the Twenty Second Year of the Reign of our Late Royal Grandfather 


Intitled an Act for amending explaining and Reducing into one Act of 
Parliament the Laws relating to the Government of his Majestys Ships 
vessells and Officers By Sea and to use such proceedings Authoritys 
punishments Corrections and Executions upon any Offender or 
Offenders who shall be Mutinous seditious Disorderly or any Way 
unruly either at Sea or During the time of their abode or Residence in 
any of the ports Harbours or Bays of our said province and Territory as 
the cause shall be found to require according to Marshal Law and the 
said Directions during the time of War as aforesaid PROVIDED that no- 
thing herein Contained Shall be construed the Enabling you or any By 
Your Authority to hold plea or have any Jurisdiction of any Offence 
cause matter or thing committed or done upon the high Seas or within 
any of the Havens Rivers or Creeks of our Said province and Territory 
under Your Government By any Captain Commander Lieutenant 
Master Officer Seaman Souldier or person whatsoever who shall be in 
our Actual Service and pay in or on Board any of our Ships of War or 
Other Vessells Acting By immediate Commission or Warrant from our 
Commissioners for Executing the Office of Our High Admiral of Great 
Britain for the time Being under the Seal of Our Admirality But that 
Such Captain Commander Lieutenant Master Officer Seaman Soldier or 
Other person so Offending shall be proceeded against and Tryed as 
their Offence shall require either By Commission under Our Great Seal 
of Great Britain as the Statute of the Twenty Eighth of Henry the 
Eighth Directs of By Commission from our said Commissioners for 
Executing the Office of Our High Admiral or from Our High Admiral of 
Great Britain for the time Being according to the formentioned Act of 
amending explaining and Reducing into One Act of xxx the Laws 
relating to the Government of His Majestys Ships Vessells and Forces 
By Sea and not otherwise provided nevertheless that all Disorders and 
Misdemeaners committed on shore by any Captain Command 
Lieutenant Master Officer Seaman Soldier or other person whatsoever 
belonging to any of our ships of war or other Vessells Acting by 
immediate Commission or Warrant from our said Commissioners for 
Executing the Office of High Admiral, or from our High Admiral of 
Great Britain from the Time being Under the Seal of our Admiralty may 
be tryed and punished According to the Laws of the place where any 
such disorder Offences & Misdemeanors shall be Committed on Shore, 
Notwithstanding such Offender to be in Our Actual Service & born in 
Our Pay on board any such Our ships of war or other Vessels Acting by 
immediate Commission or Warrant from Our said Commissioner for 
Executing the Office of High Admiral or Our High Admiral of Great 
Britain for the Time being as Aforesaid so as he shall not receive any 
protection for the Avoiding of Justice for such Offences Committed on 
Shore from any pretence of his being Employ 'd in our Service at Sea 
and Our further Will and pleasure is that all publick Money raised or 


which shall be raised by any Act hereafter to be made within our said 
Province be issued Out by Warrant from You by and with the Advice & 
Consent of the Councill and disposed of by You for the Support of the 
Government and According to the Laws of the said Province of North 
Carolina and not otherwise AND we do Likewise Give and Grant Unto 
You full Power & Authority by and with the Advice & Consent of Our 
said Councill to settle and agree with the Inhabitants of Our said 
Province for such Lands Tenements & Hereditaments as now are or 
hereafter shall be in Our Power to dispose of and them to grant to any 
Person or Persons upon such Terms & Under such Moderate Quit 
Rents Services and Acknowledgements to be thereupon reserved Unto 
us As you by the Advice aforesaid shall think fit which said Grants are 
to pass and be sealed by Our publick Seal of Our said Province and 
being Enter 'd upon Record by such Officer or Officers as are or shall be 
Appointed thereunto shall be good & Effectual in Law Against Us our 
Heirs and Successors AND we do hereby Give and Grant unto you the 
said W m Tryon full power to Order and Appoint Fairs Marts and 
Markets as also such and so many Ports Harbours Bays Havens & other 
places for Commerce & security of Shipping and for the better Loading 
and unloading of Goods and Merchandizes as by you with the advice 
and consent of the said council shall be thought fit and necessary AND 
We do hereby Require and Command all Officers And ministers civil 
and Military and all other Inhabitants of our said province and Territory 
to be Obedient aiding and assisting unto you the said William Tryon in 
the Execution of this our Commission under the powers and authorities 
herein contained and in case of Your Death or absence out of the said 
province to be Obedient Aiding and assisting unto Such person as shall 
be appointed by us our heirs and Successors to our Lieutenant Governor 
or commander in Chief of Our Said province to Whom We do therefore 
By these presents Give and Grant all and Singular the powers and 
authorities herein Granted to be By him Executed and Enjoyed during 
Our pleasure or untill Your arrival within Our said province and Whom 
we Do hereby require to take all Such Oaths and make such 
Declarations as are herein before appointed to be taken and made By 
you mutatis mutandis which Said Oaths and Declaration Our said 
Council in our said province or any three of the members thereof have 
hereby full power and are hereby required to tender and Administer 
and if upon Your Death or absence out of Our said province there be no 
person upon commissionated or appointed By us to be our Lieutenant 
Governor or Commander in chief of Our Said province Our Will and 
pleasure is that the Eldest Councillor whose name is first placed in our 
said Instructions to you and who shall be at the time of Your Death or 
absence Residing within our Said province and Territory of North 
Carolina Shall take upon him the Administration of the Government and 
Execute Our said Commission and Instructions and the Several powers 


and Authoritys therein contained in the Same manner and to all intents 
and purposes as other Our Governor or Commander in chief Should or 
ought to Do in case of Your Absence untill Your Return or in all cases 
until Our further pleasure is known therein, and We do hereby Declare 
Ordain and Appoint that you the said William Tryon shall and may hold 
execute and Enjoy the Office and place of Our Captain General and 
Governor in Chief of Our said province and Territory of North Carolina 
with all its Rights members and appurtainances whatsoever together 
with all and Singular The powers and Authorities hereby Granted unto 
you for and During Our Will and pleasure IN WITNESS whereof We have 
caused these Our Letters to be made patent WITNESS Ourself at West- 
minister the Nineteenth Day of July In the Fifth year of Our Reign 

By Writ of privy Seal 

York & York 1 

Recorded in the Treasury Chamber 
Whitehall the 29t h of July 1765. 
Thomas Tomkyns 2 

'Possibly these men were Charles York (1722-1770) and John York (1722-1801), joint 
clerks in chancery. 

2 This was probably Thomas Tomkins (Tomkyns) (1743-1816), who was a calligrapher 
and had the reputation of being the finest penman of his day. Dictionary of National 
Biography, LVII, 13. 

William Tryon to Sewallis Shirley 1 ncc 

North Carolina, 

Brunswick on Cape Fear River, 

July ye 26t h , 1765 

My Dear Sir: 

I most gratefully received the happiness you conferred on me the 5th 
Ins:t by your letter bearing date the 12th of Feby last, accompanied with 
a most acceptable present, a Gold Box with the Picture of an invariable 
friend, as well to my family, as myself. You could not have sent me a 
more acceptable present; and for which you have my most sincere 

Your particular detail of your affectionate and steady conduct in 
adjusting the intricate state of the affairs of my Mother, and the 
agreement she has entered into with my Brother 2 for the sale of my 
Hobby Horse Norbury, 3 gives me great satisfaction from the evident 
necessity of such a proceeding. Your good offices on this, and every 
other occasion claim as they merit, more than I am able to repay you. 


However, I shall ever retain a lively and affectionate regard for the 
author of them. 

I will now endeavour from memory to give you a rough sketch of my 
Proceedings in this Country since my arrival in it, you must not expect 
to have the unities preserved. My Landing in this Province was on the 
11th of Oct 1 * last, soon after finding the Gover r determined to stay the 
Winter here. I repaired to Wilmington, 15 Miles higher up the River 
than Brunswick. About the Middle of Dec 1 " I took with Mrs. Tryon and 
Mr. Elwin her Cousin, a Tour through part of this Province. We kept the 
Sea Board Road for two hundred & 40 Miles, (that is never being 
farther from the Sea than Sixty or eighty Miles) till I came to the 
Virginia Line which is in 36° 30' North Lat. This from Wilmington kept 
me on a North and North East Course from the Virginia and Carolina 
dividing line (where we struck it, was forty Miles North of Edenton.) 
We took a West Course to Halifax 70 Miles to the Westward of Edenton 
and from thence, took a South and South West Course back to Wilming- 
ton where we arrived the Middle of Feby. This Journey was accom- 
plished with more ease and better accommodations than I could possibly 
have expected to have experienced, and I found the Gentlemen very 
ready in giving the hospitality their Plantations] afforded. The Tour 
was five Hundred Measured Miles and upwards. The whole of the 
Journey to the Virginia Line is Sandy, flat and for the most part covered 
with Pine Trees tho' to the Northward you go over some Oak Land, yet 
Sandy Soil. The Roads over the Swamps, called Pocosons, are all made, 
which Swamps are covered with tall Cypress Trees some of six feet in 
Diameter, and Seventy feet in height before they shoot a Branch, with 
Bay Trees and Red and White Cedar Trees; with a variety of other 
Aquatilis which I am unacquainted with. These swamps when cleared 
and drained produce fine Rice or Indian Corn or I believe Indigo, but this 
Province is not yet sufficiently inhabited, to have cleared any great 
quantity of these Pocosons. 

I saw no large parcel of Rich Land that laid dry, till I took the Course 
Westward from the Northward of this Province. Near Halifax there are 
fine Rich lands of clay and loamy texture and by the thickness of the 
Corn Stalks of the last Season, I could perceive the goodness of the 
Earth. About twenty Miles Westward of Halifax, I was carried to See a 
Situation called Mount Gallant 4 which was the first Hill I had seen that 
was high enough to over look the woods of this Wild Forest. The Soil 
here they told me was very good tho' in dry weather pulverises as light 
as snuff, and when wet will stick to your Shoes like Marie, it is of a 
Reddish Cast. Under this Hill is the first principal falls on the Roanoke 
River, they are wildly pleasing to the Eye, not from the height of the 
Falls, but from the appearance of a course of a River two Miles across 
interrupted irregularly with Rocky Stones so as to Stop the Navigation 
for any thing but Canoes, and those not safe unless under the conduct of 


a dexterous Negroe. This and the Neighboring Hills were the only ones 
that have given me an opportunity of over looking in an Horizontal line 
the Woods. In our return from Halifax in less than twenty Miles we got 
again into Sandy Pine Land, and continued it to Wilmington the 
distance from which is 180 Miles. I remained quiet at Wilmington till 
March, when Lord Adam Gordon came into this Province, a visit that 
gave me no small joy, as he was not only a particular friend, but had the 
additional merit of being the first person I had seen, even of my personal 
acquaintance since I left London. I was accompanying him as far as 
Newbern in this Province, when My trusty servant George, who now 
lies dangerously ill of a Putrid fever and is in a Raving fit, at this instant, 
over took me with an account of Governor Dobbs's Death the 28™ of 
March last. I was then within Twenty Six Miles of Newbern and 74 
from Wilmington. This Event obliged me to quit my friend, who 
proceeded through Virginia to the Northern Colonies, and is to sail from 
New York in Oct r Next for Falmouth in the Packet. I reached Wilmington 
the 30th of March and to my surprize found they had buried the 
Governor and for want of a Clergy, the Funeral Service was performed 
by a Majestrate of Peace. The usual Steps on this Event being taken, I 
called an assembly at Newbern, the place in my opinion at present, the 
most convenient for holding the genl assembly. We met the 3^ of May. 
The Journals will be the History of our Works. I was sore at the time, as 
you will hear by the letter I wrote Our worthy Friend at the Gov: but as I 
carried the Material Points; particularly the Clergy Bill, I shall forget 
what is over, and wait for more at our next meeting which is the 27^ n 
Nov: I left Newbern the End of May and got to Brunswick the l s ^ of 
June to the House the late Gov r lived in 5 when we began to be very busy 
in opening and unpacking half the furniture we brought from England, 6 
and for want of Room we could not put up in our house at Wilmington. 
As you are acquainted with M rs Tryons Neatness you will not 
wonder that we have been pestered with scouring of Chambers White 
Washing of Ceilings, Plaisterers Work, and Painting the House inside 
and out. Such is the Sickness and indolence of the Workmen in this Hot 
Climate that I shall not I am persuaded get rid of these nuisances this 
month. This House which has so many assistances is of an oblong 
Square Built of Wood. It measures on the out Side Faces forty five feet 
by thirty five feet, and is Divided into two Stories, exclusive of the 
Cellars the Parlour Floor is about five feet above the Surface of the 
Earth. Each Story has four Rooms and three light Closets. The Parlour 
below & the drawing Room are 20 x 15 feet each; Ceilings low. There is 
a Piaza Runs Round the House both Stories of ten feet Wide with a 
Ballustrade of four feet high, which is a great Security for my little girl. 7 
There is a good Stable and Coach Houses and some other Out Houses. If 
I continue in this House, which will depend on Capt. Dobbs' Resolution 
in the manner he disposes of his Effects here, 8 '! shall & must build a 


good Kitchen, which I can do for forty Pounds Sterling of 30^ x 
40^ — The garden has nothing to Boast of except Fruit Trees. Peaches, 
Nectr s Figgs and Plumbs are in perfection and of good Sorts. I cut a 
Musk Melon this week which weighed 17y 2 Pounds. Apples grow 
extremely well here I have tasted excellent Cyder the Produce of this 
Province. Most if not all kinds of garden greens and Pot herbs grow 
luxuriant with us. We are in want of nothing but Industry & skill, to 
bring every Vegetable to a greater perfection in this Province. Indian 
Corn, Rice, and American Beans (Species of the Kidney Bean) are the 
grain that is Cultivated within a hundred and fifty Miles of the Sea 
Board at which distance to the Westward you begin to perceive you are 
approaching high ground, and fifty Miles farther you may get on 
tolerable high Hills. The Blue Mountains that Cross our Province I 
imagine lay three Hundred Miles from the Sea. Our Settlements are 
carried within one Hundred Miles of them. In less than twenty years or 
perhaps in half the time inhabitants may Settle at the foot of these 
Mountains. In the Back or Western Counties, more industry is observed 
than to the Eastward, the White People there to, are more numerous 
than the Negroes. The Calculation of the Inhabitants in this Province is 
one hundred and twenty Thousand White & Black, of which there is a 
great Majority of White People. The Negroes are very numerous I 
suppose five to one White Person in the Maritime Counties, but as you 
penetrate into the Country few Blacks are employed, merely for this 
Simple reason, that the poorer Settlers coming from the Northward 
Colonies sat themselves down in the back Counties where the land is the 
best but who have not more than a sufficiency to erect a Log House for 
their families and procure a few Tools to get a little Corn into the 
ground. This Poverty prevents their purchasing of Slaves, and before 
they can get into Sufficient affluence to buy Negroes their own Children 
are often grown to an age to work in the Field, not but numbers of 
families in the back Counties have Slaves from three to ten, Whereas in 
the Counties on the Sea Coast Planters have from fifty to 250 Slaves. A 
Plantation with Seventy Slaves on it, is esteemed a good property. 
When a man marries his Daughters he never talks of the fortune in 
Money but 20 30 or 40 Slaves is her Portion and possibly an agreement 
to deliver at stated Periods, a Certain Number of Tarr or Turpentine 
Barrels, which serves towards exonerating the charges of the Wedding 
which are not grievous here. 

I suppose you will expect to be informed what return is Made for the 
expence of Supporting such a Number of Slaves in the Province. Their 
chief employ is in the Woods & Fields, Sowing, and attending and 
gathering in the Corn. Making of Barrels, Hoops, Staves, Shingles, 
Rails, Posts and Pails, all which they do to admiration, Boxing of Pine 
Trees to draw off the Turpentine, Making of Tarr kills [kilns] which is a 
good deal after our Manner of making a Charcoal Pitt, excepting they 


have a Subterraneous passage to draw off the Tarr as the fire forces it 
from the Lightwood in the Kiln. Lightwood I understand to be as 
follows. When a Tree has been blown down or Cut. The Turpentine 
that is in the tree, in a few years retires to all the knotty parts of the said 
Tree. These they Cut up in small strips and will form a Tarkiln so large 
that when set on Fire, will run from 6, 7, 8 or 1000 Barrels of Tar. 
These splinters are so loaded with Bitumen that they will burn like a 
Candle; it is a usual thing to carry a Torch of Light Wood at night as you 
Europeans do flam beaus. The above are the articles we export Beside 
Deer Skins, Barrels of Pork, Beef, Bees Wax, Tallow &tc. Great 
Quantity of Lumber is Shipped to the West Indies. We have in the 
Creeks and Branches of this River of Cape Fear from 36 to 40 Saw 
mills, each with two Saws, and upon an honest Medium, each Mill saws 
two hundred Thousand feet of Timber. They could do a thousand more 
but most of them in the Summer Months are obliged to lay Still for want 
of Water. This Article would make a fine remittance to Great Britain if a 
Bounty was allowed on the importation. The Pine (as M r Hawks 9 the 
Master Builder I took over with me from England, and who is a very 
able Worthy man) says is Vastly Superior to the Norway the Norway 
[sic] Pine, for the Decking of Ships, as it is more Solid and filled with 
Turpentine which makes it very durable. He is Positive that a Ship's 
Deck laid of the yellow Pine of this Province will last at least as long as 
two decks of the Norway Pine. The Shingles made for Exportation are 
made of Cypress, and are Sold the best at 9 s Sterling per Thousand. I 
shall now say no more at present of the Produce of this County Its Naval 
Stores &tc. but return to some private occurences of my own family. As 
to Health M rs Tryon and the little girl have enjoyed a very happy share 
of it. As to Myself I cannot say so much, having been sharply disciplined 
with a Billeous disorder in my Stomach and Eruptions of the Rash kind, 
on my Legs, this I got over the latter end of April last. About a Month 
since I had a return tho' not so Violent, a Strong Emetic was adminis- 
tered which handled me very Severely, however it effected the cure, 
and I have Supported the heats very well since. The Thermometer 
(made by Adams) 10 was in June in a Cool passage at 88°-0' at the 
highest, and this Month it has been from 79 to 87°-0\ The day after my 
last letter of June to L" H the glass in twenty hours sunk from 87°-0' to 
71°-30'. Which great change caused much Sickness in in [sic] the 
Province. If I was to Muster my family I should not be able to return 
many fit for Duty. The Lad we took from Norfolk, a sailor I have made 
my groom and a little French boy I got here, is all the Male Servants, 
well, Le Blanc, Cuisinier; & Turner, the Farmer, have both fevers and 
are taking the bark. 11 Georges Senses just returned with some favorable 
Symptoms and lastly the girl we took from my Farm has been so ill that 
she has done an hours work these two months. I sent her last week to a 
Plantation on the Sea Side, for a change of Scene, and air, She is getting 


better. These are inconveniences I am told every newcomer must 
experience in this Colony they term it a seasoning. Surely it has a little 
too much of the Kian Pepper in it. We have been drove to very short 
Commons, and the Cooks being sick deprived us of our Baker. We often 
sent to Brunswick Town (about 20 families in it) to beg Bread, as there 
is none for Sale that can be eat nearer than Wilmington fifteen Miles off, 
either by Land or Water. I shall do better when I get my family on their 
Legs again. As I have purchased a yard full of fowls, have some good 
Hams and occasionally get a Bit of Mutton or Beef I reckon My 
Situation here is more out of the way for buying provisions than any 
Corner of the Province, but hold it to be as healthy as any in the 
Province, being within sight of one of the Sea Inlets at the distance of 
five Miles, tho' to the Bar of the River where the Vessels go over, is 
fifteen Miles, which makes us half way between the Bar and 
Wilmington. As I am desirous of not showing myself particularly partial 
to any particular Spot of the Country or people, I have hired three other 
houses. One at Wilmington to be at when I hold the Land Office, which 
is twice a year, One at Newbern, where I hold the Genl Assembly and 
the Courts of Chancery, 12 and a Small Villa within three Miles of 
Newbern, for the purpose of raising a little Stock and Poultry for use of 
the family. I imagine you will say Tryon will certainly ruin himself, but 
my good Friend Houses are not so convenient nor so high priced as in 
Britain. The Rent of these four Houses with Six Hundred and forty 
acres to the Newbern Villa amount to near 130 £ Ster? I have Sixty 
acres of land belonging to this House all sand, except about 15 acres of 
Salt Marsh, use less at present from neglect & Weeds. I must now 
confine myself to my particular Situation in a Political View. I have been 
at great charges both of labor and expence in getting my family into this 
Province, and after many tedious disappointments Collected them more 
together than ever they have been yet, and as I think there is a large 
Field for good offices, If the People are reasonable I am persuaded, I 
could render His Majesty as much Service in this Colony as in any other 
more settled. 

If the climate continues to agree with M rs Tryon and little one I shall 
be content to Act as the Political Physician, but if they will neither take 
my Pills, or follow my Prescriptions I shall desire another Doctor may 
be called in, and that Physician retire who will never give his attendance 
for the consideration of the Fee. As to the Emoluments for the Gov r they 
arise from Licenses for Public Houses and Marriages if by License 
Special, 13 Fee for putting the Seal of the Province to letters Testimonial, 
letters of Administration Registers for Ships &tc. All which by the 
Estimate the Governor gave me some time before his Death amounts to 
about 400 £ StS and the Fees on the Warrants for Surveying the Lands 
and Patents for granting them (which business is done in the Land 
Office ) amount to between 3£ and 400£ SterS which last is a donation of 


the Crown to the Governor so that the Province gives the Gov 1 " 400£ per 
Ann: Which he is obliged to Collect from at least forty or fifty different 
hands, in which Number there must be some deficiencies. The County 
Clerks account with the Gov r for most of these Fees. I do not See, or 
believe the Province in a Situation capable of adding any considerable 
addition to the Fees, and I am persuaded, their inclination is as slack as 
their ability is weak for such a step. Therefore, the Gov 1 " of this 
Province must live in a Mean and shabby Manner, if it was not for the 
Salary allowed from home to him. I hope you and my friends have been 
very busy in procuring My Commission as Governor, passing the 
Offices 14 as soon as possible. I was determined you see when I took pen 
in hand to say what I might have subdivided into Six letters. I have from 
the heat of the Weather found myself in such a State of Indolence, that I 
have been perpetualy moving from one room to the other, tho' motion 
makes us hotter, and never able to Settle to reading or any business. I 
have wrote this long letter yesterday Evening and this Morning. I was 
up at 4 o'clock. We ride most days, Morning or Evening. M rs Try on has 
two horses which carry her very safely. 

Say Every thing for me to Lord Halifax & L 'Hillsborough that is 
proper and grateful; particularly make my very affectionate Compl^ to 
L°* Hyde. Communicate some contents to him of this book. He knows he 
is my Sheet Anchor. 15 1 expect ample amends for the trouble I give you 
to read this Manuscript. I think you promised to send me the Monthly 
Gazetes, 16 1 have received none. Pray remember us all to every body 
that inquires after us. I have received a handsome cheerful letter from 
My friend Hotham 17 and also from Leland 18 both whom I regard. I shall 
be most happy if in your next letter you tell me you have recovered your 
appetite and in better health; a Circumstance I am very Solicitous about. 
M rs Tryon joins with me very Sincerely in our wishes for your health 

I am D r S r 

Most Cordially yours, 
W Tryon 

•Sewallis Shirley (1709-1765) was the fourteenth son of the first Earl Ferrers and 
brother of Tryon 's mother, the former Lady Mary Shirley. Shirley was a member of 
Parliament, 1742-1761, and Comptroller of the Household to Queen Charlotte. He died on 
October 1, probably shortly after receiving this letter from his nephew. See also Tryon 's 
letter to [Sir Henry Clinton], September 12, 1758, n.5, in this volume. Arnett, From 
England to North Carolina, 41. 

2 See William Tryon to Sir Henry Clinton, September 12, 1758, n.7, in this volume. 

3 In all likelihood, this was a figure of speech meaning "special interest." 

4 Mount Gallant is located on the northeast side of the Roanoke River, approximately 
twenty miles northwest of modern Halifax, according to An Accurate Map of North and 
South Carolina by Henry Mouzon, published in London in 1775. 


5 Dobbs's house was the former residence of Captain John Russell; the fifty- five- acre 
tract on which it was located adjoined the northern boundary of the town of Brunswick 
and was called Russellborough. Dobbs had occupied the house since 1758. A discussion of 
the house and its history can be found in ' 'Russellborough': Two Royal Governors' 
Mansions at Brunswick Town" by Stanley A. South in the North Carolina Historical 
Review, XLIV (Autumn, 1967), 360-372. 

6 An inventory of Tryon's furniture which was lost when fire destroyed his home in New 
York on December 29, 1773, appeared in New York History, XXVI (July, 1954), 300-309. 
Undoubtedly most, if not all , of this furniture had been brought to North Carolina in 1764. 

'Margaret Tryon (1761-1791). 

8 Tryon did not finally purchase Russellborough from Capt. Edward Brice Dobbs, the 
late governor's son, until February 2, 1767. 

9 John Hawks (1731-1790), a native of Lincolnshire, England, accompanied Tryon to 
North Carolina in 1764 and was the architect, contractor, and accountant for Tryon 
Palace, constructed between 1767 and 1770 in New Bern. In addition to his official 
services as architect for the palace, Hawks was responsible for private buildings. Tryon 
appointed him collector of customs at Beaufort, and he held other minor posts. After the 
Revolution he was a justice of the peace, a district auditor— later, first state auditor— and a 
member of the Council of State. Concise Dictionary of American Biography (New York: 
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1964), 415. 

'"George Adams was mathematical instrument maker to George III. 

"Bark of the cinchona tree, from which quinine is procured, was formerly ground into a 
powder and taken as a febrifuge. 

'-The governor, sitting in council with at least five members present, could act as a 
court of chancery to hear and decide all cases in equity. 

13 A 1741 law regulating the issuance of marriage licenses was in force at this time. The 
governor's fee for each license amounted to twenty shillings. 

14 There were four methods of appointing colonial officials, and all required that certain 
documents be recorded in one or more offices in England. Tryon's term, "passing the 
offices," refers to this action. 

' s "That on which one places one's reliance when everything else has failed." A sheet- 
anchor was always the largest of a ship's anchors and was used only in an emergency. 
Oxford English Dictionary (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 12 vols., 1933), IX, 670. 

16 Tryon probably was referring to such popular monthly publications as the Gentleman's 
Magazine, the London Magazine, Monthly Review, and others of the same sort. 

'"This perhaps is Beaumont Hotham (1737-1814), a member of the bar then practicing 
in the chancery courts. 

18 Leland has not been identified. 

William Tryon to the Society for the L "vi^ o^oT™™™'' 

Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts mhtlb, 20-23 

A&H-TLB, 17-20 
CR-VII, 102-104 

The Honble Society for the Propagation Brunswick 31 July 1765 

of the Gospel in Foreign Parts 

As this Province has received considerable Advantages from the 
Missionaries your Society have sent among the Inhabitants, some 


Information of the present State of Religion in this Colony may not be 
unacceptable to you. 

Every Sect of Religion abounds here, except the Roman Catholic, and 
by the best Information I can get, Presbytery, and a Sect who call 
themselves New Lights (not of the Flock of M r Whitefield) 1 but 
Superior Lights from New England, appear in the Front: These New 
Lights live chiefly in the Maritime Counties; the Presbyterians are 
settled mostly in the Back, or Westward Counties. The Church of 
England I reckon at present to have the Majority of all other Sects; and 
when a sufficient Number of Clergy as exemplary in their Lives, as 
orthodox in their Doctrine, can persuade themselves to come into This 
Country, I doubt not but the larger Number of every Sect would come 
over to the Established Religion. I can hear but of Five Clergymen at 
present in this Province, four of whom have Missions from the Society, 
The Rev? M r Reed of Newbern, in Craven County 
The Rev? M r Stewart of Bath, in Beaufort County 2 
The Rev? M r Earl near Edenton, in Chowan County 3 
The Rev? M r Moir, Itinerant Missionary 4 
I had an Opportunity in a Tour I made thro' part of the Province to see 
the above Gentlemen, & must observe, I think the three first well 
settled and established, and I believe them regular in the Discharge of 
their Duties. I can speak more particularly of M r Reed, as I saw much of 
Him at the General Assembly held at Newbern. I really esteem him a 
Man of great Worth. As this Country is now settled more than two 
Hundred Miles to the Westward of M r Moirs Residence, I do not think 
the Province receives any Benefit from him as an Itinerant Missionary; 
for under that general License of preaching every where, he seldom 
preaches any where: this Report I have from some Gentlemen in the 
Neighbourhood near the Town of Halifax. I do not represent him as an 
Immoral Man; but should think it adviseable he might be fixt to some 
parish agreeable to the inclosed Act of Assembly, the purport of which 
is the great Inducement for my troubling the Society with this Letter. 

Many Efforts have been made to obtain a good Clergy Act in this 
Province, but as every Trial has been as often clogged with Objections 
incompatible with the Rights of the Crown, and the Ecclesiastical 
Jurisdiction, they have proved fruitless; This Act however I flatter 
myself is free from every material Objection, and therefore beg leave to 
recommend to the Consideration of the Society the extreme Advantages 
that will Accrue to His Majesty's Subjects by a happy establishment of 
Religion here. As I have pledged my Endeavours to get decent 
Clergymen to serve in this Province, I earnestly hope for a further 
Encouragement from the Society by the Increase of the Missionaries, if 
only for a Term of Years, till Gentlemen coming over might reimburse 
themselves the Expence of their Voyage, and first settleing here, which 


The official seal of the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel 
shows a ship under sail with a 
minister in its prow holding an 
open Bible in his hand. The Latin 
motto, Transiens adjura nos may 
be freely translated, "Help us by 
coming over." The picture and ex- 
planation, from C.F. Pascoe, Two 
Hundred Years of the S.P.G., ap- 
peared on the cover of the North 
Carolina Historical Review, XLVII 
(Summer, 1970). 

is a Charge that must be felt by every One who has only his Merit to 
Ballance that Account. 

There is at present Thirty Two parishes in the Province, and as Five 
are already provided, Twenty Seven Clergymen more only are 
required, a Number so small, that it will be scarce sufficient to perform 
the Marriage, and Burial Services, Offices at present discharged, 
without the greatest Order or Decency by the Magistrates of the Peace; 
Governor Dobbs was interred by a gentleman of this Order, no 
Clergyman living within an Hundred Miles of Brunswick. 

The State of the Churches in this Province beginning at the 
Southward are as follows vid^ 

At Brunswick, only outside Walls built, and roofed, 

At Wilmington, Walls only, 

At Newbern, in good repair, 

Bath, wanting considerable Repairs, 
Edenton, wanting as much. 

Chapels are established in every County, which are served by 
Readers where no clergy can be procured, They have two, three, or 
four, more or less, in each County according to the Number of 
Inhabitants or extent of the Counties. 

If the Society would send for my Distribution, or the Governor for the 
time being, as many wellbound Bibles and Prayer Books for the 
Ministers Desks, as there are Parrishes it would be more effectual than 
a Ship Load of small Books recommending the Duty of a Christian. The 
ignorant would hear their Duty delivered out of the former when they 
could not instruct themselves in the latter. This Incapacity prevails from 
a Want of Schools in the Province, which Consideration brings me lastly 


to sollicit the Society's Bounty and Encouragement to MF Thomas 
Tomlinson at present seated at Newbern. I enclose his Memorial at his 
Request certified by many Gentlemen, some of whom I am acquainted 
with. I had a long Conversation with him, and from the Sense and 
Decency of his behavior and the general good Character which he 
maintains, obliges me warmly to sollicit the Society in his Behalf. He is 
the only person of Repute of that profession in the County. He was 
invited to America by a Brethren who has a plantation near Newbern, I 
really think him deserving the favourable Attention of the Society, and 
as such I recommend him. 

I cannot conclude this Letter without acquainting the Society the 
Rev" M r Whitefield preached a Sermon at Wilmington in March Last, 
which would have done him Honour had he delivered it at St James's, 
allowing some little Alteration of Circumstances between a Discourse 
adapted for the Royal Chapel, and the Courthouse at Wilmington. 

As Considerable sums of Money have been raised by subscription for 
finishing the Churches of Wilmington and Brunswick I expect they will 
both be Compleated in less than Twelve Months. 

I am Gentlemen with Esteem and Respect 

Your Most obedient and most humble servant 
W m Tryon 

[The original sent by the Mary & Ann, Capt Bendenell to London; the 
duplicate sent by the John Thomas, Cap* George Patten, also to London.] 

Probably this is a reference to George Whitefield (1714-1770), the powerful but 
controversial minister who first aligned himself with the Wesleys and their Methodist 
movement but later became Calvinistic in philosophy. Whitefield made several evangelistic 
tours through the colonies promoting — in addition to his religious tenets — education and 
philanthropic organizations, especially orphanages. As an advocate of freedom of con- 
science and individual liberty, Whitefield effectively weakened the hold of the Church of 
England in the colonies. Concise Dictionary of American Biography, 1191-1192. 

2 Alexander Stewart (d. 1771), a relative of Governor Dobbs, came in 1754. He had 
expected to go to Craven County but instead was sent to St. Thomas Parish, Bath, where 
he served until his death. He regularly visited other parishes. Saunders, Colonial Records, 
VI, 222, 231, 242-243, 315-316, 562-564, 976-977, 995-996, 1056; VII, 98, 102, 126-127, 
154, 263-264, 457, 492-496, 540; VIII, 51-52, 159-160, 221, 222; IX, 7. 

3 Daniel Earl (d. 1790) was licensed by the Bishop of London in September, 1756, for 
service in North Carolina; but he did not come to the province until 1759 when he became 
rector of St. Paul's Church, Edenton, where he apparently remained until 1783. He may 
not have been active in the church after 1775 when he complained of not having been 
paid. Nevertheless, he seems to have had a good income from a herring fishery that he 
operated and from the operation of a boys' school conducted at his home. Sarah McCulloh 
Lemmon, Parson Pettigrew of the "Old Church"; 1744-1807 (Chapel Hill: University of 
North Carolina Press, 1970), 12-19 passim. 

4 JamesMoir (d. 1767)served St. James's Church, Wilmington, 1740-1747; St. Philip's 
Church, Brunswick, 1742-1747; and St. Mary's Chapel, Edgecombe County, 1747-1765. 


While in Edgecombe County he was one of the original commissioners of the new town of 
Tarboro. Saunders, Colonial Records, numerous references in volumes IV, VI, VII. 

5 This doubtless is the memorial of May 15, 1765, in this volume. See "Inhabitants of 
Newbern and Craven County to William Tryon." 

Tryon's Certification of John Burgwin pro co 5/352, f . 121 

[August 12, 1765] 

This is to certify that John Burgwin Esquire who has attested the 
above journals of His Majesty's Council of this Province is the present 
Clerk of the Said Council. Witness my hand at Brunswick the 12 day of 
August 1765 

W m Tryon 

William Tryon l-f (a&H: microfilm), 

to the Board of Trade pro oS, 

ff. 142-145 
MH-TLB, 24-28 
A&H-TLB, 24-28 
CR-VII, 104-108 

The Lords Commissioners Brunswick 12P 1 August 1765 

for Trade and Plantations [Received and read, Nov., 1765] 

In my Letter of the First of April, I had the Honour to acquaint your 
Lordships of the Death of Governor Dobbs, and of my Intentions to 
propose to His Majesty's Council, that the General Assembly of this 
Province might meet at Newbern. 

On the 3d of April I sat in Council with the following Gentlemen, 

M r Murray, President 

M r Hasell 

M r DeRossett 

M r Rutherford [Rutherfurd] , 


' M r Dry 


k M r Heron 

when I had the Satisfaction to receive their Unanimous Opinion, that a 
Proclamation should issue to summon the General Assembly to meet 
the 2^ of May following, at Newbern. 

The Speaker of the Assembly made a House with Twenty five 
Members the 3^ of May: the Journals of the Council & Assembly, 
inclosed, with the Acts, will give Your Lordships Information of the 
Proceedings of the General Assembly. 


In my Speech, I proposed that the Salaries for the Clergy should be 
paid by the Public Treasurers, as that Mode of Payment I judged would 
have been a stronger Inducement for Young Clergymen of Merit to 
come over to this Colony; the Public Faith of the Province being more 
immediately pledged for the Payment of the Salaries, than when in the 
Vestry; However, as the present Law has provided a very summary 
Way to obtain the Salary, I am of Opinion, the Payment by the Vestry, 
is no Ways objectionable. 

I was of Opinion too, that the Mode of Payment by the Treasurers 
from a General Fund to be more equal than a Tax raised by each Parish, 
for their respective Clergy, considering the great Inequality in the 
Number of Inhabitants, in the different Counties, or Parishes; but this 
reasoning was not attended to, as the Majority in the Assembly were 
the Representatives of the larger Counties. 

The Certificate to be obtained from the Bishop of London, represented 
as requisite before Presentation, is omitted in the Act; an Omission that 
appears immaterial, unless His Lordship should Consider it as a 
Necessary Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction, and in this Case, an Instruction to 
the Governor might remedy that Omission. 

Upon the whole, I am inclined to believe Your Lordships will find this 
Act as unexceptionably framed, as any Clergy Act in any of His 
Majestys Colonies: If Your Lordships should recommend it to His 
Majesty, either to be Confirmed, or remain in Force till some Trial may 
be had of its Efficacy, the Inclosed Packet, enforced with Your 
Lordships Recommendation, I should wish might be sent to the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel. When I receive Your Lordships 
Opinion on this Bill, I will write to those of my Private Correspondence 
from whom I expect Assistance in sending, not the Sweepings of the 
Universities over, but some Clergy of Character. 

I could wish, My Lords, to be informed of the Manner and Forms of 
Induction to such Clergy, as arrive properly Qualified. 

I must next observe that as no Steps had been taken relative to the 
Extract of Your Lordships Journal of the 13t" December 1763, which I 
mentioned in my Letter of 15" 1 October 1764 to have delivered to the 
late Governor, and Who could not give me the least Account what were 
the Objections referred to in it; I laid it the ll" 1 of May before the House 
of Assembly; the Result of which Your Lordships will see by their 
Journals the 13™ of the same Month; when Your Lordships honour Me 
with the Objections referred to, and they are removed by the Assembly: 
I see no Obstacle to prevent His Majesty's Allowing the Assembly's 
Request for the application of the £18,000 Proclamation Money, as 
directed by the 12™ Sec: of the Act passed in 1754 for granting to His 
Majesty the sum of Forty Thousand Pounds in Public Bills of Credit &c. 

I believe it will appear expedient to Your Lordships that the £18000 
may be applied, as part of it is, to purchase Glebes, and erect Buildings 


for the Ministers. 

As to the Consideration recommended by the Earl of Halifax, of the 
General Post to be carried thro' this Extensive Continent; the sum 
allowed by Resolve of this Session, may possibly be sufficient, to help to 
Convey it thro' this Province, as tolerable good Boats are established 
over all the Ferries on the Sea Board Route; and the Roads good for 

An Act for facilitating the Navigation of Port Bath, Port Roanoke, and 
Port Beaufort, I rejected; for that it contained a Clause which directed a 
Tax to answer the Expence of clearing the Navigation, to be laid on 
Vessels entering the said Ports exempting such as wholly belonged to 
the Inhabitants of this Province. 

The following is the Clause abstracted from the Bill, "Be it Enacted 
&c that the following Taxes shall be paid by the Master of each Vessel, 
that shall enter into any of the said Ports, except such Vessels as are 
wholly owned by the Inhabitants of this Province, to the Collectors of 
the Respective Ports, that is to say, for every Vessel of Fifty Tons, or 
under, Six Shillings, for every Vessel above Fifty Tons and under One 
Hundred Tons, twelve Shillings; for every Vessel above One Hundred 
Tons, Twenty Shillings" 

I construed this Exception to be Contrary to the 32^ Article of the 
Late Governors Instructions. 

Your Lordships will observe on the last Day of this Session the 
Council sent the following Message to the Assembly, Viz* 

M r Speaker &c 

This House desire all Letters and Papers received from the Agent in 
England since the last Session of Assembly, be sent for their "Perusal" 
which Message the Council informed me was not complied with. It 
seems the Committee of Correspondence with the Agent, is composed 
wholly of Members of the Assembly: This is in express Opposition, to 
the Sentiments communicated from Your Lordships Board, in a Letter 
to Governor Dobbs bearing date the I s * of August 1759, Viz* 

"The Committee of Correspondence ought to have consisted of some 
Members of the Council, and not to have been entirely composed of the 
Members of the House of Representatives." If at the next Session of 
Assembly, His Majestys Council are not admitted to have some 
Members in the Committee of Correspondence, and also to have at all 
times, the same Freedom of Inspection into the Correspondence to, and 
from the Agent of the Province, as the Assembly claim; I shall then 
submit it to Your Lordships, if any Representation or Application 
presented by the Agent, coming solely from the Assembly, should not 
remain under a Suspension, whether laid before His Majesty in Council 
or Your Lordships Board, till the Council could be informed of the 
Nature of such Representation, or Application, and their Opinion 


reported thereon. 

The Two Houses not coming to any Agreement in the Appointment 
of a Treasurer for the Southern District, Vacated by the Death of M r . 
Starkey, that the Province might receive no Detriment; I have 
Commissioned Mf Samuel Swann the Treasurer During my Pleasure, 
or Untill the End of the next Session of Assembly; when the Legislature 
will either confirm my Appointment, or make their Nomination of a 
Treasurer. The Hurry the Representatives were in to get to their 
Plantations, was, I guess, the reason, that they did not enter into an 
Examination of their Public Funds; I shall however again recommend 
the Necessity of such an Enquiry. The Assembly stands prorogued to 
the 27 November next, to be then held at Newbern In another Packet I 
shall send the Drafts of the Line run between the Kings & Lord 
Granville's District, and also the Lines that was run at the time of my 
Arrival in this Province in October last between the Two Carolinas. 

I am my Lords with all due Respect & Deference 

Your Lordships 

Most obedient & most humble Servant 
WP Tryon 

[The original preceding letter was sent by the Mary & Ann, Cap? 
Bendenell to London, & the duplicate by the John & Thomas, Cap? 
George Patten, also to London.] 

The Board of Trade pro co 324/17, f . 234 

to William Tryon 1 

August 23, 1765 


His Majesty having appointed Us His Commissioners for promoting 
the Trade of this Kingdom, and for inspecting and improving His 
Majesty's foreign Colonies and Plantations, it is Our Duty to acquaint 
you therewith, and to desire, that you will from time to time, by every 
Opportunity that offers, transmit to Us an exact and faithful Account of 
all Occurrences within the Province under your Government, and also 
all such publick Papers as are required to be transmitted; not doubting 
that you will conform with great Attention to the Rules prescribed by 
His Majesty's Instructions in respect to the Correspondence to be 
carried on with this Board, by an improper Deviation from which many 
Inconveniencies and Obstructions have arisen to His Majesty's Service. 
We are, 


Sir, your most humble Servants, 

Dartmouth, J. Dyson, 

John Roberts 2 W m Fitzherbert. 

1 A circular letter also sent to the other colonial governors. 

-John Roberts's service as a member of the Board of Trade began ca. 1765. For a more 
complete sketch, see p. 168, n.2. 

R. Hughes PRO CO 5/300, f. 27 

to William Tryon PR ° fo 5/299. Part 2, 

PRO CO 5/310, Part 1, 
ff. 148148b 

Portsmouth 27t h Aug;t 1765 

The Neglect of M r Heron's Master calling for my Letter, as he 
punctualy [sic] promised, lost me the opportunity, of owning the receipt 
of your obliging Letter, with the Plank forwarded in his Vessel. 

I laid both before the Navy Board, in hopes of Seconding your offer in 
such a manner, as might obtain an Order for the Planks quality to be 
examined, and how far it might be made use of for the Service of the 
Navy, and have procured an order to Survey and Report them, which 
has been done, and by the Officers of the Yards return, they are 
Reported to be 47 foot Long, Nine Inches Broad clear of the Sap, and 
are of Yellower complexion than those brought from Prussia, not of so 
clear a Colour, but as close a Contexture; but whether they are of more 
or less durable, time must determine: We have caused Two Pieces of 
equal Dimensions to be weighed, and could not perceive any Essential 
difference— they appear fitting to be work'd for Ships Decks— Since 
this Survey & Opinion has been sent to the Board, I have heard nothing 
further from them, but imagine some experiment will be made in the 
Service they are proposed for. 

Give me leave to Congratulate your promotion to the Government of 
N°: Carolina and to assure you, I am very unfeignedly; 


Your obed: humble Serv:* 
Robert Hughes 1 

1 Evidence indicates that this correspondence was between Tryon and the commissioner 
at Portsmouth, Richard Hughes. Copies of the letter, however, bear the signature Robert 
Hughes. See Tryon's letter to Hughes, April 24, 1765, in this volume. 


William Tryon Presents the Reverend James Reed shc-d 
To Christ Church, New Bern 

September 2, 1765 

To All, to whom these Presents shall come, Greeting 
Know ye, that I William Tryon Esquire, Lieutenant Governor and 
Commander in Chief, in, and over, the province of North Carolina, and 
by Virtue of His Majesty's Commission, true and undoubted patron of 
the Rectory, Benefice, or parish of Christ Church in the County of 
Craven, in the province aforesaid, and Diocese of London, for divers 
good Causes, and Considerations, Me thereunto moving, have pre- 
sented, and by these presents, do present, The Reverend James Reed, 
Clerk, A.B. to the said Rectory, Benefice, or parish of Christ Church: To 
have, hold, and enjoy, the said Rectory, Benefice, or parish of Christ 
Church, together, with All, and singular the Emoluments, Advantages, 
and Appurtenances, thereunto belonging. 

In Testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my Hand and 
Caused the Great Seal of His Majesty's said Province to be 
Affixed, at Brunswick, this second day of September, in the 
Year of Our Lord 1765 And in the Fifth Year of His Majestys 

By His Honours Com * \ym Tryon 

Fount n El win p. Sec: 

The Board of Trade pro co 324/17, f . 238 

to William Tryon 1 

September 2, 1765 

The Commander in Chief of His Majesty's Forces in America having 
made Complaint, that the Governors of several of His Majesty's Colonies 
have granted away Lands close to the Forts belonging to His Majesty, 
by which Means the Garrisons of such Forts have been obliged to pay 
the Proprietors of those Lands extravagant Prices for Wood cut for a 
necessary Supply of Fuel; and thereby a great and unreasonable 
Expence has been brought upon the military Contingencies; We have it 
in Command from His Majesty to signify to you His Majesty's Pleasure, 
that you do take especial Care, that in all Warrants for surveying of 
Lands adjacent or contiguous to any Fort or Fortification, whether such 
Warrant be granted upon an Original Petition to you in Council, or upon 
any Order of His Majesty in His Privy Council, there be an express 
Direction to the Surveyor, that he do reserve to His Majesty, for the Use 


of the Fort near to which the Lands shall lye, such a Part of the Tract 
petitioned for (being Woodland;) and in such a Situation, as the 
Commander in Chief of the said Fort, (with whom he is to be required to 
consult and advise in all such Cases,) shall judge convenient and 
sufficient for a permanent and certain Supply of Fuel for such a 
Garrison, as the said Fort may be able to contain. And it is His Majesty's 
further Pleasure, that a regular Plot of such reserved Land, describing 
the Bounds, expressing the Quantity of Acres, and properly signed and 
attested by such Surveyor, be delivered to the Commanding Officer of 
each Fort, to be there publickly hung up; and a Duplicate thereof also 
recorded in the Secretary's Office, or other proper Office of Record in 
the Colony. 

As the due Execution of this Order is essential to His Majesty's 
Service, you will take Care, that the Regulations above prescribed be 
duly entered upon the Council Books, as a Standing Order to all 
persons, who may be entrusted with the Powers, to which they refer. 
We are, 


your most obedient 
humble Servants. 

Dartmouth 2 
Soame Jenyns 
J. Dyson 3 
John Yorke 4 

'A circular letter also sent to the other colonial governors. 

2 William Legge (1731-1801), second earl of Dartmouth, was president of the Board of 
Trade, 1765-1766, colonial secretary from 1772 to 1775, and lord of the privy seal, 1775 
to 1782. Dartmouth favored the use of force against the American colonies after 1776. 
Dartmouth College, incorporated in 1769, was named in his honor. Webster's Biographical 
Dictionary, 878. 

3 Jeremiah Dyson was a commissioner of the Board of Trade from May 2, 1764, until 
December 30, 1768. Sainty, Officials of the Boards of Trade, 95. 

4 John Yorke (1728-1801), of Sonning, near Reading, Berkshire, was the fourth son of 
Philip Yorke (1690-1764). He held various public offices: clerk in chancery, 1764-1801; 
member of the Board of Trade and Plantations, 1761-1763, 1765; member of the 
Admiralty Board, 1765-1766; clerk of the crown from 1774. Valentine, The British 
Establishment, II, 956. 


The Board of Trade to pro co 5/305, 

William Tryon and William Bull c^miis 

W™ Tryon Esqr Gov*" of N9 Carolina Whitehall Sepr 12th 1765 

W™ Bull Esqr Lt Govr of South Carolina 


The inclosed Copy of a Letter to this Board from the Earl of Halifax 1 
late one of His Majesty's principal Secretaries of State contains His 
Majesty's Orders and Directions in respect to a Demand of £1000 
Carolina Currency made by MI" Samuel Wyley 2 for surveying the 
Catawbaw Lands in consequence of what was stipulated with that 
Nation at the Congress at Augusta in 1763; and as it appears to us to be 
just & reasonable, that the Expence of this necessary Service should be 
equally borne by the Provinces of North Carolina and South Carolina 
which alone are immediately interested in the Case, We do in pursuance 
of His Majesty's Pleasure signified to us, desire that you will cause a 
Moiety of whatever Sums the Expence of that Service shall reasonably 
amount to, to be immediately defrayed out of such Provincial Funds as 
are appropriated and applicable to Contingent Services of Government 
in general; or if there are no such Funds, that you will recommend it, in 
His Majesty's Name, to the General Assembly to make a proper 
Provision for the Payment of such Moiety out of the first Supplies which 
shall be granted for the Support of Government. 

We are, 


Your most obedient, humble Servants, 
J. Dyson 
Wm Fitzherbert 3 

! No enclosure was found. 

2 Samuel Wyley (1722-1768) and his family went to Brunswick from Dublin, Ireland, in 
1751 to settle on lands on Black River owned by their friend, Governor Dobbs. Wyley was 
a Quaker and apparently not happy in North Carolina. By 1752 he was living on the 
Wateree River in South Carolina, however, and in that province soon attained a position of 
some importance. In 1762 he was one of the South Carolina representatives to a 
commission charged with laying off lands for the Catawba Indians along the border 
between the two Carolinas. In January, 1766, when he refused to take an oath, he was 
denied a seat in the assembly as representative from St. Mark's Parish. This letter 
suggests that he was seeking reimbursement from North Carolina for some of his 
expenses in locating the Indian property. Saunders, Colonial Records, VI, 786, 787; VII, 
113, 196, 197, 203, 290, 408, 414, 416, 438. 

'William Fitzherbert (1748-1791) was a gentleman-usher to George III and was 
eventually made a baron in 1784. He resigned his post at court after a quarrel with the 
marquis of Salisbury. By 1765 Fitzherbert was on the Board of Trade, and he was in 
attendance at a number of significant meetings over a period of several years. Fitzherbert 
was credited with authoring a treatise on revenue laws and a pamphlet. Dictionary of 
National Biography, XIX, 167-168; Saunders, Colonial Records, VII, 113, 133, 447, 
538, 685. 


Circular to William Tryon 1 pro t. 27/29 

from Board of Treasury (A&H: 2836 A ' 

September 14, 1765 

I am directed by the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury 
to signify to Your Excellency their Desire that you will give your aid and 
Assistance to the Distributor of Stamps within your government in 
whatever may relate to His Duty in the execution of his Office under the 
Act passed in the last Session of Parliament; and that your Excellency 
would be particular in Seeing that the Chief Distributor do appoint 
under Distributors in every proper Town and Place within your 
Government, and that each of the said under Distributor be well 
supplied with Stamps for all Demands, and that your Excellency would 
be very attentive to the Detection of any Frauds which may arise in this 
Branch of His Majesty's Revenues and in case it shall have happened 
that any chief Distributor residing in your government hath not given 
Security for the due Execution of his Office, that your Ex: c will take care 
that He do forthwith execute His Bond for the same, which Bond when 
executed, your Ex: c y is desired to return to the Stamp Office. 

My Lords so much depend upon your Attention to the Publick 
Service that they cannot doubt of receiving Information from Your 
Excellency in case any Remissness in the Execution of the Office of the 
Chief Distributor within your Government or other mismanagement or 
abuses whatever shall appear to you. 

I am &c? 

Chas. Lowndes 

'Lowndes addressed this copy to James Murray, governor of Quebec, but twenty -one 
other governors, including Tryon, were named as recipients. 

James Murray to William Tryon mhj -m 

Boston Septr 24th 1755 

GovF Tryon 

I embrace with great pleasure this first Opportunity of congratulating 
Your Excell9y on your promotion to the Governor in chief of your 
Province— an Appointment that will give Joy to many who ardently 
wish the Prosperity of the Colony— and your Happiness. For notwith- 


sSill * ■ I 

William Hooper (1742-1790) lived in 
Wilmington prior to the Revolution, and 
the residence pictured above was one of 
several pieces of property he owned 
there. Both pictures are from the North 
Carolina Collection, Chapel Hill. 

standing the Rubs you may expect to meet with in your Administration 
from a people who do not always think aright I am in great hopes that 
your provident and disinterested Conduct will charm even the most 
suspicious & perverse and that you will be enabled to do well, as you 
certainly mean well. 

Permit me also to return your Excellency my hearty thanks for the 
kind Letter of the 30t n July you honoured me with. Yours and your 
Ladys tenderness to my pupil M* Hooper 1 demand my particular 
acknowledgments. It was well he pluckt up Spirits to stay and try to 
make his footing firm under your Excell9y s protection— there is no room 
for him here as a Lawyer, the Stamp Act will send many to grass, with 
you he certainly has a better chance and he knows the Countenance of 
his Friends here depends not on his efforts only but on his Success in 

Introduced by your Ex9y s Letter I have had the honour of Lord 
Adams Company while in this Town. His Lordship is much pleased 
with his tour— and has been in these Colony s at a very critical time 
when it was necessary for the Government to have such a penetrating 
Eye on the Conduct and Circumstances of the people. How the present 
Confusion among us will be brought to order I shall not pretend to fortel 
[sic] and much less to say what will be the Consequences of the late 
thorrough [sic] changes at home that belongs to your Ex9 v & L9 Adam 
who know the Characters in play. 

In the Vessel with this goes a young Man Adam McCulloch whom I 
have at some Expense sent to be instructed in the process of pot-ash as 
it is now carried on here to great advantage. I have recommended him to 


Mr Palmer, & beg leave likewise to recommend him to your Excels for 
if the people in any part of the province begin it with effect, it will soon 
spread— he will be able to instruct both in the North & South. The 
Nicety of the process lies much in fitting proper & easy kilns to burn & 
save the ashes clear of sand. Your Ex9y intent on Improvement will give 
all the Encouragement so material a branch a Commerce deserves— if 
this Lad is not a thorrough Proficient I can easily send one that is, if the 
people have a mind to go upon it— let them make & save their Ashes 
and build the works as he will direct— American potash of which about 
700 tons will be made in this province this year has risen in successive 
years from 25 to 44 £ Sterling p ton the present price in Lon9 

1 William Hooper (1742-1790), native of Boston, Massachusetts and graduate of 
Harvard in 1760, moved to Wilmington in 1764 to begin the practice of law. He was 
quickly established in the community and two years later was elected recorder of the 
town. As was customary for attorneys, he moved about the province seeking clients 
wherever the court was to sit. In Salisbury in 1768, in the absence of the attorney general, 
Hooper was appointed king's attorney. In that same year he happened to be in 
Hillsborough during the outbreak between Regulators and officials and naturally joined 
the officials in putting down the uprising. While deputy attorney general in 1769 and at 
the direction of Attorney General Thomas McGuire, Hooper received a delegation of 
Regulators seeking relief against John Frohock. Hooper drew up a bill of indictment for 
extortion against Frohock but the grand jury rejected it for lack of adequate evidence. 
Hooper's alignment with the official class was perhaps more from position than sentiment; 
he frequently displayed sympathy for the Regulators. He was, nevertheless, a close 
personal friend of Governor Tryon and once joined the governor and his family in a visit to 
Williamsburg. During the Revolution Hooper's loyalties were entirely with the American 
cause, and he was one of North Carolina's signers of the Declaration of Independence. 
Ashe, Biographical History, VII, 233-244; Powell and others, Regulators, 583. 

William Tryon Appoints William Johnston 1 a&hgo 

Register of Bute County 

October 11, 1765 

The Honourable William Tryon Esqr His Majestys 
(S S) Lieutent Governor And Commander in Chief in & Over 

the s9 province 
W m Tryon 

To William Johnston Esquire 

Out of the Assurance I have of Your Loyalty & 
Integrity I do hereby Nominate Constitute and Appoint 
you the said William Johnston to the Register of the 
said County of Bute To Have Hold use Exercise and 
Enjoy the said Office of Register of the County of Bute 
During my pleasure together with all powers and 
Authorities, Fees — Priviledges and Emoluments, 
which to the said Office of Register doth or may of Right 


Belong or Appertain. 

Given Under my Hand and Seal at Arms the 

Eleventh day of October in the Year of Our 

Recorded 14t n Oct*" Lord One thousand Seven Hundred & Sixty 

1765. Five and in the Fifth Year of His Majestys 


By His Hon*" s Command 

Tho? Rutherfurd Pt Sec^ 

'While there were several men by the name of William Johnston, it seems reasonable to 
conjecture that this was the same man who later was a member of an an ti -Regulator group 
and who wrote a letter of introduction to Richard Bennehan on behalf of John Frohock 
July, 1772). However, Johnston represented Hillsborough in the Provincial Congress at 
Halifax in April, 1776. Clark, State Records, XIV, 208, XXI, 194-596 passim; Saunders, 
Colonial Records, VIII, 273-275, IX, 311, X, 501-953 passim. 

Proclamation of the Lieutenant Governor a&h-go 

A&H-CJ, 311-312 
CR -VII, 118 

North Carolina October 25, 1765 

By the Honble William Tryon Esquire 
His Majestys Lieutenant Governor and 
Commander in Chief in and over the 
said Province 

A Proclamation 

Whereas the General Assembly of this Province stands Prorogued to 
the 27^ n day of November next, and there appearing no immediate 
Necessity for their Meeting at that time; I have therefore thought fit, By 
and with the Advice and Consent of His Majesty's Council further to 
prorogue the said Assembly to the 12 tn day of March next. And the said 
Assembly is accordingly hereby Prorogued to the said 12^ n day of 
March next. Then to meet at New Bern. 

Given Under my hand and the seal 
of the said Province this 25^ n day 
of October In the Year of 1765 and 
in the sixth Year of His Majesty's 

By His Honors Command Will m Tryon 

Benjamin Heron Secry 

God save the King 


Henry Seymour Conway (1721- 
1795) was secretary of state from 
1765 to 1768 and worked to repeal 
the Stamp Act in 1766. Photograph 
courtesy of National Portrait Gal- 
lery, London. 

William Tryon to Henry Seymour Conway : 

[with enclosure] 

PRO CO 5/310, 

ff. 40-40b 
A &H -TLB, 24 
CR-VII, 122-123 

The Right Honble. Hy. Seymour Conway 
One of His Majesty's principal 
Secretaries of State. 

Brunswick, N C 
November 5, 1765 
[Received Feb. 4, 1766] 


I had the honour to receive the second of this month your letter dated 
the twelfth of July 2 to inform me, his Majesty had been graciously 
pleased to deliver to you the Seals for the Southern Department. His 
Majesty's commands transmitted to me thro' you, Sir, shall be obeyed 
with all the diligence and firmness in my power. I had the happiness to 
receive a few days before the arrival of your letter his Majesty's 
commission , appointing me Governor of this province : which commission 
I shall open, as soon as my present extreme bad state of health will 
permit me; An illness that has visited me ever since the 3d. of August 
last, It is a compound of every sort of fever; called by the inhabitants the 
seasoning of this climate. 

I have received no authentic account of the Act of Parliament 


appointing a Stamp Duty; nor are any Stamp Officers or the Stamps 
arrived here as yet. The inclosed I received from a merchant at Charles 

I am, with great respect 

Your very Humble Servant 
W™ Tryon 

'Henry Seymour Conway (1721-1795) was an English soldier and statesman who 
fought at Fontenoy in 1745 and was aide-de-camp to the duke of Cumberland at Culloden 
Moor in 1746. His expedition against Rochefort was considered a signal failure. From 
1765 to 1768 he served as secretary of state; he was leader of the House of Commons. 
Tryon wrote several letters to Conway describing the situation in North Carolina when the 
Stamp Act was enforced. The secretary worked for repeal of the Stamp Act and opposed 
the American policy of Lord North. Even during his last years, as late as 1793, Seymour 
was leading an active life as a field marshal in the army. Webster's Biographical 
Dictionary, 344. 

2 The letter of July 12 was not found. 

[Enclosure] PRO CO 5/310, 

Extract, Charlestown Merchant ff 42 43b 

to William Tryon 

October 29, 1765 

Our Quota of Stamp'd paper is arrived, as is likewise the Inspector, 
Mr. Saxby, 1 with the Nomination of a Resident, Mr. Caleb Lloyd 2 for a 
Distributor. In Imitation of the more Northern Governments, much 
preparation was made for the Reception of these Matters here, and a 
Very Republican Spirit has Started up amongst us upon this occasion, 
and appeared so daringly as to terrify those Gentlemen in Appointment, 
from the Execution of their Duty, and I believe hath put a Stop to Public 
Business of every kind— Nay, I do not know when a Vessel can, or Will 
be legally clear'd out of this Port, after the last Day of this Month. 

'George Saxby, receiver general of quitrents in South Carolina as early as 1744, 
resigned that office in 1774. McCulloh at one point complained about his handling of the 
quitrents. Clark, State Records, XI, 52, 108; Saunders, Coloyiial Records, V, 616-617; 
IX, 1001. 

2 Lloyd was in office only two days when he agreed to cease the operation of his office 
until Parliament reacted to colonial demonstrations. W. Roy Smith, South Carolina as a 
Royal Province, 1719-1776 (New York: Macmillan Company, 1903), 352. 



Abstract of Tryon's Dispatch pro co 5/217, f . 64 

Regarding the Stamp Act 

[Abstract dated Feb. 4, 1766] 

[Tryon] Has received no authentick accounts of the Act of Parliament 
for a Stamp Duty, nor are any Stamps or Stamp Officers arrived. 
Transmits a Letter from a Merchant in Charles Town, informing of 
Stamps & a Stamp officer being arrived, but that he was intimidated 
from acting. 

William Houston's 1 Resignation pro co 5/310, f . 54 

November 16, 1765 

Copy of IVIT WP Houston's Resignation of His Office of Stamp Distributor 
for the Province of North Carolina 

I do hereby promise that I never will receive any Stampt paper which 
may arrive from Europe, in consequence of any Act lately passed in the 
Parliament of Great Britain nor officiate in any means as Stamp Master 
or Distributor of the Stamps within the province of North Carolina, 
either directly or indirectly, and I do hereby notify all the Inhabitants of 
His Majesty's Province of North Carolina, notwithstanding my having 
received Information of my being appointed to the Said Stamp Office, 
not to apply hereafter for any Stampt Paper, or to distribute the same 
untill such Time as it will be agreeable to the Inhabitants of this 
Province: Hereby declaring that I do execute these Presents of my own 
free Will and Accord without any Equivocation or mental Reservation 

In witness hereof I have hereunto set my Hand this Sixteenth Day of 
November, 1765. 

: Dr. William Houston (d. ca. 1795) arrived in North Carolina from Northern Ireland 
about 1735 to serve as trustee, partner, and agent for his uncle, Henry McCulloh, wealthy 
London merchant with extensive land in the province. When Duplin County was formed 
from that part of New Hanover in which he lived, Houston held the first of a number of 
local offices, and he represented the county in the assembly from 1749 until 1762. In 1765 
he was appointed the agent to distribute stamps in the province in accordance with the 
provisions of the Stamp Act. He did not seek the office and it apparently was his relation- 
ship to the influential McCulloh that brought the appointment to him. Opposition to the act 
centered in the Lower Cape Fear and Dr. Houston was hanged in effigy. A crowd 
demanded his resignation and he apparently willingly complied. During the Revolution 
and afterward he held minor positions of trust and honor. James Sprunt, Chronicles of the 
Cape Fear River, 1660-1916 (Raleigh: Edwards and Broughton Printing Co., 1916), 




(November 20.) 


(Numb. 58;) 




WIL MINOTON, November 2©. 



N Saturday the 19th of laft Month, about Sever* of the Clock in 
the Evening, near Five Hundred People afiembied together in this 
Town, and exhibited the Effigy of a certain Honourable Gen- 
tleman j and after letting k hang by the Neck for fome Time, 
near the Court-Houfej they made a large Bonfire with a Number 
of Tar- Barrels, &c. and committed ill to the Flames.- — The Reafori 
affigned for the People's Diflike to that Gentleman, was, from 
being informed of his having feveral Times exprefled himfelf tnu(| in Favour of ° 

the STAMP-DUTY.- After the Effigy was eonfumecL they went to every 

Houfe in Town, and bro't all the Gentlemen to the Bonfire, tentf infifted upon their 
drinking, LIBERTY, PROPERTY, and no STAMP-DUTX, and Cohfufioa 
to Lord B-te and all his Adherents, giving three Htfz^as at the Cbncluiion of each 

Toaft. They continued together until 12 of the Clock, and then; difperfedj 

without doing any Mifchief. And, 

On Thurfday, 31ft of the fame Month, in the Evening, a great Number of 
People again afiembied, and produced an Effigy of LIBERTY, which they put 
into a Coffin, and marched in folemn Proceffion with it to the Church- Yard, 
a Drum in Mourning beating before thejf&r a&d^g To&ft «efl^ inuffled, ringing 
a doleful Knelt at the ftmTTTffii^-^-But before they committed the Body to the 
Ground, they thought it advifeable to feel its Pulfe j and when finding fome fee- 
mains of Life, they returned back to a Bonfire ready preparedi placed the Effigy 
before it in a large Two-arm'd Chair, and concluded the Evening with great Re- 
joicings, on finding that LIBERTY had ffiill are Exhtente in the CoLONiES.-i-Not 
the leaft Injury was offered to any Perfoft. 

On Saturday the 16th of this Inft. William HSo'sfON, Efcfr Dlftributor of 
STAMPS for this Province, .came to this Town •, Upon which three or four Huhr 
dred People immediately gathereatogether, with Drums beating and Colours flying, 
and repaired to the Houfe the faid Stamp-Officer put Up at, and ihfifteefupon 
knowing, " Whether he intended to execute "his, faid Omxe," or not ?'* H4 feoid 
them, " He lhould be very forry to execute any Office' difagfeeable to* the People 
of the Province." But they, not content with fuch # Declaration, carried him inttf 
the Court- Houfe, where he figned a Refighation fatrsfa$6ry to the "Whole. 

As foon as the Stamp-Officer had comply'd with tjreir Deflre, they" placed* ninj 
in an Arm-Chair, carried him firft round the Court-Hottfe, J-ivlhg three Huxjias 
at every Corner, and then proceeded with hirh round dn6 61 iftt Squared of the 
Town, and fat him down at the Door of his Lodgings, formed thtfrnfelves in 8^.. 
large Circle round him, and gave him three Cheers i They theft efcortfcq* hfift into™" 
the Houfe, where was prepared the beft Liquors to tie had, and treated hirei Very 
gcnteely. In the Evening a large Bonfire was made; and rfo Perfon appeared. in 
the Streets without having LIBERTY* in large Capital Letters^ in his Haf.-^-i*. 
They had a large Table new the Bonfire, welt furrothAi *«h M Sort* of 
Liquors, where they drank in great FoWtt, afi the* ftvSuftte" AmWcan ToaltsV 
giving three Cheers at the Coftclufion of each. The whole Was ctt#U#ed wfth 
great Decorum, and not the leaft Infult offered ttf any Perfdfi. 

B ffffimaiiately 





is the Place to 
the STAMP, 

In this excerpt from the North- Carolina Gazette, the reporter graphically describes the 
events of October 19, October 31, and November 16, 1765. Photograph from the files of 
the Division of Archives and History. 


Address of about Fifty Gentlemen pro co 310, 

of Brunswick, New Hanover, and Bladen ff 47 " 48, ff 51b 52b 

Counties to Governor Tryon and His Reply 

(Copy) [Brunswick, November 18, 1765] 

May it please Your Excellency 


The Gentlemen to whom your Excellency was pleased to Com- 
municate your Sentiments Yesterday relative to the Stamp Act, 
unanimously beg leave to return their most hearty thanks and 
Acknowledgments, for the obliging Manner in which Your Excellency 
expresses your desire to rendering this Province all the important 
Service in your Power. As your Excellency's known Sincerity leaves no 
room to suspect you would make any Professions, without an Intention 
of performing them; and as your Family, Fortune, & Interest in 
England, will always give considerable Weight to your Remonstrances, 
we cannot but applaud the happy Distinction of this Province which has 
a Governor so studious of promoting & so well qualified to prosecute its 
Advantages and Prosperity. 

The alarming Tendency of the Stamp Act which for some Months 
past has excited the Attention of America, has given us an Opportunity 
of considering its fatal Influence, with that Deliberation which the 
Importance of the Subject requires; and we Cannot on this Occasion 
suppress discovering to your Excellency, that every View of this Act 
confirms us in our Opinion that it is destructive to those Liberties which 
as British Subjects we have a right to enjoy in Common with Great 

To our Sovereign we owe & shall be always ready to testify by our 
Conduct every act of Loyalty & Obedience consistent with the Rights of 
a free People & we most sincerely pray that the British Throne may 
never want Heirs of the present Illustrious House of Hanover to secure 
the Blessings of that happy Constitution, but the Extention of the Stamp 
Act, by a melancholy Presage of America being deprived of all or most 
of the British Privileges naturally suggests to us that the Submission to 
any Part of so oppressive & as we think so Unconstitutional Attempts, 
is a direct Opening & Inlet for Slavery, which all Mankind will 
endeavour to avoid. 

For these Reasons it is with great Pain we are obliged to differ from 
what your Excellency has been pleased to mention of your Paying the 
Stamp-Duty on the Instruments enumerated in the Proposal, nor can we 
Assent to the Payment of the smaller Stamps: An Admission of part 
would put it out of our Power to refuse with any Propriety a Submission 


to the Rest, and as we can never Consent to be deprived of the invaluable 
Privilege of a Tryal by Jury which is one part of that Act we think it 
more Consistent as well as securer Conduct to prevent to the Utmost of 
our Power the Operation of any Part of it. —At the same Time we assure 
your Excellency that we will upon every Occasion avoid & prevent as 
far as our Influence extends any Insult or Injury to any of the Officers of 
the Crown, but must confess that the Office of Distributor of the Stamps 
is so detested by the People in General that we dont think either the 
Person or Property of such an Officer could by any Means be Secured 
from the Resentment of the Country. 

The Connection between Great Britain & the Colonies we [would] by 
no Means desire to interrupt or weaken, but most ardently wish the 
Prosperity of both may be promoted by the Encouragement of 
Commerce and the Advancement of our mutual Interest. 

And we can with equal Sincerity assure your Excellency that we will 
at all times in our Respective Stations, chearfully contribute all in our 
Power, to render your Excellency's Administration happy, easy and 



The Governor's Reply 


Your Answer to my Proposals for the Circulation of the Stamp -Duty 
should the Stamps arrive in this Province, is very agreeable to me, so 
far as it expresses your Loyalty to his Majesty, and your Assurances to 
Contribute to the Honour, Ease, and Happiness of my Administration; 
but at the same Time, I cannot help regretting, that my Intentions of 
Service to this Province, at this nice Juncture, have so little a Prospect of 
Success; nor to lament the Consequences I apprehend from the 
Resolution you Gentlemen have adopted. 

Brunswick 20 November 1765. l 

'The date, November 20, 1765, at the close indicates a two- day interval between the 
address and Tryon's reply. The North-Carolina Gazette (Wilmington ) of November 20 
described the event of October 19 during which Wilmington citizens hanged (and later 
burned) in effigy a "Certain HONORABLE GENTLEMAN "-presumably an advocate of 
the Stamp Act. The article also included a description of the funeral of "Liberty" in effigy 
solemnized on October 31. 


Excerpts from North- Carolina Gazette, pro co 5/310, 

November 27, 1765 cIviu'P-^ 

Wilmington, November 27 

Monday the 18th instant about 50. of the Gentlemen of Brunswick 
New Hanover and Bladen Counties waited on the Governor at his seat 
near Brunswick on his circular letters to them for that purpose when his 
Excellency was pleased to communicate his sentiments to them relative 
to the Stamp Act to the following purpose:— He began by assuring them 
he would with pleasure exert his interest and influence in England in 
endeavouring to promote the prosperity of this colony by every means 
in his power consistent with his duty to his King and country; and 
should think himself happy in displaying that duty if he could at the 
same time contribute to the service of his Majesty's faithful subjects of 
this Province. 

He mentioned and with moderation censured the conduct of some of 
the Colonies where the Officers of the crown had been insulted their 
houses pulled down, their furniture and effects destroyed and his 
Majesty's property invaded by burning the stampt paper sent from 
England; and expressed his hopes that no violence of that sort might be 
attempted, in case the stamps should at any time arrive here repre- 
senting the danger of such proceedings and the disagreeable conse- 
quence which might attend them— The Parliamentary Right of Taxa- 
tion he said he would by no means at that time enter into the discussion 
of but hoped that none in this Province were desirous of destroying the 
Dependance on the Mother Country; and therefore strongly urged the 
prudence of not opposing the Legislature of Great Britain— He took 
notice of the impossibility of the Stamp Act operating in all its parts in 
this Province where the whole cash of the Country would scarcely pay a 
single year of the Tax; and declared his Intention of representing at 
home our circumstances in such a manner that we might reasonably 
expect whether the act was repealed or not, a favourable indulgence 
and exemption of this Colony unless his endeavours were frustrated by 
the conduct of the people— He inforced his observation by expaciating 
on the advantage that we should receive on a submission to the Act, by 
carrying on an extensive commerce, while our rural Colonies on the 
continent, by their refusal of the Stamps had entirely obstructed their 
order Trade: and as a further inducement to the reception of the small 
stamps, his Excellency generously offered to pay himself the whole 
duty arising on any Instruments executed on stampt paper; on which he 
should have any perquisite or fee; such as Warrants and Patents for 
Land; Testimonials; Injunctions in Chancery; Licenses for Marriages; 
Letters of Administration and Testamentary with four Wine Licenses 
for each of the Towns of Edenton, Newbern, Wilmington, Salisbury, 


and Halifax; two for Brunswick and Cross -Creek; and for Bath and 
Tarborough, one License each. 

Brunswick, the 20 th of November 1765 1 

Monday last died, and Yesterday was very decently interred, M r 
George Weakely, formerly an eminent Merchant here. 

The following is a genuine Copy of the Letter to Doctor William 
Houston, appointing him Stamp-Distributor for this Province. 

STAMP-OFFICE London. July 11 th 1765. 


I am ordered by the Commissioners, to acquaint you, the Lords 
Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury, have been pleased to appoint 
you to be Distributor of Stamps for North- Carolina: you are therefore on 
Receipt hereof to write to this Board to propose two responsible Persons 
in England to be bound with you, in the Penalty of Two Thousand 
Pounds. As this Duty takes place on the first of November next, and no 
Stamps can be sent you, until your Bond is executed, you are desired to 
be as expeditious as possible. 

I am your humble servant 
James Brettell, Secretary 

Houston's resignation has appeared earlier in this volume. 

The Board of Trade to William Try on pro co 5/305, ft. 9-iib 

CR-VH, 131-132 

William Tryon Esq Whitehall NovT 29. 1765 

Governor of North Carolina 


It is with great Pleasure and Satisfaction We congratulate you on the 
Commission His Majesty has been graciously pleased to give you, of 
Governor in chief of His Province of North Carolina. 

We gave all the Dispatch to that appointment that lay in Our Power, 
and hope speedily to lay before His Majesty the Instructions to which 
your Commission refers. 

The Measure you pursued upon the death of your Predecessor, of 
summoning the General Assembly to meet on the 2^ of May appears to 


have been prudent and necessary; and it is with great Satisfaction We 
observe that their Proceedings have been conducted with Temper and 
Moderation, and with a Zeal and Attention to the publick Service that 
cannot fail of recommending them to His Majesty's favour. 

The making Provision for an Orthodox Clergy free from the improper 
Restrictions that had accompanied the former Acts for that Purpose lays 
the Foundation of happiness and prosperity to the Colony in its most 
essential Interests; It will be our Duty to assist, as far as depends upon 
us, in every Step that can be taken to answer the good ends of this pious 
Institution, and We doubt not but the Society for the propagation of the 
Gospel will shew the same Zeal, and give all the Aid in their Power. 

We embraced the earliest Opportunity after the receipt of your Letter 
to take up the consideration of it, and of the Act transmitted with it, in 
which We have been assisted by the Bishop of London with whom the 
Act now lyes for his Observations upon it, and who has likewise given 
us reason to hope that he will enable us to send you proper Instructions 
as to the Manner and form of Induction of such Clergy as shall go over to 
North Carolina properly qualified to serve the Churches there. 

The inclosed Copy of an additional Instruction to Governor Dobbs, 1 
contains those Objections to the Act passed in 1754 for granting to His 
Majesty forty thousand Pounds in Bills of Credit, which are referred to 
in the Minutes of the Board of the 13 of December 1763, and when We 
consider the Nature of the Complaints of the Merchants on which that 
Instruction was founded, We hope the Candour of the Assembly will 
admit the Justice of them, and that the Amendment of the Law in the 
particulars pointed out will not be thought incompatible with the 
Interests of their Constituents, and in that Case We have no doubt but 
that His Majesty will approve of the Mony [sic] reserved being applied 
to the purposes you mention. 

The Clause inserted in the Bill for facilitating the Navigation of the 
Ports was expressly contrary to that Article of the Instructions to the 
Governor to which you refer, and therefore We cannot but approve your 
Conduct in having given a Negative to it. 

The irregularity in the Mode of appointing Agents in all the Colonies, 
has long been a Subject of complaint and difficulty in the Administration 
of the Affairs of the Colonies in this Kingdom, and if the Assembly 
should in their next Session not admit a proper Number of the Council to 
be of the Committee of Correspondence which they certainly ought to 
be, We shall then consider what Steps it may be proper for His Majesty 
to take. 

We are, Sir, your very loving Friends, 

Soame Jenyns 
John Roberts 2 
W m Fitzherbert 


1 This enclosure was not found. 

2 John Roberts sat on the Board of Trade for a number of crucial years from ca. 1766 
until after 1772. He was a party to making many vital recommendations to the king about 
affairs in North Carolina. At a meeting of June 21, 1771, the members recommended that 
a group of wealthy Scots planning to emigrate to the colonies be discouraged from doing 
so. At another meeting four acts which had been discussed by the North Carolina General 
Assembly came before the board: 

a. Act designed to prevent riots was passed by the assembly; speedy trial and 
conviction of offenders was recommended by the board. 

b. Act to establish Queen's College in Mecklenburg County was approved. 

c. Act authorizing Presbyterian ministers to perform marriage rites independently of 
Established Church was discussed ; board favored protection of Established Church. 

d. Act to encourage further settlement of North Carolina was approved. 
(Saunders, Colonial Records, VI, 720-723, 753-755; VII, 289-291, 546-549; VIII, 
164-167; 275-277, 621-622, 628; IX, 248-252.) 

A Charlestown Gentleman to William Tryon pro co 5/310, 

ff . 56-56b 

Extract of a Letter from December 13, 1765 

a Gentleman in Charles Town 1 

It is uncertain now when an Opportunity will offer for the Carriage of 
any thing off this Province by Water; Our Asserters of Liberty, as they 
call themselves having by their Determinations, shut up the Public 
Offices and Courts of Judicature; The Contagion has extended itself to 
Georgia, so that the whole Continent is now in the same Circumstance, 
except the Floridas which are Inhabited by military only as Yet, and 
Officers of the Crown. —What the Consequence of so general a Defection 
will be, I don't know, and am distracted to think on, for I fear it will be 
fatal to the Lives of many, and the Liberties of the Whole. 

'This extract was enclosed in a letter of Tryon to Conway, December 26, 1765. 

James Murray to William Tryon MHi-M 

Boston Decemr 16th. 1765 

Gov Tryon 

I had the honour to write your Excellency on the 24th Septr con- 
gratulating fyou] on your appointment of Govr in Chief, making my 
acknowledgments for your Friendship to Mr Hooper and recommending 
a pot -ash-man —this Lad fell sick & did not go, partly, I believe, from the 
dread of a Sickly Climate. Since that time I have had the pleasure to see 


Capt Lobb, with him went Mr Sam Campbell, who took care to be 
instructed in the process of pot -ash, so I expect to hear of the progress of 
the province in that Article. It is not many weeks since I was determined 
to pass my Winter under your Excellency's protection, but some events 
have since happened to detain me here. I have not forgot your Excys 
Commission about the Cattle, but the truth is, I found money coming in 
so slowly, and my Settlement here so Expensive, I could not without 
Inconvenience execute it. 

Mrs Murray joins me in respectful Compliments to your Lady & begs 
her acceptance of a Kit of Salmon cured in a new way from our Eastern 

The people here still continue their Rage against the Stamp act, but 
will probably be saddled with it after all. I inclose your Excy in a 
Separate packet our News papers for Weeks past. I am 

Sir your Excys dutiful & obed Servt 

Since the above Capt. Crocker has given me leafe [permission] & time 
to ship on board his Sloop For your Excellencys accot. ten Bundles of 
hay Freight Free. 

The ten bundles Weight 45..0..14 a 3/ is £6. .9. .5 
Carrying on board ..4..- 

charg'd to your Excellency 6. 13. .5 

Dollars at 6/. 

Deer. 17.1765 


Governor William Tryon's Reception Maryland Gazctt 

in Wilmington 1 February 20. 1 766 

[December 19, 1765] 

WILMINGTON, (N. Carolina.) 

Dec. 25. Thursday last his Excellency Governor Tryon came up to 
Town from his Seat near Brunswick. He was received at the Market 
Wharf by the Mayor, Aldermen, and other Gentlemen of the Borough; 
the New-Hanover Regiment of Militia, with their officers lining the 
Streets on both Sides, from the Wharf to his Excellency's House. He 
was then saluted by the Discharge of 17 Pieces of Artillery, placed at 
the Foot of Market-Street for that Purpose. The Ships in the Harbour, 
commanded by Captains Moone, 2 Fuller, Foster, English, &c. displayed 
their Colours on the Occasion; and, in short, every Mark of Honour and 
Respect was paid to his Excellency; especially by Captain English, who 


* -"A 

■* P&Hh < V*'. 

y /> ^\ 

> -. 

j ■-:? 

'*'&* v$£ 

-IX; -Hi 






Preserved in the North Carolina Museum 
of History, Raleigh, is a piece of wallpaper 
used as a cover for a "Tryal Docket of the 
Court of Equity, Hillsborough District." On 
the back of the wallpaper is the stamp re- 
produced here. The picture appears in the 
North Carolina Historical Review, XLIV 
(July, 1972), 231. 

obliged the Town with the Loan of his Guns, &c. and permitted his Men 
to assist in managing them. 

Captain Phipps, Commander of his Majesty's Sloop Diligence, came 
up with his Excellency from Brunswick, where his Vessel now lies, and 
has the Stampt Paper on board. Mister Phipps was pleased to take 
Offense at the Captains of the Merchantmen having hoisted their 
Colours; particularly Capt. English's, which were a Green Field, with a 
Harp and Crown; and immediately demanded them of the Captain; as 
also the Pendants of the other Ships: These Gentlemen thought, that as 
they had done it in Honour to the Governor, and, as no King's Vessel 
was then in Sight, that Capt. Phipps might have excused it; though the 
Act might be somewhat illegal, according to the strict Rules of the 
Navy. However, he persisted in his First Demand, and the Populace 
being made acquainted therewith, went in a Body seized on his Boat, 
haul'd her out of the Water, and dragged her up Market Street hozzaing 
as they went along, until they came to an open Place, where they 
intended to have burned her; which certainly would have been the Case, 
had not the Worshipful Frederick Gregg, the present Mayor of this 
Borough, (who was remarkably careful to preserve Regularity and good 
Order therein) and many other Gentlemen in the Town, interceded with 
the People to spare the Boat which they agreed to do, provided that the 
Colours were brought to them in Fifteen Minutes Time; which Request 


(in Order to prevent the Boats Destruction) was complied with: The 
Populace received them with Three Cheers; and, after hoisting them on 
board the Boat, hauled her through the public streets, then launched her 
safe into the Water, and then dispersed, without any other disorderly 

! For another account, see Samuel Johnston to Thomas Barker, January 9, 1766, in this 

2 The four captains mentioned have not been satisfactorily identified. Captain Foster 
might logically have been the John Foster who signed a report to William Dry on February 
15, 1766 (Saunders, Colonial Records, VII, 177-178); and a Captain Ebenezer Fuller, 
master of the John and Elizabeth owned by John Simpson, reported on the ship's 
confiscation by Spaniards in 1769 (Saunders, Colonial Records, IX, 171, 319-322, 353). 

Proclamation of the Governor 1 pro co 5/350, 53-54 

MH-CJ, 344-345 
CR-VII, 134 

December 20, 1765 

North Carolina'ss 

By His Excellency Will m Tryon 
Esq** Captain General Governor 
and Commander in Chief in and 
over the said Province. 

A Proclamation 

Whereas it is necessary for the Peace and good government of this 
Province that all Officers therein both Civil and Military should hold 
themselves Continued in their several Offices Places and Employments 
Untill my Pleasure be further known. I have therefore thought proper to 
issue this Proclamation, By and with the Advice and Consent of His 
Majesty's Council. 

And do hereby Order Signify and Declare That all Persons who now 
at the Time of the Promulgation of my Commission as Governor and 
Commander in Chief of this Province, are duly and Lawfully possessed 
of or Invested in any Office, Place or Employment, Civil or Military in 
this Province, shall be and hold themselves Continued in the same 
Offices places or Employments, as formerly they held and Enjoyed the 
same Untill my pleasure be further known, and that the said Persons do 
not fail; every one severally according to his place Office or Charge to 
proceed in the performance and Execution of all Duties there unto 


And further I do hereby Will and Command all and singular His 
Majesty's Subjects in this Province to be aiding and [Singular His 
Majestys Subjects in this Province to be Aiding and] 2 Assisting at the 
Commandment of the said Officers in the Performance and Execution of 
the said Offices, as they will Answer the Contrary to their Perils. 

Given Under my hand and to which I have 
Caused to be Affixed the Great Seal of this 
Province at Wilmington this 20 tn 
day of December in the Sixth Year of His 
Majestys Reign, and in the Year of Our 
Lord One Thousand, seven Hundred and Sixty- 
five (signed) 

Will m Tryon 

By His Excellencys 

Benjamin Heron Scry 

1 This was the first official act of Tryon after taking the oath of office, but see also pp. 
56-57. The formal acceptance of his credentials was recorded in the council minutes and 
published in Saunders, Colonial Records, VII, 133: 

At a Council held at the Council Chamber at Wilmington December 20 tn 1765. 

His Honour Col. W m Tryon Lieut. Governor 

(James Hasell Charles Berry 

John Rutherford William Dry 

Lewis DeRosset Robert Palmer } Esquires 

John Sampson and 

Alexander M c Culloh Benjamin Heron 

The Lieutenant Governor then produced His most sacred Majesty's Commission or 
Letters patent, bearing date at Westminster the 19 m day of July in the fifth Year of his 
said Majestys reign constituting and appointing him the said Lieut Governor, His said 
Majestys Captain General and Commander in Chief in and over the province of North 
Carolina, Which said Commission was read and duely published in the presence of the 
Gentlemen of the Council above named. 

Then His Excellency took all the Oaths appointed by law declared and subscribed the 
Test, also took the Oaths for administering the Government and for securing the Acts of 
Trade and Navigation heretofore made and now in force. 

Then the Council above named took the Oaths by Law appointed for the qualifying 
Officers, declared and subscribed the Test and took the Oaths of Office and Secrecy.— 
Ordered That His Excellency the Governor's Commission be recorded &c. 

Also Ordered That the following proclamation be made forthwith publick property 
throughout this Province Viz., 

2 The bracketed words are a repetition in the original, obviously by error of the 


Proclamation of the Governor pro co 5/350, 

ff. 64-65 

MH-CJ, 347-348 
A&H-CJ, 316-319 
CR-VII, 135 

December 21, 1765 

North Carolina 

By His Excellency Will m Tryon 
Esq!" Captain General Governor 
and Commander in Chief in and 
over the said Province. 

A Proclamation 

Whereas I have Qualified Under my Commission as Captain General 
Governor and Commander in Chief in and over this Province It is 
necessary that the present Assembly should be Dissolved. I have 
therefore with the Advice and Consent of His Majesty's Council Issued 
this Proclamation for Dissolving the said Assembly, and the same is 
accordingly Dissolved. 1 

Given Under my hand and the 
Seal of the Province this 21?t 
day of DecT 1765, and in the 
6t n Year of His Majestys Reign 

Will™ Tryon 

By His Excellencys 

Benjamin Heron Scry — 

God save the King 

1 After the formal dissolution of the assembly, Tryon held a very important session with 
the council during which these questions and answers were read and recorded by the 
secretary (see Saunders, Colonial Records, VII, 135-137): 

His Excellency laid before the Council for their Opinion whether upon the present Dissolution of the 
Assembly of this Province, Writs can issue for the Election of a new Assembly, as the circulation of 
the Stamps are obstructed. The Council desired the Attorney General's opinion might be taken, and 
he Mr. Attorney General was accordingly called into Council, and the Question being proposed to him. 
gave it his Opinion. "That issuing Writs for Electing Members of the Assembly is exercising the un- 
doubted prerogative of the Crown, and therefore such writs are not Subject to any duty by virtue of 
the Stamp Act, and of course may be legally issued on common paper" — And then the Council gave 
their Opinion that Writs may issue, conformable to the Attorney Generals opinion Then His Excel- 
lency proposed the 'I'lr of April next for holding the Assembly at New Bern, and Ordered that Writs 


be forthwith issued to the proper Officers of the several Countys and Towns Qualified to send Mem- 
bers to the Assembly. 

Also Ordered that the Answer to the Questions propounded by the Honble John Rutherford Esq 
Rec. ver General of His Majestys Quit Rents, and by Order of His Excellency the Governor in Council 
referred for the Opinion of Robert Jones Jun Attorney General, be entered upon the Journals of this 
Board, Viz. 

— I? 1 Can persons holding by old patents bodies of Surplus Land be compelled to pay Quit Rents for 
the same, and if any what Quit Rents ought to be demanded for such surplus Lands 

Answer— I am of opinion that the Grantee is chargeable with Quit Rents on the true Number of 
Acres contained within the Bounds of his Grant from the date thereof, whether his patent be of Ancient 
or Modern date after the rate specified in his Grant. 

— 2. n d If necessary for the occupants to take new Patents for such surplus Lands or ought the marks 
and bound of the Land described in the old patents to be deemed a good Title to such surplus Lands 

Answer— The Patent if regularly obtained will be a legal Title to the Lands contained within the 
bounds specified therein, as it is a sufficient proof that the Grantee intended to purchase the whole, 
and the error in respect to the Number of Acres is a wrong computation of the Surveyor, who is 
appointed by the Crown; However if there was any fraud in procuring such Patent, the same may be 
rendered void in the whole. 

3P What is the proper method to be taken to discover and to obtain Payments for surplus Lands 
whether held by Proprietary Grants or Grants from the Crown, and if by Resurvey at who's Expence? 

Answer — If a Patentee on an amicable application refuses to have his land resurveyed, and the true 
Number of acres ascertained, he may be compelled thereto by a Decree in Chancery, and also to pay 
the Quit Rents, in which Case I should think the Court will subject him to the whole Costs occasioned 
by his obstinacey — But if the Patentee submits to have his Land resurveyed on a friendly application, 
the Expence ought to be defrayed by the Crown as the Error by the first Surveyor's Computation is 
not to be imputed to such Patentee. 

_4th whether the Occupants are liable to pay Quit Rents for their Surplus Lands from the date of 
their Grants? 

Answer — The Answer to this Question is Comprised in the answer to the first Query. 

— 5r" What is the proper method to be taken to recover payment of Bonds or Notes, and for dis- 
posing of Lands escheated to the Crown by Persons tried and found guilty of Felony — those Bonds, 
Notes and Lands having been previously conveyed away to others after office found? 

— When a person is attainted of Felony, except for Petit Larceny and some particular Cases for 
felonies created by Act of Parliament, all the Lands he was seized of in Fee, at the time of committing 
such Felony are forfeited to the Crown and on Office being found are at the intire disposal of His 
Majesty immediately, notwithstanding any conveyance thereof made after the Commission of such 
Felony; it not being necessary for his Majesty or any of His Officers to make an Actual Entry of such 
Lands to perfect his Title; as it would be in the Case of a subject when his Title accrues by forfeiture 
or the Breach of a Condition. Debts and Duties of every kind due to such Felon except such as are due 
to him as a Trustee, are in like manner forfeited to the Crown, and if the Bonds or other Writings 
given for securing the Payment of the same can be had, they may be recovered by Action at Law in 
the name of the Attorney General; but if they are assigned over and in possession of the Assignee or 
any other for his use, they cannot be recovered but by the aid of a Court of Chancery. 

All of which is humbly submitted to His Excellency and the Members of His Majestys Honble 
Council by their 

Most obedient and very humble Servant 
Robert Jones, Jun. 

Occanechy Dec 2P d 1765 

The Board of Trade to George III pro co 5/305, 

ff. 1313b 

To the King's most Excellent Majesty. December 24[?], 1765 

May it please Your Majesty 

In obedience to Your Majesty's Commands signified to us by the 
Right Honble the Earl of Halifax, late one of Your Majesty's principal 
Secretaries of State, in his Letter of the 26t n June we have prepared and 
herewith beg leave humbly to Lay before Your Majesty Draughts of 
General Instructions as well as those which relate to the Observance of 
the Acts of Parliament for the Encouragement and Regulation of the 


Plantation Trade for W m Tryon Esqr e whom Your Majesty has been 
pleased to appoint to be Governor and Commander in Chief of Your 
Majesty's Province of North Carolina; in which Draughts we have made 
no Alterations but such as are particularly specified in Our Representa- 
tion to Your Majesty of this day's date on the Draught of the Instructions 
to Your Majesty's Gov? of South Carolina. 

Which is most humbly submitted 

Whitehall Dartmouth 

Dec.24[?], 1765 Soamejenyns 

John Roberts 

Instructions to William Tryon pro co 5/325, 

ff. 128-202 
CR-VII, 137-144 

December 24, 1765 1 

Instructions to Our Trusty and Wellbeloved William Tryon Esquire Our 
Captain General and Governor in Chief in and over Our Province of 
North Carolina in America. Given at Our Court at St. James's the 
Day of in the Year of Our Reign. 

First, We having thought fit by Our Commission under Our Great 
Seal of Great Britain to constitute you Our Captain General and 
Governor in Chief in and over Our Province of North Carolina in 
America, you are therefore immediately upon having received these 
Our Instructions to call together the following Persons by Name whom 
We do hereby appoint to be the Members of Our Council for that 
Province: Viz: James Hassell, John Rutherford, Lewis de Rosset, 
Edward Brice Dobbs, Richard Spaight, 2 John Sampson, 3 Henry Eustace 
McCullock [McCulloh], Alexander McCullock fMcCulloch], 4 Charles 
Berry, William Dry, Robert Palmer, and Benjamin Heron Esquires. 

2v You are with all due and usual Solemnity to cause Our said 

Commission, constituting you Our Captain General and Governor in 
Chief, as aforesaid, to be read and published, it not already done, at the 
said Meeting of Our Council which being done, you shall then take, and 
also administer unto each of the Members of Our said Council the Oaths 
mentioned in an Act passed in the first Year of the Reign of His late 
Majesty King George the first, intituled [sic], an Act for the further 
Security for His Majesty's Person and Government, and the Succession 
of the Crown in the Heirs of the late Princess Sophia, being Protestants, 


and for extinguishing the Hopes of the pretended Prince of Wales, and 
his open and secret Abettors, as also make and subscribe, and cause the 
Members of Our said Council to make and subscribe the Declaration 
mentioned in Act of Parliament, made in the Twenty fifth Year of the 
Reign of King Charles the Second, intituled [sic] An Act for preventing 
Dangers, which may happen from Popish Recusants, and you and every 
of them are likewise to take an Oath for the due execution of your and 
their Places and Trusts as well as with regard to your and their equal 
and impartial administration of Justice; And you are also to take the 
Oath required by an Act passed in the Seventh and Eighth years of the 
Reign of King William the Third, to be taken by Governors of 
Plantations, to do their utmost that the Acts of Parliament relating to the 
Plantations be observed. 

3d. You shall administer or cause to be administered the Oaths 

appointed in the aforesaid Act intituled, u An Act for the further Security 
of His Majesty's Person and Government, and the Succession of the 
Crown in the Heirs of the late Princess Sophia, being Protestants, and 
for extinguishing the Hopes of the pretended Prince of Wales, and his 
open and secret Abettors," to the Members and Officers of Our Council 
and Assembly, and to all Judges, Justices and other Persons that hold 
any Office or Place of Trust or Profit in Our said Province, whether by 
virtue of any Patent under Our Great Seal of Our said Province of North 
Carolina, or otherwise; and you shall also cause them to make and 
subscribe the aforesaid Declaration without the doing of all which you 
are not to admit any Person whatever into any Public Office, nor suffer 
those that have been admitted formerly to continue therein. 

4th. You are forthwith to communicate unto Our said Council such 

and so many of these Our Instructions, wherein their Advice and 
Consent are mentioned to be requisite, as likewise all such others from 
time to time as you shall find convenient for Our Service to be imparted 
to them. 

5th. You are to permit the Members of Our said Council to have 

and enjoy freedom of Debate & Note in all Affairs of Publick Concern 
that may be debated in Council. 

6th . And although , by Our Commission aforesaid , We have thought 

fit to direct, that any third of Our Council make a Quorum, it is 
nevertheless Our Will & Pleasure, that you do not act with a Quorum of 
less then Five Members, unless upon Emergencies when a greater 
number cannot conveniently be had. 


7th . And that you [we] may be always informed, of the Names and 

Characters of Persons fit to supply the Vacancys, which shall happen in 
Our said Council, you are from time to time, when any Vacancys shall 
happen in Our said Council to transmit to Our Commissioners for Trade 
& Plantations in order to be laid before Us, the Names of three Persons 
Inhabitants of Our said Province whom you shall Esteem the best 
qualified for that Trust. 

8th. And whereas by Our Commission to You, You are impowered 

in case of the Death or Absence of any of Our Council of Our said 
Province to fill up the Vacancies in the said Council to the number of 
Seven and no more, You are from time to time to send to Our 
Commissioners for Trade & Plantations in order to be laid before Us, 
the Names and Qualities of any Member or Members by you put into 
Our said Council by the first conveyance after your so doing. 

9th. And in the Choice and Nomination of the Members of Our 

said Council as also of the Chief Officers, Judges Assistant Justices and 
Sheriffs, You are always to take care that they be Men of good Life, well 
affected to Our Government, of good Estates, and of Abilities suitable to 
their Employments. 

10th. You are neither to Augment nor diminish the number of Our 
said Council, as it is hereby Established, nor to suspend any of the 
Members of it without good and Sufficient cause nor without the 
consent of the Majority of the said Council, signified in Council after due 
Examination of the Charge against such Councillor and his Answer 
thereunto; and in Case of the suspension of any of them you are to cause 
your Reasons for so doing together with the Charges & Proofs against 
the said Persons and their Answers thereunto to be duely entered upon 
the Council Books and forthwith to transmit Copies thereof to Our 
Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, in order to be laid before Us; 
nevertheless, if it should happen that you should have reason for 
suspending of any Chancillor [sic] not fit to be communicated to the 
Council, You may in that case suspend such Person without their 
consent; But you are thereupon immediately to send to Our Commissions 
for Trade and Plantations, in order to be laid before Us, an Account of 
your Proceedings therein with your reasons at large for such suspension, 
as also for not communicating the same to the Council & Duplicates 
thereof by the next opportunity 

11. And whereas We are sensible that Effectual care ought to be 

taken to oblige the Members of Our said Council to a due attendance 
therein, in order to prevent the many Inconveniences that may happen 
for want of a Quorum of the Council to transmit Business, as Occasion 


may require; it is Our Will & Pleasure, that if any of the Members of Our 
said Council residing in the Province shall hereafter absent themselves 
from Our Province and continue absent above the space of Twelve 
Months together, without leave from You or from Our Governor or 
Commander in Chief of Our said Province for the time being, first 
obtain'd, under Your or his Hand and Seal, or shall remain absent for the 
space of Two Years successively without Our leave given them under 
Our Royal Sign Manual, their Place or Places in Our said Council shall 
immediately thereupon become void; and that if any of the Members of 
Our said Council, residing in Our said Province, shall wilfully absent 
themselves hereafter from the Council Board when duly summoned, 
without a just & lawful Cause, and shall persist therein after Admonition, 
You Suspend the said Chancillors [sic] so absenting themselves, till Our 
further Pleasure be known, giving timely Notice thereof to Our 
Commissioners for Trade & Plantations, in order to be laid before Us, 
And We do hereby will and require you, that this Our Royal Pleasure be 
signified to the several Members of Our said Council; and that it be 
entered in the Council Books of Our said Province as a Standing Rule. 

12. And whereas by Our Commission you are impowered with 
the advice and consent of Our Council from time to time as need shall 
require, to summon and call general Assemblies of the Freeholders and 
Planters within your Government our Will and Pleasure is that you do, 
as soon as conveniently you can, after the receipt of These Our 
Instructions to You, issue Writs in Our Name to the Provost Marshall, 
Sheriff or other proper Officer in the several County's Towns and 
Districts which have been authorized by His late Majesty's Instructions, 
or are otherways qualified to send Representatives to the General 
Assembly requiring the said Provost Marshall Sheriff or other proper 
Officer to summon the Freeholders in the Counties Towns and Districts, 
to meet at some convenient place within the same, then and there to 
choose and elect such persons as shall be thought proper by the 
Majority of the said Freeholders, to be their Representatives in a 
General Assembly, to be held at such time and Place, as you shall with 
Advice of the Council Judge most proper and convenient for Our 
Service, and for the Convenience of our Subjects Inhabitants of our said 

13. And it is Our further Will and Pleasure, that fifteen Members 
shall continue a Quorum of the said Assembly. 

14. And it is Our further Will and Pleasure that as Our said 
Province shall by the Blessing of God, increase in number of Inhabitants, 
You do erect such and so many Towns and Counties within the 
Southern District thereof, with the Priviledge [sic] of sending such a 


number of Representatives to the said Assembly as that each district 
division may have a just and reasonable proportion. 

15. And it is Our further Will and Pleasure, that you do not for the 
future upon any pretence whatsoever, give your Assent to any Law or 
Laws to be passed in Our said Province, by which the number of the 
Assembly shall be enlarged or diminish 'd the Duration of it ascertained 
the Qualifications of the Electors or the Elected fixed or altered, by 
which any Regulations shall be establish'd with respect thereto, 
inconsistent with these Our Instructions to you, or prejudicial to that 
Right or Authority, which You desire from Us, in virtue of Our 
Commission and Instructions. 

16. And whereas the Members of several Assemblies in the 
Plantations, have frequently assumed to themselves Priviledges no 
ways belonging to them, Especially of being protected from suits of 
Law, during the term they remain of the Assembly, to the great 
prejudice of their Creditors and the Obstruction of Justice, and some 
have presumed to adjourn themselves at Pleasure, without leave from 
Our Governor first Obtained and others have taken upon the sole 
framing of Money Bills, refusing to let the Council Alter or Mend the 
same, All which are very Detremental [sic] to our Prerogative; If upon 
your call [for] an Assembly in North Carolina you find them insist upon 
any of the above said Priviledges, You are to signify to them, that it is 
Our Express Will and Pleasure, that you do not allow any Protection to 
any Members of the Council or Assembly further than in their Persons, 
and that only during the sitting of the Assembly and that you are not to 
allow them to adjourn themselves otherwise than de die in diem, Except 
Sundays and Holidays, without leave from You or the Commander in 
Chief for the time being first Obtain 'd; And that the Council have the 
like power of framing Money Bills as the Assembly. 

17. In Case you find the Usual Salaries, or pay of the Members of 
the Assembly too high, you shall take care that they be reduced to such 
a moderate proportion as may be no grievance to the Country wherein 
nevertheless You are to Use Your discretion so as no inconvenience 
may arise thereby. 

18. You are to observe in passing of all Laws that the style of 
Enacting the same be by the Governor Council and Assembly and no 
other; You are also as much as possible to observe in the passing of all 
Laws that whatever may be requisite upon each different Matter be 
accordingly provided for by a different Law, without intermixing in one 
and the same Act, such things as have no proper relation to each other; 
And you are more Especially to take care that no Clause or Clauses be 


inserted, or annexed to Any Act, which shall be foreign to what the 
Title of such respective Act imports: And that no perpetual Clause be 
made part of any Temporary Law, and that no Act whatever be 
suspended, Altered, continued, Revived or Repealed by general Words 
but that the Title be particularly mentioned and Expressed in the 
enacting part. 

19. And whereas several Laws have formerly been Enacted in 
several of Our Plantations in America, for so short a time that Our 
Assent or refusal thereof could not be had thereupon before the time for 
which such Laws were Enacted did expire; You shall not therefore give 
your Assent to any Laws, that should be Enacted for a less time than 
two Years, except in Cases herein after mentioned; And you shall not 
Re-enact any Law, to which the Assent of Us or Our Royal Predecessors 
has once been refused, without Express leave for that purpose first 
Obtained from Us upon a full Representation by You to be made to Our 
Commissioners for Trade and Plantations in order to be laid before Us, 
of the reason and necessity for passing such a Law, nor give your 
Assent to any Law for repealing any other Law passed in Your 
Government, whether the same has or has not received Our Royal 
Approbation, unless you take care that there be a Clause inserted 
therein, suspending, and deferring the Execution thereof untill Our 
Pleasure shall be known concerning the same. 

20. And whereas great Mischiefs do arise, by the frequent passing 
Bills of an Unusual and extraordinary Nature & Importance in the 
Plantations, which Bills remain in force there from the Time of enacting, 
untill Our Pleasure be signified to the contrary, We do hereby Will and 
require you not to pass or give your Assent hereafter to any Bill or Bills 
in the Assembly of Our said Province, of Unusual or Extraordinary 
Nature and Importance, whereby Our Prerogative, the property of Our 
Subjects, or the Trade and Shipping of this Kingdom may be any ways 
prejudiced, untill you shall have first transmitted unto Our Commis- 
sioners for Trade and Plantations, in Order to be laid before Us, the 
Draught of such a Bill or Bills, and shall have received Our Royal 
Pleasure thereupon, unless you take Care in the passing of any Bill of 
such Nature as before mentioned, that there be likewise a Clause 
inserted therein suspending and deferring the Execution thereof untill 
Our Pleasure shall be known concerning the same. 

21. You are also to take care, that no private Act, whereby the 
Property of any private person may be affected, be passed, in which 
there is not a saving of the right of Us, Our Heirs and Successors, all 
Bodies Politick and Corporate, and of all other persons, except such as 
are mentioned in the said Act, and those claiming by from or under 


them. And further you shall take care, that no such private Act be 
passed, without a Clause suspending the Execution thereof untill the 
same shall have received Our Royal Approbation: It is likewise Our Will 
and Pleasure that you do not give your Assent to any private Act, until 
proof be made before You in Council (and entered in the Council Books) 
that publick Notification was made of the parties Intention to apply for 
such Act, in the several Parish Churches where the premises in question 
lye, for three Sundays at least successively, before such Act was 
brought into the Assembly, and that a Certificate under your hand be 
transmitted with and annexed to every such private Act, signifying that 
the same be passed through all the Forms abovementioned. 

22. And whereas nothing can more effectually tend to the Pease 
[peace], Security, and well governed of Our said Province, than the 
having a permenent [sic] Revenue settl'd by Law upon a solid Founda- 
tion, for defraying the necessary Charges of Government. It is therefore 
Our Will and Pleasure that you do recommend it to the Assembly in Our 
name, without delay to consider of a proper Law to be passed for that 
purpose, taking Care, that such Law shall be without Limitation in point 
of time, and that provision be particularly made therein for a Competent 
Salary to yourself as Captain General and Governor in Chief of Our said 
Province and to any other succeeding Captain General and Governor in 
Chief for supporting the Dignity of the said Office, as likewise due 
Provision for the Contingent Charges of Our Council and Assembly, and 
for the Salaries of the respective Clerks and other Officers thereunto 
belonging, as likewise of all other Officers necessary for the Adminis- 
tration of that Government, And also that a Fund be thereby establish 'd 
for erecting and repairing Fortifications, for annual presents to the 
Indians, and for all other ordinary Contingencies of Governt [govern- 
ment]. Provided however, that you do not give your Assent to any such 
Laws untill you shall have first transmitted to Our Commissioners for 
Trade and Plantations, in order to be laid before Us a Draught of such 
Law, and shall have received Our Commands thereupon unless you 
take care that a Clause be inserted therein, suspending and deferring its 
Execution untill Our Pleasure be Known thereupon. 

23. It is nevertheless Our Will and Pleasure, and you are hereby 
authorized & impowered to give your Assent to any temporary Law or 
Laws, for making Provision to defray the Expences of temporary 
Services provided that all such Laws do expire and have their full effect 
when the Services for which such Law or Laws were pass'd shall cease 
and be determined. 

24. Whereas several Inconveniencies have arisen to our Govern- 
ment in the Plantations by Gifts and Presents made to the Governor by 


the general Assemblies for preventing thereof for the future, It is Our 
express Will & Pleasure, that neither you the Governor, nor any 
Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Commander in Chief, or President of 
the Council of Our said Province of North Carolina for the Time being, 
do give your or their Consent to the passing of any Law or Act for any 
Gift or Present to be made to you or them by the Assembly, and that 
neither you nor they do receive any Gift or Present from the Assembly 
or others, on any Account or in any manner whatsoever, upon pain of 
Our highest Displeasure and of being recalled from that Government. 

25. And we do further direct and require that this Declaration of 
Our Royal Will and Pleasure, contained in the foregoing Article be 

_communicated to the Assembly at their first meeting, after the receipt of 
these Our Instructions to you & entered in the Journals of the Council 
and Assembly, that all Persons whom it may concern may govern 
themselves accordingly. 

26. You are to take care that in all Acts or Orders to be passed 
within that Our Province in any case for levying Money or imposing 
Fines or Penalties, express mention be made that the same is granted or 
reserved to Us Our Heirs and Successors, for the publick uses of that 
Our Province, & the Support of the Government thereof, as by the said 
Act or Order shall be directed; and you are particularly directed not to 
pass any Law, or do any Act by Grant, Settlement or otherwise 
whereby Our Revenue may be lessened or impaired without Our 
especial Leave or Command therein. 

27. You are not to suffer any Publick Money whatsoever to be 
issued or disposed of otherwise than by Warrant under your hand, by & 
with the Advice & Consent of Our Council, but the Assembly may 
nevertheless be permitted from time to time to view and examine all 
Accounts of Money or value of Money disposed of by virtue of Laws 
made by them, which you are to signify unto them, as there shall be 

28. You are not to permit any Clause whatsoever to be inserted in 
any Law for levying Money or the Value of Money, whereby the same 
shall not be made liable to be accounted for unto Unto [sic] Us here in 
Great Britain, and to Our Commissioners of Our Treasury, or to Our 
Treasurer for the Time being, and audited by Our Auditor General of 
Our Plantations or his Deputy for the Time being, And We do hereby 
particularly require and enjoin you, upon pain of Our highest Displeasure 
to take care that fair Books of Accounts of all Receipts and Payments of 
all Publick money be duely kept and that Truth thereof attested upon 
Oath, & that all such Accounts be audited & attested by Our Auditor 


General of Our Plantations or his Deputy, who is to transmit Copies 
thereof to Our Commissioners of Our Treasury or to Our high Treasurer 
for the Time being, and that you do every half Year or oftner, send 
another Copy thereof, attested by yourself to Our Comrmrs for Trade & 
Plantations, & Duplicates thereof by the next Conveyance; In which 
Books shall be specified every Particular Sum raised or disposed of, 
together with the Names of the Persons to whom any Payment shall be 
made, to the end as may be satisfied of the Right and due Application of 
the Revenue of Our said Province with the probability of the Increase or 
Dimminution [sic] of it, under every head or Article thereof. 

29. And it is Our express Will & Pleasure that no Law for raising 
any Imposition on Wines or on strong Liquors be made to continue for 
less than one Year, as also that all other Laws made for the Supply & 
Support of the Government, shall be without Limitation of Time except 
the same be for a temporary Service and which shall expire & have their 
full Effect within the Time therein prefixed. 

30. Whereas Acts have been passed in some of Our Plantations in 
America, for striking Bills of Credit and issuing out the same in lieu of 
Money in order to discharge their Publick Debts, and for other purposes, 
from whence several Inconveniencies have arisen: It is therefore Our 
Will & Pleasure, that you do not give your Assent to, or pass any Act in 
Our Province under your Government, whereby Bills of Credit may be 
struck or issued in lieu of Money, without a Clause be inserted in such 
Act, declaring that the same shall not take Effect until the said Act shall 
have been approved and confirmed by Us, Our Heirs or Successors. It is 
also Our Will & Pleasure, that you do immediately send an Account to 
Us, & to Our Commrs. for Trade & Plantations whether any Paper Bills 
be now current in North Carolina, and if any, to the Amount of what 
Sum, and what Fund is provided for sinking them; as likewise whether 
the same be at any, and what Discount, and for what time they are 

31. And whereas an Act of Parliament was passed in the Sixth 
Year of the Reign of Her late Majesty Queen Anne, Entitled An Act for 
ascertaining the Rates of foreign Coins in Her Majesty's Plantations in 
America, which Act the respective Governors of all the Plantations in 
America have from Time to Time been instructed to observe and carry 
into due Execution; And whereas notwithstanding the same Complaints 
have been made that the said Act has not been observed as it ought to 
have been in many of Our Colonies and Plantations in America by 
means whereof many indirect Practices have grown up and various and 
illegal Currencies have been introduced in several of the said Colonies 
and Plantations contrary to the true intent and meaning of the said Act, 


and to the Prejudice of the Trade of Our Subjects; It is therefore Our 
Royal Will and Pleasure, and you are hereby strictly required & com- 
manded under pain of Our highest displeasure, and of being removed 
from your Government, to take the most Effectual Care for the future that 
the said Act be punctually and bona fide observed and put in Execution 
according to the True intent & Meaning thereof. 

32. And whereas Complaints have heretofore been made by the 
Merchants of Our City of London, in behalf of themselves & several 
others of Our good Subjects of Great Britain trading to Our Plantations in 
America, that greater Duties and Impositions are laid on their Ships & 
Goods [than on the ships and goods] of Persons who are Natives and 
Inhabitants of the said Plantations; It is therefore Our Will & Pleasure 
that you do not upon any pretence whatsoever on pain of Our highest 
Displeasure, give your Assent to any Law wherein the Natives or 
Inhabitants of the Province of North Carolina under your Government 
are put on a more advantageous footing than those of this Kingdom or 
whereby Duties shall be laid upon the Product of Manufacture of Great 
Britain upon any pretence whatsoever. 

33. You are to examine what Rates and Duties are charged and 
payable upon any Goods exported and imported within Our said 
Province, whether of the Growth or Manufacture of Our said Province 
or otherwise; And you are to suppress the engrossing of Commodities, 
as tending to the prejudice of that freedom which Trade & Commerce 
ought to have and to use your best Endeavors for the Improvement of 
the Trade of those parts by settling such Orders & Regulation therein, 
with the Advice of Our said Council as may be most acceptable to the 
generality of the Inhabitants, and to send unto Our Commissioners for 
Trade and Plantations, in order to be laid before Us, yearly or oftner as 
occasion may require, the best and most particular Account of any Laws 
that have at any time been made, Manufactures set up, or Trade carried 
on in the Province under your Government which may in any wise 
affect the Trade and Navigation of this Kingdom; And It is Our express 
Will & Pleasure that you do not upon any pretence whatever upon 
pain of Our highest displeasure, give your Assent to any Law or Laws 
for setting up any Manufactures or carrying on any Trades which 
are hurtfull and prejudicial to this Kingdom and that you do use your 
utmost Endeavours to discourage, discountenance and restrain any 
Attempts which may be made to set up such Manufactures or establish 
any such Trades. 


34. Whereas Acts have been passed in some of Our Plantations in 
America for laying Duties on the Importation and Exportation of 
Negroes to the great discouragement of the Merchants trading thither 
from the Coast of Africa; and whereas Acts have likewise been passed 
for laying of Duties on Felons imported in direct Opposition to an Act of 
Parliament passed in the fourth Year of King George the First, for the 
further preventing Robbery, Burglary & other Felonies, and for the 
more effectual Transportation of Felons, It is Our Will and Pleasure, 
that you do not give your Assent to, or pass Law imposing Duties upon 
Negroes imported into Our Province of North Carolina payable by the 
Importer, or upon any Slaves exported, that have not been sold in Our 
said Province, & continued there for the space of Twelve Months; It is 
Our further Will and Pleasure that you do not give your Assent to or 
pass any Act whatsoever, for imposing Duties on the Importation of any 
Felons from this Kingdom into North Carolina. 

35. You are to transmit authentick copies of all Laws, Statutes 
and Ordinances, which are now made and in force, and have not yet 
been sent, or which at any time hereafter shall be made or enacted 
within Our said Province, each of them separately under the Publick 
Seal, unto Our Commrs. for Trade and Plantations within three Months 
by the first opportunity after their being enacted together with Dupli- 
cates thereof by the next Conveyance, upon pain of Our highest 
Displeasure, and of the forfeiture of that Year's Salary wherein you 
shall at any time or upon any pretence whatsoever omit to send over the 
said Laws, Statutes and Ordinances as aforesaid, within the Time above 
limited; As also of such other Penalty as We shall please to inflict; But if 
it shall happen, that no Shipping shall come from Our said Province 
within three Months after the making such Laws, Statutes & Ordinances 
whereby the same may be transmitted as aforesaid, then the said Laws, 
Statutes & Ordinances are to be transmitted by the next Conveyance 
after the making thereof, whenever it may happen for Our Approbation 
or Disallowance of the same. 

36. And Our further Will & Pleasure is, that the Copies and 
Duplicates of all Acts that shall be transmitted as aforesaid be fairly 
abstracted in the Margins, and that the several Dates or respective 
times when the same passed the Assembly and the Council, and 
received your Assent, be particularly expressed, and you are to be as 
explicit as may be in your Observation (to be sent to Our Commissioners 
for Trade & Plantations) upon every Act; that is to say, whether the 
same is introductive of a new Law, declaratory of a former Law, or do 
repeal a Law then before in being; And you are likewise to send to Our 


said Commissioners, the reason for passing of such Law, unless the 
same do fully appear in the Preamble of the said Acts. 

37. You are to require the Secretary of Our said Province, or his 
Deputy for the time being, to furnish you with Transcripts of all such 
Acts and Publick Orders, as shall be made from time to time together 
with [a copy] of the Journals of the Council, & that all such Transcripts 
and Copies be fairly abstracted in the Margins to the end the same may 
be transmitted unto Our Commissioners for Trade and Plantations as 
above directed, in order to be laid before Us, which he is duly to perform 
upon pain of incurring the Forfeiture of his Place. 

38. You are also to require from the Clerk of the Assembly or 
other proper Officer, Transcripts of all Journals and other Proceedings 
of the said Assembly fairly abstracted in the Margins, to the end the 
same may be transmitted as aforesaid. 

39. Whereas it is necessary that Our Rights and Dues be pre- 
served and recovered, and that speedy and effectual Justice be adminis- 
tered, in all Cases relating to Our Revenue, you are to take Care that a 
Court of Exchequer be called and to meet at all such Times as shall be 
needfull; and you are forthwith to inform us by Our Commissioners for 
Trade and Plantations, whether Our Service may require that a constant 
Court of Exchequer be settled and established there. 

40. You shall not dissolve any Court or Office of Judicature already 
erected or established without Our especial Order; but in regard We 
have been informed that there is a great want of a particular Court for 
determining of small causes you are to recommend it to the Assembly of 
Our said Province that a Law be passed, if not already done, for the 
constituting such Court or Courts, for the ease of Our Subjects there. 

41. And whereas frequent Complaints have heretofore been made 
of great Delays & undue Proceedings in the Courts of Justice in several 
of Our Plantations whereby Our Subjects have very much suffered, and 
it being of the greatest Importance to Our Service, and to the Welfare of 
Our Plantations, that Justice be every where speedily & duly adminis- 
tered, and that all Disorders, Delays, and other undue Practices in the 
Administration thereof be effectually prevented, We do particularly 
require you to take especial care that in all Courts where you are 
authorized to preside, Justice be impartially administered, and that in all 
other Courts established within Our said Province all Judges & other 
Persons therein concerned do likewise perform their several Duties 
without delay or Partiality. 


42. You are to take care that all Writs be issued in Our Name 
within Our said Province. 

43. Our Will & Pleasure is, that you or the Commander in Chief of 
Our said Province for the time being, or, in all Civil Causes, on application 
being made to you or the Commander in Chief for the time being for that 
purpose permit and allow Appeals from any Courts of Common Law in 
Our said Province, unto you or the Commander in Chief, & the Council 
of Our said Province, and you are for that purpose, to issue a Writ in the 
manner which has been usually accustomed, returnable before yourself 
and the Council of Our said Province, who are to proceed to hear and 
determine such Appeal wherein such of Our said Council as shall be at 
that time Judges of the Court from whence such Appeal shall be made to 
you Our Captain General or to the Commander in Chief for the time 
being, and to Our said Council as aforesaid, shall not be admitted to vote 
upon the said Appeal but they may nevertheless be present at the 
hearing thereof, to give the Reasons of the Judgement given by them in 
the Causes wherein such Appeal shall be made Provided nevertheless, 
that in all such Appeals the Sum or Value appealed for do exceed the 
Sum of Three hundred Pounds Sterling, & that Security be first duly 
given by the Appellant, to answer such Charges as shall be awarded in 
case the first Sentence be affirmed, and if either Party shall not rest 
satisfied with the Judgement of you or the Commander in Chief for the 
time being, and Council as aforesaid; Our Will & Pleasure is, that they 
may then appeal unto Us in Our Privy Council. Provided the Sum or 
Value so appealed for unto Us exceed Five hundred Pounds Sterling, 
and that such Appeal be made within fourteen Days after Sentence, and 
good security given by the Appellant that he will effectually prosecute 
the same, and answer the Condemnation, as also pay such Costs and 
Damages as shall be awarded by Us, in case the Sentence of You or the 
Commander in Chief for the time being & Council be affirmed. Provided 
nevertheless where the Matter in question relates to the taking or 
demanding any Duty payable to Us, or to any Fee or Office or annual 
Rent, or other such like Matter or thing, where the Rights in future may 
be bound in all such Cases you are to admit an Appeal to Us in Our 
Privy Council, tho' the immediate Sum or Value appealed for, be of less 
Value. And it is Our further Will and Pleasure, that in all Cases where, 
by your Instructions, you are to admit Appeals to Us in Our Privy 
Council, Execution be suspended until the final Determination of such 
Appeals, unless good and sufficient Security be given by the Appellee, 
to make ample Restitution of all that the Appellant shall have lost, by 
means of such Judgement or Decree, in case upon the Determination of 
such Appeal, such Decree or Judgement should be reversed & restitution 
awarded to the Appellant. 


44. You are also to permit Appeals unto Us in Council, in all 
Cases of Fines imposed for Misdemeanours. Provided the Fines so 
imposed amount to, or exceed the Sum of One hundred Pounds Sterling, 
the Appellant first giving good Security, that he will effectually prose- 
cute the same, and answer the Condemnation, if the Sentence by which 
such Fine was imposed in North Carolina shall be confirmed. 

45. Whereas Laws have been lately passed or attempted to be 
passed in several of the Colonies in America, enacting that the Judges of 
the several Courts of Judicature or other Chief Officers of Justice in the 
said Colonies, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and 
whereas the Governors or other Chief Officers of several other of Our 
said Colonies have granted Commissions to the Judges, or other Chief 
Officers of Justice, by which they have been impowered to hold their 
said Offices during good Behaviour contrary to the express Directions of 
the Instructions given to the said Governors, or other Chief Officers by 
Us, or by Our Royal Predecessors, and whereas it does not appear to 
Us, that in the present Situation and Circumstances of Our said Colonies, 
or of this Our Kingdom of Great Britain that the Judges or other Chief 
Officers of Justice should hold their Offices during good Behaviour; It is 
therefore Our express Will and Pleasure that you do not upon any 
pretence whatever, upon pain of being removed from your Government 
give your Assent to any Act, by which the Tenure of Commissions to be 
granted to the Chief Judges, or other Justices of the several Courts of 
Judicature, shall be regulated or ascertained in any manner whatsoever; 
and you are to take particular Care in all Commissions to be by you 
granted to the said Judges or other Justices of the Courts of Judicature 
that the said Commissions are granted during Pleasure only, agreeable 
to what has been the ancient Practice and Usage in Our said Colonies 
and Plantations. 

46. You shall not appoint any person to be a Judge or Justice of 
the Peace, without the Advice and Consent of at least three of Our 
Council, signified in Council, nor shall you execute yourself or by 
Deputy any of the said Offices. 

47. You shall not displace any of the Judges, Justices Sheriffs or 
other Officers or Ministers within Our said Province of North Carolina 
without good and sufficient Cause, which you shall signify in the fullest 
and most distinct manner to Our Commrs. for Trade & Plantations, in 
order to be laid before Us, by the first Opportunity after such Removal. 

48. You shall not suffer any Person to execute more Offices than 
one by Deputy. 


49. And you are with the Advice and Consent of Our Council to 
take especial Care to establish and regulate all Salaries and Fees 
belonging to Places, or paid upon Emergencies, that they be within the 
Bounds of Moderation, and that no Exaction be made on any Occasion 

50. Whereas frequent Complaints have been heretofore made 
that exorbitant Fees have been demanded and taken in the Publick 
Offices in several of Our Colonies & Plantations in America, for 
Business transacted in such Offices; And whereas it hath been repre- 
sented unto Us, that there is great reason to apprehend that such 
unwarrantable Demands and Exactions are still continued in some of 
Our Colonies particularly on the Survey & passing Patents for Lands; 
And whereas such shamefull and illegal Practices do not only dishonour 
Our Service, but do also operate to the prejudice of the Publick 
Interests, by obstructing the Speedy Settlement of Our Colonies; It is 
therefore Our Will & Pleasure, and you are hereby strictly enjoined and 
required forthwith upon receiving these Our Instructions to you, to 
cause fair Tables of all Fees legally established within the Province 
under your Government to be affixed up in every Public Office within 
your said Government, and also to publish a Proclamation in Our name 
under the Seal of Our said Province, setting forth the Complaints & 
Representations which have been made to Us, in respect to the ex- 
orbitant Fees demanded and taken in the Publick Offices of several of 
Our Colonies, expressing Our just Indignation of such unwarrantable 
and dishonorable Practices and strictly enjoining and requiring all 
Publick Officers whatever, in their respective Stations, not to demand or 
receive any other Fees for Publick Business transacted in their Offices, 
than what have been established by proper Authority, upon pain of 
being removed from their said Offices, and prosecuted with the utmost 
Severity of the Law. And it is Our further Will & Pleasure that you do 
also forthwith transmit to Our Commrs. for Trade & Plantations, in 
order to be laid before Us, an exact and authentick List or Table of all 
Fees allowed to, or taken by each Officer respectively within the 
Province under your Government specifying by what Authority the 
Fees allowed to, or taken by each Officer are established and distin- 
guishing such, if any, as are taken without any such Authority. 

51. Whereas there are several Offices in Our Plantations granted 
under Our Great Seal of Great Britain, and Our Service may be very 
much prejudiced by reason of the Absence of the Patentees, & by their 
appointing Deputies not fit to officiate in their stead, you are therefore 
to inspect such of the said Offices as are in your Government and to 


enquire into the Capacity and Behaviour of the Persons now exercising 
them, and to report thereupon to Our Commrs. for Trade & Plantations, 
what you think fit to be done or altered in relation thereunto, And you 
are upon the Misbehaviour of any of the said Patentees or their 
Deputies, to suspend them from the Execution of their Places, till you 
shall have represented the whole Matter, and received Our Directions 
therein. And in case of the Suspension of any such Officer, It is Our 
express Will and Pleasure that you take care, that the person appointed 
to execute the Place, during such Suspension, do give sufficient 
Security to the person suspended to be answerable to him for the Profits 
accruing during such Suspension, in case We shall think fit to restore 
him to his Place again; It is nevertheless Our Will and Pleasure that the 
Person executing the Place during such Suspension shall for his Encour- 
agement receive the same Profits as the Person suspended (if a Deputy) 
did, or a Moiety of the Profits in case of Suspension of the Patentee; 
And it is Our further Will and Pleasure, that you do countenance and 
give all due Encouragement to all Our Patent Officers in the Enjoyment 
of their legal and accustomed Fees, Rights, Privileges and Emoluments, 
according to the true Intent & Meaning of their Patents. 

52. You shall not, by Colour of any Power or Authority hereby or 
otherwise granted or mentioned to be granted unto you, take upon you 
to give, grant or dispose of any Place or Office within the said Province, 
which now is or shall be granted under the great Seal of this Kingdom or 
to which any Person is or shall be appointed by Warrant under Our 
Signet or Sign Manual, any otherwise than that you may upon the 
Vacancy of any such Office or Place, or upon the Suspension of any such 
Officer by you as aforesaid, put in any fit person to officate in the 
Interval till you shall have represented the Matter unto Our Com- 
missioners for Trade and Plantations, in order to be laid before Us as 
aforesaid, which you are to do by the first Opportunity, and till the said 
Office or Place is disposed of by Us, Our Heirs or Successors under the 
Great Seal of this Kingdom, or until some person shall be appointed 
thereunto, under Our Signet or Sign Manual, or that Our further 
Directions be given therein. 

53. And whereas several Complaints have been made by the 
Surveyors General & other Officers of Our Customs in Our Plantations 
in America, that they are frequently obliged to serve on Juries, and 
personally to appear in Arms, whenever the Militia is drawn out and 
thereby are much hindered in the execution of their Employments, Our 
Will & Pleasure is, that you take effectual care, and give the necessary 
Directions that the several Officers of Our Customs be excused and 


exempted from serving on any Juries, or personally appearing in Arms 
in the Militia unless in Cases of absolute necessity, or serving any 
Parochial Offices which may hinder them in the execution of their 

54. And whereas the Surveyors General of Our Customs, in the 
Plantations are empowered, in case of the Vacancy of any of the Offices 
of Our Customs by Death, Removal or otherwise, to appoint other 
Persons to execute such Offices, until they receive further Directions 
from Our Commissioners of Our Treasury, or Our high Treasurer or 
Commissioners of Our Customs for the time being: But in regard the 
Districts of the said Surveyors General are very extensive, and that 
they are required at proper times to visit the Officers in the several 
Governments, under their Inspections, and that it might happen, that 
some of the Officers of Our Customs in the Province of North Carolina, 
may dye at the time, when the Surveyor General is absent, in some 
distant part of his District, so that he cannot receive Advice of such 
Officer's Death within a reasonable time, and thereby make provision 
for carrying on the Service by appointing some other person in the room 
of such Officer, who may happen to die; therefore that there may be no 
delay given on such Occasions to the Masters of Ships or Merchants in 
their Dispatches, it is Our further Will and Pleasure, in case of such 
Absence of the Surveyor General or if he should happen to dye, and in 
such Cases only, that upon the Death of any Collector of Our Customs 
within that Our Province, you shall make choice of a Person of known 
Loyalty, Experience Diligence and Fidelity to be employed in such 
Collector's room, for the purposes aforesaid, until the Surveyor General 
of Our Customs shall be advised thereof, & appoint another to succeed 
in their Places, or that further Directions be given therein by Our 
Commissioners of Our Treasury, or Our high Treasurer; or by the 
Commissioners of Our Customs for the time being, which shall be first 
signified taking care, that you do not under pretence of this Instruction 
interfere with the Powers and Authorities given by the Commissioners 
of Our Customs to the said Surveyor General, when he is able to put the 
same into Execution. 

55. Whereas it is convenient for Our Royal Service, that all the 
Surveyors General of the Customs in America for the time being should 
be admitted to sit and vote in the respective Council of the several 
Islands and Provinces within their Districts, as Councillors extraordinary 
during the Time of their Residence there, We have therefore thought fit 
to constitute and appoint and do hereby constitute and appoint the 
Surveyor General of Our Customs for the Southern District and the 


Surveyor General of Our Customs within the said District for the time 
being, to be Councillors extraordinary in Our said Province; And It is 
Our Will and Pleasure, that he and they be admitted to sit and vote in 
Our said Council as Councillors extraordinary, during the time of his or 
their Residence, but It is Our Royal Intention, if thro' length of time the 
said Surveyor General or any other Surveyor General should become 
the Senior Councillor in our said Province that neither he nor they shall 
by virtue of such Seniority be ever capable to take upon him or them the 
Administration of the Government there upon the Death or absence of 
Our Captain General or Governor in Chief for the time being; but 
whenever such Death or Absence shall happen, the Government shall 
devolve upon the Councillor next in Seniority to the Surveyor General, 
unless We should hereafter think it [fit] for Our Royal Service to 
nominate the said Surveyor General, or any other of Our said Surveyors 
General Councillors in ordinary, in any of Our Governments within their 
Survey, who shall not in that Case be excluded any Benefit which 
attends the Seniority of their Rank in the Council. 

56. It is Our further Will and Pleasure, and you are hereby 
required by the first Opportunity to move the Assembly of Our said 
Province under your Government, that they provide for the expence of 
making Copies for the Surveyor General of Our Customs in the said 
District for the time being of all Acts and Papers which bear any relation 
to the Duty of his Office, and in the mean time you are to give Orders, 
that the said Surveyor General for the time being as aforesaid, be 
allowed a free Inspection in the Publick Offices within your Government, 
of all such Acts & Papers, without paying any Fee or Reward for the 

57. You are to transmit unto Our Commrs. for Trade & Planta- 
tions, with all convenient Speed, a particular Account of all Establish- 
ments of Jurisdictions, Courts, Offices and Officers, Powers, Authorities, 
Fees, and Priviledges granted & settled within Our said Province, 
together with an Account of all Expences attending the Establishments 
of the said Courts, and of such Funds as are settled and appropriated for 
Discharging such Expences; And you are likewise to transmit to Our 
Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, in order to be laid before Us, 
exact & authentick Copies of all Proceeding in such Cases where Appeals 
shall be made to Us in Our Privy Council. 

58. You shall take care with the Advice and Assistance of Our 
Council, that all Court Houses and other Publick Buildings, and especially 
Prisons, that want Reparation, be forthwith repaired, and put into and 


kept in such a Condition as is proper & necessary for the holding of 
Courts, keeping Offices and securing the Prisoners, that are or shall be 
there in Custody. 

59. Whereas it hath been heretofore represented that very ir- 
regular Methods have been hitherto observed, and great Frauds and 
Abuses committed, with respect to Grants of Land within Our said 
Province, whereby Our Revenue hath been greatly prejudiced, the 
Property of Our Subjects affected, & the Cultivation and Improvement 
of Our said Province obstructed, It is therefore Our Will and Pleasure, 
that you do as soon as you conveniently can, cause a proper Inspection 
to be made into the several Books of the Land Office, and of the 
Secretary's and Surveyor's Offices within Our said Province, & that you 
require and direct the proper Officers to lay before you copies or 
Extracts of all the Warrants entered or lodged therein which have been 
issued for Lands, & of all Grants that have been made in pursuance 
thereof, and of all Surveys and Returns that have been made by virtue 
of such Warrants. 

60. You are also to inspect and examine the Accounts of the 
Receivers of Our Revenue of Quit Rents arising within Our said 
Province under your Government, & to order and direct them to lay 
before you an Account of all the Quit Rents which have been received, 
at what time and from whom, distinguishing such Accounts as have 
been audited, from those which have not; and in order to prove the 
Truth of those Accounts, you are to direct Our Deputy Auditors in Our 
said Province, and they are hereby required to give you the particular of 
such Accounts, as have been audited; And that you may be the better 
enabled to inform yourself what Grantees within Our said Province 
have paid their Quit Rents, and which of them have not, you are to order 
the Receiver to lay before you Copies or Extracts of all Receipts that 
have been given for the Payment of Quit Rents since 1716, & likewise 
to exhibit to you all Books and Vouchers in their Possession, that 
belonged to or were kept by any former Receivers of Our said Revenue; 
you are likewise to make strict Enquiry into the Methods used in Our 
said Province in collecting, receiving and accounting for Our Quit Rents. 

61. And when you shall have informed yourself, of all and every 
the foregoing Particulars, you are to transmit a full and explicit account 
thereof, and of all your Proceedings therein, to Our Commissioners of 
Our Treasury, and to Our Commissioners for Trade & Plantations, in 
order to be laid before Us. 


62. And when you shall have made a carefull & diligent Enquiry 
to find out the present Possessors of Lands within Our said Province 
claiming to hold the same either under Proprietary Grants, or by virtue 
of Warrants or Grants derived from Us, or Our Royal Predecessors, you 
are then to give Publick Notice by Proclamation or such other manner as 
shall be thought proper summoning and requiring all Persons claiming 
to hold Lands under Grants from the Proprietors antecedent to the 1st 
day of January 1727; to appear within a reasonable time before you and 
Our Council of Our said Province, in order to make out their legal Titles 
to such Land. And it is Our Will & Pleasure, that the Titles of all such 
Persons as are in actual Possession of Lands by Virtue of Patents from 
the Proprietors before the 1st day of June 1727, and of which Lands 
regular Surveys have been made and returned, be and are hereby 
confirmed on Condition that they do register their Patents within Six 
Months, and likewise take out fresh Patents subject to the Rules & 
Conditions required by these Our Instructions for all such Land as they 
shall appear to be in possession of, over and above the quantity 
expressed in the Patents from the Proprietors. 

63. And It is Our further Will & Pleasure, that in the cases of 
Persons in possession of Lands which they claim to hold by Virtue of 
Patents, under the late Lords Proprietors of Carolina, antecedent to the 
said 1st day of Jany 1727 which Patents they alledge to be destroyed by 
fire, or otherwise, and of which they may not be able to make full 
Proofs, nor of the Conditions on which such Patents were passed, you do 
permit such Persons to take our new Grants at the accustomed and 
proper Office, for the Lands subject to the Payment of such Quit Rent, 
and to such Conditions of Cultivation and Improvement as are required 
by these Our Instructions to you. But with respect to Persons who shall 
make full Proof of their having had Patents from the Lords Proprietors 
before the said 1st of Jany. 1727 and of the Conditions on which such 
Patents were granted you are to suffer all such to hold and enjoy their 
Lands according to the Terms and Conditions of such Patents, notwith- 
standing the same may have been destroyed by Fire or otherwise. 

64. And Our further Will and Pleasure is, that you do require all 
Persons claiming Lands within Our said Province by Virtue of Patents 
derived from the said Lords Proprietors since the 1st of Jany. 1727, to 
produce to you the same Patents, and that you do cause a regular 
Endorsement to be put thereon, expressing that such Patentee is bound 
to the Payment of such Quit Rent, and to the performance of such 
Conditions of Cultivation and Improvement as are required by these Our 
Instructions to you. And you are to declare unto all such Patentees, that 
such your Endorsement shall be evidence of their respective Rights; 


Provided the same be regularly registered in the Office of Our Auditor 
within Six Months next after the Date of such Endorsement. And in 
case it shall appear to you that any such Patentee is in possession of a 
greater Quantity of Land than is contained and expressed in his Patent, 
from the said Lords Proprietors, you are to cause the Lands held by 
such Patentee to be resurveyed; And if he shall refuse to admit of such 
Resurvey, It is Our Will and Pleasure that you do in such Cases certify 
the same to Our Attorney General of Our said Province, to the end that 
such Patents may be forfeited by due Course of Law. 

65. And in case it shall appear to you that any of the Grants or 
Warrants for Land granted or issued by the Governors or Commanders 
in Chief of Our said Province, since the Date of the Purchase were 
fraudulently obtained, or made out in any manner contrary to, & incon- 
sistent with the Instructions to them in that behalf, you are to give 
Publick Notice by Proclamation or in such other manner as you shall 
think most proper to all Persons claiming or holding Lands under such 
Grants or Warrants, to appear before you within such reasonable time 
as you shall appoint in order to take out fresh Grants of such Lands 
subject to the Payment of such Quit Rents, and to such Conditions of 
Cultivation and Improvement as are required by these Our Instructions 
to you. And if any such Person shall neglect to refuse to accept and take 
out such fresh Grant on the Terms and Conditions aforesaid, you are to 
certify the same to Our Attorney General of Our said Province to the 
end that the forfeiture or Invalidity of the Grants or Warrants under 
which such Person claims, may be prosecuted and declared according to 
the due Course of Law. 

66. You are in like manner to give Notice to all Persons claiming 
Lands by Virtue of Warrants which have not been regularly carried into 
Execution, the Possessor thereof not having taken out regular Grants 
for those Lands or settled them conformable to Our Instructions to Our 
Governors of Our said Province, that unless they do forthwith take out 
such Grants, conformable to Our said Instructions, and in all things 
comply therewith; It is Our Will & Pleasure, that the Lands so claimed 
by such Warrants shall be disposed of to such Foreigners or others as 
shall come to settle in Our said Province. 

67. You are further to give Notice to all such Persons, who having 
taken out Grants in pursuance of their Warrants, have nevertheless 
neglected to seat their Lands, or to pay the Quit Rents for the same 
agreeable to the Terms of their Grants, that they shall be forthwith 
prosecuted for such their Default, unless they immediately comply with 
and fullfill the Conditions of their Grants. 


68. And whereas nothing can more effectually tend to the further 
improving and settling Our said Province, the Security of the Property 
of Our Subjects & the Advancement of Our Revenue of Quit Rents, than 
the establishing a regular & proper Method of Proceeding with respect 
to the passing of Grants of Land within the same; It is therefore Our Will 
& Pleasure that all and every Person and Persons who for the future 
shall apply to you for any Grant or Grants of Land, shall previous to 
their obtaining the same, make it appear before you in Council, that they 
are in a Condition to cultivate and improve the same by settling thereon, 
in proportion to the quantity of Acres, a sufficient Number of white 
persons or Negroes; and in case you shall upon a consideration of the 
Circumstances of the Person or Persons applying for such Grants, think 
it advisable to pass the same, in such Case you are to cause a Warrant to 
be drawn up directed to the Surveyor General or other proper Officer, 
impowering him or them to make a faithfull and exact Survey of the 
Lands so petitioned for, and to return the said Warrant within Six 
Months at furthest from the Date thereof, with a Plot or Description of 
the Lands so surveyed thereunto annexed; Provided that you do take 
care that before any such Warrant is issued as aforesaid, a Docquet 
thereof be entered in the Auditor's Office, and when the Warrant shall 
be returned by the said Surveyor or other proper Officer, the Grant shall 
be made out in due Form, and the Terms and Conditions required by 
these our Instructions be particularly and expressly mentioned in the 
respective Grants. And it is Our Will and Pleasure, that the said Grants 
shall be registered [within] Six Months from the date thereof in Our 
Secretary's Office there and a Docquet thereof be also entered in Our 
Auditor's Office there, or that in default thereof such Grants shall be 
void; Copies of all which Entries shall be returned regularly by the 
proper Officer, to Our Commissioners of Our Treasury, and to Our 
Commrs. for Trade and Plantations within Six Months from the date 

69. And you are to oblige all and every Persons applying to you 
for Grants of Land, as aforesaid to give good and sufficient Security, 
that they will not enter upon or begin to cultivate his or their Lands, 
until a Patent for the same be finally compleated & enter 'd as aforesaid. 

70. And whereas great Inconveniencies have arisen in many of 
Our Colonies in America, from the granting of excessive Quantities of 
Land to particular Persons who have never cultivated or settled it, and 
have thereby prevented others more industrious from improving the 
same, in order therefore to prevent the like Inconveniencies for the 
future, you are to take especial Care that in all Grants to be made by 
you, by and with the Advice and Consent of Our Council to Persons 
applying for the same, the Quantity of Land be in proportion to their 


ability to cultivate the same: And as the Number of Persons in each 
Grantee's Family will be the most reasonable Measure for your Judge- 
ment in this particular, you are therefore hereby directed to observe the 
following Method in all Grants to be made by you Vizt: 

That one hundred Acres of Land be granted to every person being 
Master or Mistress of a Family for himself or herself and Fifty Acres for 
every white or black Man, Woman or Child of which such Person's 
Family consist, at the actual time of making the Grant; subject to the 
payment of a Quit Rent of four Shillings Proclamation Money for every 
hundred Acres so granted, to commence at the Expiration of Two Years 
from the Date of such Grant, on failure of which the Grant to be void. 

That every Grantee, upon giving Proof that he or she has fulfilled the 
Terms and Conditions of his or her Grant shall be entitled to another 
Grant in the proportion and upon the Conditions abovementioned. 

That all Grantees of Land be obliged by the Terms of their Grants to 
clear and cultivate at the rate of five Acres p Year for every hundred 
Acres contained in their Grants, in failure of which their Grants shall be 

71. Whereas it hath been represented unto Us that the Governors 

of several of Our Colonies in America have granted Lands away close to 
the Forts belonging to Us; by which means the Garrisons of such Forts 
have been obliged to pay the Proprietors of those Lands extravagant 
prices for Wood cut for a necessary Supply of Fuel, and thereby a great 
and unreasonable Expence has been brought upon the Military Contin- 
gencies; It is Our express Will and Pleasure that you do take especial 
Care that in all Warrants for surveying of Lands adjacent or Contiguous 
to any Fort or Fortification, whether such Warrant be granted upon an 
original Petition to you in Council, or upon Our Order in Our Privy 
Council there be an express direction to the Surveyor that he do reserve 
to Us Our Heirs and Successors for the use of the Fort, near to which the 
Lands shall lye, such a part of the Tract petitioned for (being Wood 
Land) and in such a Situation as the Commander in Chief of the said 
Fort (with whom he is to be required to consult and advise in all such 
Cases) shall judge convenient and sufficient for a permanent and certain 
Supply of Fuel for such a Garrison as the said Fort may be able to 
contain: And it is Our further Will and Pleasure that a regular Plot of 
such reserved Land, describing the Bounds, expressing the Quantity of 
Acres, and properly signed and attested by such Surveyor be delivered 
to the Commanding Officer of each Fort, to be there publicky hung up 
and a Duplicate thereof also recorded in the Secretary's Office or other 
proper Office of Record in Our Province under your Government; and as 
We judge the due Execution of this Our Order to be essential to Our 


Service you are hereby required to take care that the Regulations above 
prescribed be duly entered upon the Council Books of Our said Province, 
as a standing Order to all Persons who may be entrusted with the 
Powers to which they refer. 

72. And it is Our further Will and Pleasure that in all Grants of 
Land to be made by you as aforesaid, regard be had to the profitable 
and unprofitable Acres, so that each Grantee may have a proportionable 
number of one Sort and the other; as likewise that the length of each 
Tract of Land to be hereafter granted do not extend along the Banks of 
any River, but into the main Land that thereby the said Grantees may 
have each a convenient share of what Accommodation the said River 
may afford for Navigation or otherwise. 

73. Whereas Our late Royal Grandfather was at a very consider- 
able Charge in purchasing the Sovereignty of the Provinces of South 
and North Carolina, together with Seven eigths [sic] parts of the Land 
thereof, from the late Lords Proprietors and did actually pay them in 
consideration of Seven eighth parts of Quit Rents only alledged to be 
due and in arrear to them from the Inhabitants of Our said Province the 
Sum of Five Thousand Pounds: Now as a farther Mark of Our Royal 
Bounty and fatherly Indulgence to Our People under your Government, 
We do hereby empower you to give your Assent to a Law (if not already 
done) for remitting the said Arrears, Provided that by the same Law in 
Our Province under Your Government you do forthwith register their 
respective Grants in the Office of Our Auditor General, or his Deputy, a 
Copy of which Register and of all Grants of Land to be made for the 
future, you are to send as aforesaid to Our Commrs. for Trade and 
Plantations in order to be laid before Us, and also that every Person 
possessing Land in Our said Province by virtue of any Grant from the 
late Lords Proprietors do for the future pay to Us, Our Heirs and 
Successors the annual Quit Rents reserved upon such Grants re- 
spectively in Proclamation Money. 

74. And it is Our further Will and Pleasure that you do make 
strict Enquiry into the Method used in Our said Province in collecting, 
receiving & accounting for Our Quit Rents, and in case you shall find 
any Fraud, Concealment, Irregularity or Neglect therein, you are to use 
your utmost Endeavour for redressing the same, and to establish a 
proper Method whereby the same may be prevented for the future, and 
whereby Our Auditor may be enabled more effectually to checque and 
controll the Accounts exhibited by the Receivers. And if it shall appear 
necessary to apply to the Legislature of the said Province for an Act of 


Assembly, for the more effectually ascertaining, and the more speedily 
and regularly collecting Our Quit Rents, you are to prepare the Heads of 
such a Bill as you shall think may most effectually conduce to the 
procuring the good Ends proposed, & to transmit the same to Our 
Commrs. for Trade & Plantations, in Order to be laid before Us, for Our 
further Directions therein. 

75. And it is Our further Will and Pleasure that the Surveyor 
General or such other Person or Persons as you shall think proper to 
appoint do, once in every Year or oftner, as occasion shall require, 
inspect the State of all Grants of Land made by you, and make a Report 
thereof to you, specifying whether the Conditions therein contained, 
have or have not been complied with or what Progress has been made 
towards fulfilling the same. 

76. And whereas Our late Royal Grand Father was graciously 
pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of Great Britain bearing 
date the 17th day of Septem: in the 18th Year of His Reign, to give and 
grant unto John Lord Carteret, now Earl Granville, one full Eighth part 
of the Province of South Carolina in one entire separate District in the 
Province of North Carolina, together with the Reversion & Reversions, 
Remainder and Remainders Yearly and other Rents, Issues & Profits of 
and in, to and out of the said one Eighth part of the said Provinces and 
Territories as by the said recited Letters Patent relation being thereunto 
had may more fully and at large appear. It is therefore Our Will & 
Pleasure, that the Orders, Regulations and Directions contained in the 
nineteen forgoing Articles of these Our Instructions to you do not extend 
or be construed to extend to such Lands as are contained within the said 
Grant to the said Earl Granville. 

77. And whereas Our late Royal Grand Father was graciously 
pleased by His Orders in Council dated the 19th day of May 1737, in the 
tenth Year of His Reign, to direct that one Million Two Hundred 
Thousand Acres of Land should be set out and granted unto Murray 
Crymble and James Huey and their Associates, 5 in such Proportions as 
should be required by them, and upon the following Terms and 
Conditions, Viz: That they should settle one white person for every 200 
Acres within Ten Years from the date of their Grants, and also that from 
and after the Expiration of that Term, they should pay unto Us, Our 
Heirs, & Successors, a Quit Rent of four Shillings in Proclamation 
Money for every hundred Acres so granted to them. And whereas it 
hath been represented to Us that in consequence of the said Orders in 
Council the Associates of the said Murray Crymble & James Huey did in 
the Year 1746 take out Ninety Six Grants amounting in the whole to one 


Million Two hundred Thousand Acres; and whereas the times limited 
for fullfilling the Conditions of the said Grants are now expired, and it 
hath been represented unto Us that the whole of the said Grants have 
not as yet been settled with white Persons in the proportion prescribed 
by the said Orders, It is Our Will and Pleasure, and you are hereby 
authorized and required to seize and take possession of, in our Name 
and Right as forfeited and escheated, all such parts and Tracts of the 
said Lands as lye to the Southward of the Earl of Granville's boundary 
Line, and which shall not have been actually settled according to the 
Terms of the Grants, and you are to afterwards to [sic] govern yourself 
in relation to the said Lands conformable to the 78th Article of these 
your Instructions relative to Forfeitures & Escheats nevertheless it is 
Our Will and Pleasure that you cause proper Measures to be taken to 
secure the payment of Our Quit Rents upon all such parts of the said 
Grantees Lands, as shall at that time be duly and compleatly settled, by 
permitting the Possessors holding under them by Grants or Leases to 
attorn unto Us for the Payment of the Quit Rents, and to register at the 
proper Office for such Quantity of Land as they are actually in possession 
of, respective Grants or Leases under which they hold their Lands. 

78. And whereas it has been represented to Us that Complaint 
hath been made by Henry Mac Culloh in behalf of himself and other 
Associates of the late Murray Crymble & James Huey, that they have 
been greatly disturbed and molested in the quiet possession of their said 
Grants by the late Governor of Our said Province and others acting 
under his Authority, who took upon them to grant to other persons, 
Lands before set out and granted to them pursuant to Our said Royal 
Order, Our Will & Pleasure is, and you are hereby directed and required 
to maintain and support the said Grantees in their just and legal Rights, 
and in the quiet possession of their Lands. 

79. And whereas for some Years passed the Governors of some of 
Our Plantations have seized and appropriated to their own use the 
Produce of Whales of several kinds taken upon those Coasts, upon 
pretence that Whales are Royal Fishes, which tends greatly to dis- 
courage this Branch of Fishery in Our Plantations, and prevent persons 
from settling there; It is therefore Our Will and Pleasure, that you do not 
pretend to any such Claim, nor give any manner of Discouragement to 
the Fishery of Our Subjects upon the Coasts of the Province of North 
Carolina under your Government, but on the Contrary, that you give all 
possible Encouragement thereto. 

80. You shall not remit any Fines or Forfeitures whatsoever 
above the Sum of Ten Pounds, nor dispose of any Forfeitures whatso- 
ever until upon signifying unto Our Commissioners of Our Treasury or 


Our High Treasurer for the Time being and to Our Commrs. for Trade 
and Plantations the nature of the Offence and the Occasion of such Fines 
and Forfeitures, with the particular Sums or Value thereof (which you 
are to do with all Speed,) you shall have received Our Directions 
therein; but you may in the mean time suspend the payment of the said 
Fines and Forfeitures. 

81. It is Our Will & Pleasure that you do not dispose of any 
Forfeitures or Escheats to any person until the Sheriff or other proper 
Officer has made Enquiry by a Jury upon their Oaths into the true Value 
thereof; nor until you shall have transmitted to Our Commissioners of 
Our Treasury and to Our Commrs. for Trade and Plantations a particular 
Account of such Forfeitures and Escheats and the Value thereof, and 
shall have received Our Directions thereupon; and you are to take care, 
that the Produce of the said Forfeitures and Escheats in case We shall 
think proper to give you Directions to dispose of the same be duly paid 
to Our Receiver General of Our said Province, and a full Account 
thereof transmitted to Our Commissioners of Our Treasury or Our High 
Treasurer for the Time being, and to Our Commrs. for Trade & 
Plantations, with the Names of the Persons to whom disposed, and 
provided, that in the Grants of all forfeited & escheated Lands, there be 
a Clause obliging the Grantee to plant and cultivate Three Acres for 
every Fifty Acres within Three Years after the passing of such Grants, 
in case the same was not so cultivated and planted before; and that there 
be proper savings and Reservations of Quit Rents, to Us, Our Heirs & 

82. Whereas We have thought it necessary for Our Service to 
constitute and appoint a Receiver General of Our Rights and Perquisites 
of the Admiralty; It is therefore Our Will & Pleasure, that you be aiding 
and assisting to the said Receiver General his Deputy or Deputies in the 
Execution of the said Office of Receiver Genl.; and We do hereby enjoin 
& require you to make up your Accounts with him, his Deputy or 
Deputies of all Rights of Admiralty, (Effects of Pirates included) as you 
or your Officers shall or may at any time receive, and to pay over to the 
said Receiver General, his Deputy or Deputies for Our Use, all such 
Sums of Money as shall appear upon the foot of such Accounts to be and 
remain in your hands or in the hands of any of your Officers. And 
whereas Our said Receiver General is directed in case the Parties 
chargeable with any part of such Our Revenue, refuse, neglect or delay 
payment thereof, by himself or sufficient Deputy to apply in Our Name 
to Our Governors, Attorneys General, or any other Our Officers or 
Magistrates to be aiding or assisting to him in recovering the same. It is 


therefore Our Will and Pleasure, that you Our Governor, Our Judges, 
Our Attornies General, and all other Officers whom the same may 
concern, do use all lawfull Authority for the recovering and levying 

83. You are to permit a liberty of Conscience to all persons, 
(except Papists) so they be contented with a quiet and peaceable Enjoy- 
ment of the same, not giving Offence or Scandal to the Government. 

84. You shall take especial care, that God Almighty be devoutly 
and duely served throughout your Government, the Book of Common 
Prayer, as by Law established, read each Sunday and Holiday and the 
Blessed Sacrament administered according to the Rites of the Church of 

85. And you shall take care, that the Churches already built there 
be well and orderly kept, and that more be built as the Province shall, 
by God's Blessing, be improved; and that besides a competent Maintain- 
ance to be assigned to the Ministers of each Orthodox Church, a 
convenient House be built at the common Charge for each Minister, & a 
competent proportion of Land assigned him for a Glebe and Exercise of 
his Industry. 

86. And you are to take care, that the Parishes be so limited and 
settled as you shall find most convenient for accomplishing this good 

87. You are not to prefer any Minister to any Ecclesiastical 
Benefice in that Province without a Certificate from the Rt. Revd. 
Father in God the Lord Bishop of London of his being conformable to 
the Doctrine and Discipline of the Church of England, and of a good Life 
and Conversation; and if any person already preferr'd to a Benefice shall 
appear to you to give Scandal either by his Doctrine or Manners, you 
are to use the proper & usual means for the Removal of him, and to 
supply the Vacancy in such manner as We have directed. 

88. You are to give Orders forthwith (if the same be not already 
done) that every Orthodox Minister within your Governmt. be one of 
the Vestry [in his respective Parish and that no Vestry] be held without 
him, except in case of Sickness, or that after Notice of a Vestry 
summoned he omit to come. 


89. You are to enquire whether there be any Minister within your 
Government who preaches and administers the Sacrament in any 
Orthodox Church or Chapel without being in due Orders, and to give an 
Account thereof to the Lord Bishop of London. 

90. And to the end the Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction of the Lord 
Bishop of London may take place in that Our Province, so far as 
conveniently may be, We do think fit that you do give all Countenance 
and Encouragement to the exercise of the same, excepting only the 
collating to Benefices, granting Licences for Marriages Probates of 
Wills which We have reserved to you Our Governor and to the 
Commander in Chief of Our said Province for the time being, as far as 
by Law We may. 

91. And We do further direct that no School Master be hence- 
forward permitted to come from this Kingdom, and to keep School in 
that Our said Province, without the Licence of the said Lord Bishop of 
London: and that no person now there, or that shall come from other 
parts, shall be admitted to keep School in North Carolina without your 
Licence first obtained. 

92. And you are to take especial care that a Table of Marriages 
established by the Canons of the Church of England be hung up in every 
Orthodox Church and duly observed: and you are to endeavour to get a 
Law passed in the Assembly of that Province (if not already done) for 
the strict observation of the sd. Table. 

93. The Rt. Rev. Father in God Edmund late Lord Bishop of 
London having presented a Petition to His late Majesty King George 
the First humbly beseeching him to send Instructions to the Governors 
of all the several Plantations in America, that they cause all Laws 
already made against Blasphemy, Profaneness, Adultery, Fornication, 
Polygamy, Incest, Profanation of the Lord's Day, Swearing and Drunk- 
enness in their own respective Governments to be vigorously executed: 
And We thinking it highly just that all persons who shall offend in any 
of the Particulars aforesaid should be prosecuted & punished for the 
said Offences. It is therefore Our Will and Pleasure, that you take due 
care for the punishment of the forementioned Vices, and that you 
earnestly recommend to the Assembly of North Carolina to provide 
effectual Laws for the restraint and punishment of all such of the 
foremention'd Vices against which as yet no Laws are provided; and 
also you are to use your Endeavours to render the Laws in being more 
effectual by providing for the punishment of the forementioned Vices, 


by presentment upon Oath to be made to the temporal Courts by the 
Church Wardens of the several Parishes at proper times of the Year to 
be appointed for that purpose; and for the further discouragement of 
Vice and Encouragement of Virtue & good living, that by such Example 
the Infidels may be invited and persuaded to embrace the Christian 
Religion, and you are not to admit any person to publick Trusts and 
Employments in the Province under your Government whose ill Fame 
and Conversation may occasion Scandal; And It is Our Will and 
Pleasure, that you recommend to the Assembly to enter upon proper 
Methods for the erecting and maintaining of Schools, in order to 
[promote] the training up of Youth to reading and to [provide] a 
necessary knowledge of the Principles of Religion; And you are also, 
with the Assistance of the Council and Assembly, to find out the best 
means to facilitate and encourage the Conversion of Negroes and 
Indians to the Christian Religion. 

94. You shall send to Our Commissioners for Trade & Plantations, 
by the first Conveyance, in order to be laid before Us, an Account of the 
present number of Planters & Inhabitants, Men, Women and Children 
as well Masters as Servants, free and unfree, and of the Slaves in Our 
said Province; as also a Yearly Account of the Increase or Decrease of 
them, and how many of them are fit to bear Arms in the Militia of Our 
said Province; you shall also cause an exact Account to be kept of all 
persons born, Christen'd and buried, and send yearly fair Abstracts 
thereof to Our Commrs. for Trade and Plantations as aforesaid. 

95. And We do further expressly command and require you to 
give unto our Commissioners for Trade and Plantations an Account of 
every half Year, of what number of Negroes Our said Province is 
supplied with. 

96. You shall take care that all Planters, Inhabitants and Christian 
Servants be well and fully provided with Arms, and that they be listed 
under good Officers, and when and as often as shall be thought fit, 
muster 'd and trained, whereby they may be in a better readiness for the 
defence of the said Province and for the greater Security thereof, you 
are to appoint fit Officers and Commanders in the several parts of that 
Province bordering upon the Indians, who upon any Invasion may raise 
Men and Arms to oppose them until they shall receive your Directions 

97. But you are to take especial Care, that neither the frequency 
nor Unreasonableness of remote Marches, Musters or Trainings be an 
unnecessary Impediment to the Affairs of the Inhabitants. 


98. And you shall not upon any Occasion whatsoever establish or 
put in Execution any Articles of War, or other Law Martial upon any of 
Our Subjects, Inhabitants of Our said Province, without the Advice and 
Consent of Our said Council there. 

99. And whereas you will receive from Our Commissioners for 
executing the Office of high Admiral of Great Britain, and of the 
Plantations, a Commission constituting you Vice Admiral of Our said 
Province, you are hereby required & directed carefully to put in 
Execution the several powers thereby granted you. 

100. And whereas there have been great Irregularities in the 
manner of granting Commissions in the Plantations to private Ships of 
War: you are to govern yourself, whenever there shall be occasion, 
according to the Commissions and Instructions granted in this Kingdom, 
Copies whereof will be herewith deliver'd to you. But you are not to 
grant Commissions of Marque or Reprisal against any Prince or State or 
their Subjects in Amity with Us to any person whatsoever, without Our 
especial Command; and you are to oblige the Commandrs. of all Ships 
having private Commissions to wear no other colours than such as are 
described in an Order of His late Majesty in Council of the 7th of 
January 1730, in relation to Colours to be worn by all Ships of War. 

101 . Whereas We have been informed, that during the time of War 
Our Enemies have frequently got Intelligence of the state of Our 
Plantations by Letters from private persons to their Correspondents in 
Great Britain, taken on board Ships coming from the Plantations, which 
has been of dangerous Consequence; Our Will and Pleasure is that you 
signify to all Merchants, Planters and others, that they be very cautious 
in time of War whenever that shall happen, in giving any Account by 
Letters of the Publick State and Condition of Our Province of North 
Carolina, and you are further to give Directions to all Masters of Ships 
and other persons, to whom you may intrust your Letters, that they put 
such Letters into a Bag, with a sufficient weight to sink the same 
immediately in case of imminent danger from the Enemy; and you are 
always to let the Merchants & Planters know how greatly it is for their 
Interest that their Letters should not fall into the hands of the Enemy; 
and therefore that they should give the like Orders to Masters of Ships 
in relation to their Letters; and you are further to advise all Masters of 
Ships that they do sink all Letters in case of Danger in the manner 
before mentioned. 

102. And whereas the Merchants and Planters in America have in 
time of War corresponded and traded with Our Enemies, & carried 


Intelligence to them, to the great prejudice and hazard of the British 
Plantations; you are therefore by all possible Methods to endeavour to 
hinder all such Trade and Correspondence in time of War. 

103. Whereas Commissions have been granted unto several Per- 
sons in Our respective Plantations in America for the trying of Pirates in 
those parts, pursuant to the several Acts for the more effectual Suppres- 
sion of Piracy; and by a Commission to be given you as Captain, General 
and Governor in Chief of Our said Province, you are impowered 
together with others therein mentioned to proceed accordingly in refer- 
ence to the said Province of North Carolina; Our Will and Pleasure is 
that in all Matters relating to Pirates you govern yourself according to 
the Intent of the said Acts and Commission aforesaid. 

104. Whereas it is absolutely necessary, that We be exactly in- 
formed of the State of the defence of all Our Plantations in America, as 
well in relation to the Stores of War that are in each Plantation, as to the 
Forts & Fortifications there, and what more may be necessary to be 
built for the defence and Security of the same, you are as soon as 
possible to prepare an Account thereof with relation to Our said 
Province in the most particular manner; and you are therein to express 
the present State of the Arms, Ammunition and other Stores of War 
belonging to the said Province, either in any publick Magazines or in the 
hands of private persons, together with the State of all Places either 
already fortified, or that you judge necessary to be fortified for the 
Security of Our said Province, and you are to transmit the said Accounts 
to Our Commrs. for Trade & Plantations in order to be laid before Us, as 
also a Duplicate thereof to the Master General or principal Officers of 
Our Ordnance; which Accounts are to express the Particulars of Ord- 
nance, which Accounts are to express the Particulars of Ordnance, [sic] 
Carriages, Ball, Powder, and all other Sorts of Arms and Ammunition in 
the Publick Stores at your said Arrival, and as from time to time of what 
shall be sent to you or bought with Publick Money, and to specify the 
time of the Disposal, and the Occasion thereof, and other like Accounts 
half yearly in the same manner. 

105. Whereas divers Acts have from time to time been passed in 
several of Our Colonies in America, imposing a Duty of Powder on 
every Vessel that enters & clears in the said Colonies, which has been of 
great Service in furnishing the Magazines with Powder for the defence 
of the said Colonies in time of Danger; It is Our express Will and 
Pleasure, and you are hereby required & directed to recommend to the 
Assembly of North Carolina to pass a Law for collecting a Powder Duty, 
& that the Law for that Purpose be made perpetual, that a certain time 
in the said Act, not exceeding Twelve Months, be allowed for giving 


Notice thereof to the several Masters of Vessels trading to North 
Carolina, and that for the more ample Notification thereof a Proclamation 
be also published in your said Government, declaring that from and 
after the expiration of the time limited by the said Act for such Notice, 
no Commutation shall be allowed of, but upon evident necessity, which 
may some time happen, whereof you or the Commander in Chief for the 
time being are to be the Judge; in which Case the said Master shall pay 
the full price Gunpowder sells for there; and the Moneys so collected 
shall be laid out as soon as may be in the Purchase of Gunpowder and 
you are also to transmit every Six Months to Our Commissioners for 
Trade & Plantations an Account of the Particular quantities of Powder 
collected under the said Act in your Government, & likewise a Duplicate 
thereof to the Master General or Principal officers of Our Ordnance. 

106. You are to take especial Care, that fit Storehouses be settled 
in the said Province for receiving and keeping of Arms, Ammunition, 
and other publick Stores. 

107. And in case of Distress of any other of Our Plantations you 
shall upon Application of the respective Governors thereof to you, assist 
them with what Aid the Condition & Safety of Our Province under your 
Government can spare. 

108. You are from time to time to give an Account as before 
directed, what strength your Neighbours have (be they Indians or 
others) by Sea and Land, and of the Condition of their Plantations, and 
what Correspondence you do keep with them. 

109. Whereas the Peace and Security of Our Colonies and Planta- 
tions upon the Continent of North America does greatly depend upon 
the Amity & Alliance of the several Nations or Tribes of Indians 
bordering upon the said Colonies, and upon a just & faithfull Observance 
of those Treaties and Compacts, which have been heretofore solemnly 
entered into with the Indians by Our Royal Predecessors Kings & 
Queens of the Realm; And Whereas, notwithstanding the repeated 
Instructions which have been from time to time given by Our Royal 
Grandfather to the Governors of Our several Colonies upon this head, 
the said Indians have made, & do still continue to make great Com- 
plaints that Settlements have been made, and Possession taken of 
Lands, the property of which they have by Treaties reserved to 
themselves by persons claiming the said Land under pretence of Deeds 
of State and Conveyance illegally, fraudulently, and Surreptitiously 
obtained of the said Indians; And Whereas it has likewise been repre- 
sented unto Us, that some of Our Governors or other Chief Officers of 


Our said Colonies, regardless of the duty they owe to Us, and of the 
Welfare and Security of Our Colonies, have countenanced such unjust 
Claims and Prententions [sic], by passing Grants of the Lands so 
pretended to have been purchased of the Indians; We therefore taking 
this Matter into Our Royal Consideration as also the fatal Effects, which 
would attend a Discontent amongst the Indians in the present Situation 
of Affairs, and being determined upon all Occasions to support and 
protect the said Indians in their just Rights & Possessions and to keep 
inviolable the Treaties and Compacts which have been entered into 
with them, do hereby strictly enjoin & command that neither yourself 
nor any Lieutenant Governor, President of the Council, or Commander 
in Chief of Our said Province of North Carolina do upon any pretence 
whatsoever, upon pain of Our highest Displeasure and of being forthwith 
removed from your or his Office, pass any Grant or Grants to any 
persons whatever of any Lands within or adjacent to the Territories 
possessed or occupied by the said Indians, or the Property or Possession 
of which has at any time been reserved to or claimed by them. And it is 
Our further Will and Pleasure that you do publish a Proclamation in Our 
Name strictly enjoining & requiring all persons whatever who may 
either willfully or inadvertently have seated themselves upon any 
Lands so reserved to or claimed by the said Indians without any lawfull 
Authority for so doing, forthwith to remove therefrom. And in case you 
shall find, upon strict Enquiry to be made for that purpose, that any 
person or persons do claim to hold or possess any Lands within Our said 
Province, upon pretence of Purchases made of the said Indians without 
a proper Licence first had & obtained either from Us, or any of Our royal 
Predecessors or any person acting under Our or Their Authority, you 
are forthwith to cause a Prosecution to be carried on against such person 
or persons who shall have made such fraudulent Purchases, to the end 
that the Land may be recovered by due course of Law: And Whereas 
the wholesome Laws, which have at different times been passed in 
several of Our said Colonies and the Instructions which have been given 
by Our Royal Predecessors, for restraining persons from purchasing 
Lands of the Indians without a Licence for that purpose; and for 
regulating the Proceedings upon such Purchases, have not been duly 
observed; It is therefore Our express Will and Pleasure, that, when 
Application shall be made to you for Licence to purchase Lands of the 
Indians, you do forbear to grant such Licence, until you shall have first 
transmitted to Us, by Our Commrs. for Trade & Plantations, the 
Particulars of such Application, as well in respect to the Situation as the 
Extent of the Lands so proposed to be purchased, and shall have 
received Our further Directions therein; And it is Our further Will & 
Pleasure that you do forthwith cause this Our Instruction to you to be 


made publick, not only within all parts of your said Province, inhabited 
by Our Subjects, but also amongst the several Tribes of Indians living 
within the same, to the end that Our Royal Will and Pleasure in the 
Premisses may be known, and that the Indians may be apprized of Our 
determined Resolution to support them in their just Rights, and 
inviolably to observe Our Engagement with them. 

110. And whereas it is highly necessary for the Welfare of Carolina, 
that a good Understanding should be maintained with the Indian 
Nations as well for the promoting of trade as for the Security of the 
Frontiers of your Government, you are hereby particularly enjoined to 
use all possible ways and means for regaining the Affections of the said 
Indians, and to preserve a good Correspondence with such of them as 
remain faithfull to Our Interest, and you are likewise hereby directed to 
recommend in the strongest terms to the Indian Traders to be just and 
reasonable in their dealing with the native Indians, & likewise to 
propose to the Assembly, if you and Our Council there shall judge it 
necessary, to pass one or more Laws for the better regulation of the said 
Indian Trade, and for the encouragement and protection of such Indians 
as shall adhere to Our Interest. 

111. Whereas in consequence of our additional Instruction to Our 
Governors of North Carolina and South Carolina respectively in the year 
1763, a temporary Line of Jurisdiction has been agreed upon, and set 
out by Commissioners appointed by both the said Provinces, We do 
signify to you Our Will & Pleasure that the Line so set out shall be the 
Line of Jurisdiction between Our said Provinces, until a perpetual Line 
of Partition between them shall be finally determined by Us, or until 
Our Further Pleasure shall be signified thereupon. 

112. You shall cause a Survey to be made of all the considerable 
landing Places and Harbours of Our said Province, and with the Advice 
of Our Council there, erect in any of them such Fortifications as shall be 
necessary for the Security and Advantage of the said Province; which 
shall be done at the Publick Charge, and you are accordingly to move 
the General Assembly to the passing of such Acts, as may be requisite 
for the carrying on of that Worke, in which We doubt not of their 
chearfull Concurrence from the common Security and Benefit they will 
receive thereby. 

113. You shall transmit unto Our Commissioners for Trade and 
Plantations by the first Opportunity, in order to be laid before Us, a Map 
with the exact Description of the whole Province under your Govern- 
ment, with the several Petitions [sic] upon it, and of the Fortifications as 
also of the bordering Indian Settlements. 


114. You are likewise from time to time to give unto Our Commrs. 
for Trade & Plantations as aforesaid, in order to be lay'd before Us an 
Account of the Wants and Defects of Our said Province, what new 
Improvements are made there by the Industry of the Inhabitants or 
Planters; and what further Improvements you conceive may be made, 
or Advantages gained by Trade; & which way We may contribute 

115. If any thing shall happen which may be of Advantage and 
Security to Our said Province, which is not herein or by Our Commission 
provided for, We hereby allow unto you, with the Advice & Consent of 
Our said Council, to take Order for the present therein, giving unto Our 
Commissioners for Trade & Plantations speedy Notice thereof, in order 
to be laid before Us, that so you may receive our ratification thereof, if 
We shall approve the same. Provided, always that you do not, by colour 
of any power or authority hereby given you commence or declare War 
without Our Knowledge or particular Commands therein, except it be 
against Indians upon Emergencies, wherein the Consent of Our Council 
shall be had and Speedy Notice given thereof to Our Commrs. for Trade 
& Plantations, in order to be laid before Us. 

116. And whereas great Prejudice may happen to Our Service and 
to the Security of Our said Province by your Absence from those parts, 
you are not upon any pretence whatsoever, to come to Europe without 
having first obtained Leave for so doing, from Us under Our Sign 
Manual and Signet, or by Our Order in Our Privy Council; yet never- 
theless in case of Sickness, you may go to New York or any other of Our 
Northern Plantations and there stay for such a Space as the Recovery of 
your Health may absolutely require. 

117. And whereas We have been pleased by Our Commission to 
direct that in case of your Death or Absence from Our said Province and 
in case there be no Person upon the Place commissionated or appointed 
by Us to be Our Lieutenant Governor of Commander in Chief, the eldest 
Councillor, whose Name is first placed in these Our Instructions to you, 
and who shall be at the time of your Death or Absence residing within 
Our said Province of North Carolina, shall take upon him the Adminis- 
tration of the Government and execute Our said Commission and 
Instructions, and the several Powers and Authorities therein contained 
in the manner therein directed; It is nevertheless Our express Will and 
Pleasure, that in such Case the said eldest Councillor or President shall 
forbear to pass any Act or Acts but such as shall be immediately 
necessary for the Peace and Welfare of Our said Colony without Our 
particular Order for that purpose, and that he shall not take upon him to 
dissolve the Assembly then in being, nor to remove or suspend any of 


the Members of Our said Council, nor any Judges, Justices of the Peace, 
or other Officers Civil or Military, without the Advice & Consent of at 
least seven of the Council, and the said President is to transmit to Our 
Commrs. for Trade & Plantations by the first Opportunity, the Reason 
for such Alteration signed by himself and by Our Council, in order to be 
laid before Us. 

1 18. And whereas We are willing in the best manner to provide for 
the Support of Government of Our said Province by setting a part [sic] a 
sufficient Allowance to such as shall be Our Lieutenant Governor, 
Commander in Chief or President of Our Council for the time being 
within the same, Our Will and Pleasure therefore is, that when it shall 
happen that you shall be absent from Our said Province, one full Moiety 
of the Salary and of all Perquisites and Emoluments whatsoever, which 
would otherwise become due unto you, shall, during the time of Your 
Absence from Our said Province, be paid and satisfied unto such Lieut: 
Governor, Commander in Chief or President of Our Council, who shall 
be resident upon the place for the time being, which We do hereby order 
& allot unto him towards his Maintenance & for the better Support of 
the Dignity of that Our Government. 

119. And you are, upon all Occasions, to send unto Our Commrs. 
for Trade and Plantations only a particular Account of all your Proceed- 
ings & of the Condition of Affairs within your Government, in order to 
be laid before Us, provided nevertheless when any Occurrence shall 
happen within your Government of such a nature & Importance as may 
require Our more immediate Direction by one of Our principal Secre- 
taries of State, and also upon all Occasions, and in all Affairs wherein 
you may receive Our Orders by one of Our Principal Secretaries of 
State, you shall, in all such Cases, transmit to Our Secretary of State 
only, an Account of all such Occurrences, and of your Proceedings 
relative to such Orders. 

'Although this document bears no date in the is dated December 24, 1765, in the 
margin of each page. Words supplied in brackets represent omissions in the copy due to 
clerical errors. Supplied words are taken from the Instructions to Governor Arthur Dobbs, 
June 17, 1754 (Saunders, Colonial Records, V, 1103-1114), which in many sections are 
identical to those issued to Try on. 

2 Richard Spaight was a nephew of Governor Dobbs, who accompanied Dobbs to North 
Carolina and served as his secretary. His death in January, 1763, probably was unknown 
in London at this time. 

3 John Sampson was a Duplin County commissioner, 1766-1777, and a member of the 
council of state under Governor Caswell. Clark, State Records, XIII, 737; XXIII, 779, 993. 

4 Alexander McCulloch, master of the plantation Elk Marsh at Halifax, was a justice of 
the peace, colonel in the militia, deputy auditor general, and an assemblyman before he 
was made a councillor in 1762. He held this post until 1776 and was a strong supporter of 
the crown, although he also expressed sympathy for colonial liberties. Despite his loyalist 
philosophy, McCulloch was permitted to live peacefully in Halifax during the Revolution 


and was still living in 1797. Higginbotham, The Papers of James Iredell, I, 20n-21n; 
Saunders, Colonial Records, IV, 1127, V, 440, 655, VL, 217, 299, 559, X, 313; William S. 
Price, Jr., " 'Men of Good Estates': Wealth Among North Carolina's Royal Councillors," 
North Carolina Historical Review XLIX (Winter, 1972), 24n, 79, 81. 

r, Murray Crymble and James Huey, two London merchants, on May 19, 1737, received 
warrants for 1,200,000 acres of land in North Carolina with the stipulation that they settle 
6,000 Protestants on the land and pay quitrents of four shillings per 100 acres. Crymble 
and Huey were, of course, trustees for another London merchant, Henry McCulloh, and 
his associates. In 1744 the surveyor general of North Carolina, carrying out a council 
order, surveyed and located the warrants. The associates were permitted to take out 
separate grants of no less than 12,000 acres per tract. Various tracts were granted to 
"associates "John Selwyn, Arthur Dobbs, and Henry McCulloh. Dr. William Houston also 
received grants but he was actually a trustee for McCulloh. The whole situation created 
chaos in the colony which was not resolved before the Revolution. 

William Tryon to pro co 5/310, 

Henry Seymour Conway mhtlVL^o 45 

and Abstract a&h-tlb, 24-26 

CR-VII, 143-144 

The Right Honble Brunswick 26t n December 1765; 

Hy. Seymour Conway [Received March 12, 17661 


In Obedience of His Majestys Commands Communicated to me by the 
Honor of your Letter of the 12t n of July last, It is with concern I acquaint 
you that the Obstruction to the Stamp Act passed last Session of 
Parliament, has been as General in this Province as in any Colony on 
the Continent, tho' their irregular Proceedings have been attended with 
no Mischief, or are by any means formidable. I am much of Opinion that 
whatever measures are prescribed and enforced by His Majesty's 
Authority to the more formidable Colonies to the Northward, will meet 
with a ready Acquiescence in the Southern Provinces without the 
Necessity of any Military Force. 

The first Intelligence of the General Alarm which was spread against 
the Stamp Act in this Colony was in October last; at a time I lay 
extremely 111 of the Fevers of this Country which with repeated Relapses 
I have experienced these Five Months past. I was very Impatient to 
seize the first opportunity to communicate my sentiments to the Mer- 
chants and Gentlemen of New Hanover and Brunswick Counties, who 
are the Persons that carry on the Commerce of Cape Fear River (and 
where I imagined the Stamps would Arrive) on the then Situation of 
Public Affairs. 

On the 18t n November near Fifty of the above Gentlemen waited on 
Me to Dinner, when I urged to them the Expediency of permitting the 
Circulation of the Stamps; but as my Health at that time would not allow 


me to write down any Speech, I must beg leave to refer you, Sir, to the 
Inclosed Carolina Gazette of the Twenty Seventh of November, 1 in 
which you will find nearly the Substance of what I declared and 
proposed to the above Gentlemen, Their Answer and my Reply are 

Two Days before the above Meeting MF Houston the Distributor of 
the Stamps was compelled in the Court House at Wilmington, and in the 
presence of the Mayor and some Aldermen to resign his Office. 

The Stamps arrived the Twenty Eighth of November in His Majesty's 
Sloop the Diligence, Cap? Phipps Commander, but as there was no 
Distributor, or other Officer of the Stamps in this Country after Mr 
Houston's Resignation, the Stamps still remain on board the said ship: 
No Vessels have been cleared out since the First of November from this 
River, or from any other in this Province that I have received Intelligence 
of. Some Merchants at Wilmington applied to Me for Certificates for 
their Ships, specifying that no Stamps were to be procured, which I 
declined Granting, refering them to the Officers of the Customs; The 
merchants have been as Assiduous in Obstructing the Reception of the 
Stamps as any of the Inhabitants. 

No Business is transacted in the Courts of Judicature, tho' the Courts 
have been regularly opened, and all Civil Government is now at a 
Stand. This Stagnation of Public Business, and Commerce, under the 
low Circumstances of the Inhabitants, must be attended with fatal 
Consequences to this Colony, if it subsists but for a few Months longer. 

There is little or no specie circulating in the Maritime Counties of this 
Province, and what is in Circulation in the Back Counties, is so very 
inconsiderable that the Attorney General assured me, that the Stamp 
Duties [on the Instruments] used in the Five Superior Courts of this 
Province would in one year require all the specie in the Country: the 
Business which is likewise Transacted in the Twenty Nine Inferior, or 
County Courts; the many Instruments which pass thro' the Sheriff's 
Hands and other Civil Officers; those on the Land Office and many other 
Instruments used in Transaction of Public Business, were the Reasons 
which induced me to believe the Operation of the Stamp Duty in All its 
Parts impracticable, and which likewise prompted me to make my 
Proposals for the ease and Conveniency of the People, and to endeavour 
to Reconcile them to this Act of Parliament. 

On the Twentieth of last Month I opened and Proclaimed My 
Commission at Wilmington when I consulted His Majesty's Council if 
any Measures could be proposed to induce the People to receive the 
Stamps. They were Unanimously of Opinion that no thing further could 
be done than what I had already offered. 

I have issued His Majestys Writs for a New Election of Assembly, but 
shall not meet them till next April at Newbern. 

As the Arrival of Dispatches from the Public Boards is extremely 


Uncertain here at All times, but more particularly Precarious in the 
present Times, I should wish, Sir, that any Commands you Honour me 
with might be inclosed to the Governor of South Carolina or to MT 
Barons 2 the Post Master General, residing in Charles Town with Orders 
to forward them to Me by Express 

I am, Sir 

with Great Respect and Esteem, 
Your most obedient and most Humble Servant 
W m Tryon 

[Note, sent the Original under Cover to Lieut: Governor Bull, to be 
forwarded by Him: the Duplicate by the Heron Capt Parker to 

1 Excerpts from the Gazette which Tryon mentioned have appeared at the appropriate 
date and in this volume are on pp. 165-166. 

2 Benjamin Barons was made deputy postmaster general for the southern division, with 
headquarters in Charleston, when it was created in 1764. However, he left for England in 
1766. Carl H. Scheel, A Short History of the Mail Service (Washington: Smithsonian 
Institution Press, 1970), 52, 55. 


AM ill C A. 

11 #^ .< ftp* J? *$?**■■***■$ i *Jr-.$J,' \#y<t Ji- rJii.&y *..->• •■• ,.■ <. -4 » 

Houftots/E% Diftribut^r of Stamps fa 
p<ovince, cam« to Uiis town on the i6th po\ 
tt^n^hlcH three or four bomfruf fxopk tm~ 
ttjetTuttlf ftnthered toget **€■*% vatl% dmrm t^etling 
ami colours fifing, and repaired to *h* houhr the 
£ud Sr&mp , Dipcer pot up ar, md minted on 
Ummsm*. ** Wkecfcsr lie intended to execute !*;$ 
I office or not : n He told th?m, *Mte i\w%M 
ieff fecif to eipetsie any office clii^grecablf 
to Ife f^of*!e rf thf pwnce/* But chs y» not 
com#ot wil fcli a declaration, carried Isim i«o 
ti*e .C^irt-Ho^fc, where he figrsedf & reiijpttini 
ftitsfa^ory io the whole* ; \ " : 

Tfe ilamft paper for this jfctwfece li Mrtwc! 
to the D&£en£e »*»* of war* Ci|>r Phlpp | but 
#e i»e »tlifi;r4 of iti Wng latsdfeii 

The editors of the London Chronicle on March 8, 1766, reported news of the 
Wilmington reaction to the Stamp Act. Photograph reproduced from the North Carolina 
Historical Review, XLIX (July, 1972), 231; reprinted from Wilmington: Historic 
Colonial City (Wilmington: Stamp Defiance Chapter, National Society of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution, 1952). 


[Abstract made March 12, 1766] FRO CO 5/217, f . 74 

The obstruction to the Stamp Act general here, but no mischief nor any 
way formidable— will acquiesce without a Military Force in whatever is 
established the more formidable Colonies— Inclosed Gazette of 27. 
Novr. giving an account of what passed at a meeting of the Merchants; 
their answer to his Proposals, & his Reply —Mr Houston the Distributor, 
compelled to resign— Stamps remain on board— No vessels cleared 
since 1st. Novr. — Declined certifying no Stamps were to be had— No 
Law Business done; all Government at a Stand— Little or no Specie in 
the martitime counties— Reasons for the Governors making Proposals 
for the Ease of the People— The Council unanimous, that nothing more 
could be done than what was offered —writs issued for a new Election of 
assembly, to meet in April at Newbern— wishes the Dispatches to him 
might be inclosed to the Govr. of So. Carolina, or to Mr. Barons 
Postmaster General in Charles Town, with orders to forward them by 

William Tryon to mh-tlb, 31 

Benjamin Barons c^viius^f 

[with enclosure] 

Benjamin Barons Esq Brunswick the 39 January 1766 

Deputy PostMaster General for the Southern District 

I am sorry I have been prevented from giving you that satisfaction in 
the Particulars you requested relative to the Post occasioned by the bad 
State of Health I have laboured under for these five Months past: I have 
however obtained a Route thro' this Province, best calculated in the 
Opinion of the Principal Gentlemen here, for the Ease and Conveniency 
of the General Post as well as for the Commercial Interest of this 
Province. There is no General Plan of this Province but by the Inclosed 
Route you may be informed, the Broad Ferries of Neuse River, Pamplico 
and Albemarle Sounds are avoided and the Route the shortest where 
there are any Accomodations for the Riders. I should think it Unneces- 
sary for you to extend your Department further than Suffolk, as the 
Northern Post already reaches that Town; for was you to carry it on to 
Williamsburgh you would have a Ferry of Three Miles over James 
River to cross, besides Forty four Miles further by Land. If you have 
any thoughts of taking a View of the Route I recommend for the Post 
and to consult with Mr. Foxcroft, I should be glad to see you at 
Brunswick when I hope to furnish you with further Particulars; in the 
mean time I shall refer you to Mr. Peter Randolph, surveyor General of 
His Majesty's Customs who is well acquainted with this Province and is 
Willing to give you Information of the present State of the Back Country 
in this Colony. I am Sir &c. 


[Enclosure] MH-TLB.32 

Tryon's Proposed cr-vii, 149 

Mail Route 

Route from Suffolk in Virginia to the Boundary House of North & South 
Carolina on the Sea Coast, 


From Suffolk to Cottons Ferry, on Chowan River 40 

Apple Tree Ferry, on the Roanoke 30 

Salters on Tar or Pamplico River 35 

Kemps Ferry .... on Neuse D° 28 

Newbern 10 

Trentbridge 13 

Mrs. Warburton's 13 

Snead's on New River Ferry 26 

Sage's 13 

Collin's 14 

Wilmington 15 

Brunswick 15 

The Ferry 2 

To Bells 20 

The Boundary House 23 

Total Miles 297 

Proclamation of pro co 5/350, f . 67 

the Governor ^f J n 319 


January 6, 1766 

North Carolina 

By His Excellency William Tryon Esqr. 
Captain General, Governor and Commdr 
in Chief in and over the said Province 

A Proclamation 

Whereas the Stamp Paper for the Use of this Province agreeable to 
Act of Parliament are now in Cape Fear River, I have therefore thought 
fit by and with the Advice of His Majesty's Council to issue this 
Proclamation that no Person may plead Ignorance thereof and that any 
Person properly authorized to be a Distributor of the said Stampt 


Papers may receive them by applying to the Commander of His 
Majesty's Sloop of War the Diligence now riding at the Port of Brunswick 
and giving his Receipt for the same. 

Given Under my hand, and the Seal 
of the Province at Brunswick this 
6t n day of January 1766 and in 
the 6t n Year of His Majesty's Reign. 

By His Excellencys 

Benjamin Heron Secry 

God save the King 

Commission of William Try on a&h-go 

to James Hasell 1 

January 7, 1766 

GEORGE the Third By the Grace of God of Great Britain France and 
Ireland King Defender of the Faith &9 To James Hasell Esq*" Greeting 
We Reposing Special Trust and Confidence in the Loyalty Skill and 
ability of You the Said James Hasell Do hereby Constitute and appoint 
you Chief Justice of, and in Our Said province of North Carolina in the 
Room of the Honourable Charles Berry 2 Esq?" Deceased Hereby giving 
unto you the Said James Hasell full power and Authority to hold the 
Superior Courts of Justice Oyer and Terminer and General Gaol Delivery 
of North Carolina at Such times and places as the Same may and Ought 
to be held within our said province To have Hold Execute and Enjoy the 
said Office of Chief Justice During His Majestys pleasure and Your 
Residence in Our Said province together with all and Singular the 
powers, Salaries Rights profits Perquisites and Emoluments Whatsoever 
which to the Said Office in any Wise doth Belong or appertain IN 
TESTIMONY WHEREOF WE have caused thes[e] Letters to be made Patent, 
WITNESS OUR Trusty and Well Beloved William Tryon Esq*" Captain 
General and Governor in Chief in and Over his Majestys Province of 
North Carolina and Vice Admiral of the Same at Brunswick the Seventh 
Day of January in the Year of Our Lord 1766 and in the Sixth Year of 
His Majestys Reign 

W m Tryon 


By His Excellencys Command 
Tho? Rutherfurd PT Sec 

Recorded the 8 January 1766 
Tho? Rutherfurd P Sec 

'James Hasell (d. 1785) was a native of Bristol, England, who lived in Philadelphia for a 
brief period before removing to North Carolina ca. 1735 and settling in New Hanover 
County. In 1739 he became a justice of the peace and a few years later was one of the 
largest landowners in the county. He took a seat on the council in 1749 and continued to 
serve until 1775. Despite Hasell's lack of formal legal training, he was the chief judicial 
figure in several high courts for a number of years. He was a steadfast supporter of the 
crown in all disputes of the day and as president of the council was acting governor for a 
time in 1771 between Tryon's departure and Martin's arrival; he also acted at times as 
chief executive during Governor Martin's absence. Hasell quietly withdrew to his planta- 
tion in New Hanover County during the American Revolution, and his property was 
secure as long as he lived. Upon Hasell's death his property was seized, but it was 
restored to his family in 1802. Crabtree, North Carolina Governors, 43-44; scattered 
references in Clark, State Records, and Saunders, Colonial Records. 

2 For a sketch of Charles Berry, see "Tryon Assumes Office," October 27, 1764, n.4, in 
this volume. 

Samuel Johnston Hayes collection , 

to Thomas Barker J()hnston Family Series 


January 9, 1766 

The above I expected would have been with you before now but the 
Ship having been unexpectedly detained gives me an Opportunity of 
acknowledging the Rec! of yours by W m Parker since which Doct r 
Houston has Recy his Commission and been compelled to resign and 
swear not to Act in that Office. The Stampt papers arrived at Brunswick 
in the beginning of last month in a Man of War commanded by Capt. 
Phips upon which the Govf summoned the Gent, of the Neighbourhood 
to the Number of 50 and upwards in order to consult them on the 
manner of distributing the Stamps but they refused to have any thing to 
say to them or to be answerable for the consequences in case they were 
landed upon which a Council was called to meet at Wilmington the 20F 1 
DecF when the Gov!" proposed to publish his Co[mission] That the 
Ceremony might [be] attended with the greater Pomp the Militia of the 
Neighbourhood to the N9 of abt 2000 as is said appeared under Arms to 
receive his Excell'y. The Canon in Town and those on board the Ships 
in the harbor were prepared to Salute him when an unlucky Accident 
had nigh turned the Coronation Farce into a very serious Tragedy. Capt. 
Phips brought the Gov!" up from Brunswick to Wilmington in his barge 
with all the parade peculiar to that kind of Gentry. When he was rec? at 


his landing with every mark of respect from [torn] all who were present 
but the Captain observing that the [captains?] in the harbor had the 
insolence as he termed it, not to Strike their colours on his Boats coming 
to the [torn] he ordered some of his Men to go and bring them off which 
was accordingly done, this so affronted not only the sailors but the 
Townsmen and Militiamen that they insulted the Capt. as he went to his 
Lodgings, hauled up the Boat to the Court house and were about to set 
fire to her when it was proposed by some of the more Moderate to spare 
the boat upon the Captain's releasing the Colours which was agreed to 
on condition it was done within 15 minutes. This was complied with. 
They then manned the Boat as if on the water and dragged her round 
the Town till they came under the Window of Capt. Phips's Lodgings 
where they made a stand to insult him. The GovF who was in the house 
harangued the mob from one of the Windows in such a State as 
exasperated them as much ag'st him as they had been ag'st the Capt. 
They then Launched the Boat into the water and Collected themselves 
round an Ox and 6 or 7 Barrels of punch which had been given by his 
Excell'y. they immediately broke in the heads of the Barrels of Punch 
and let run into the street, put the head of the Ox in the Pillory and gave 
the Carcass to the Negroes. This was what the Govr s Vanity would by 
no means brook insomuch that when the Corporation of Wilmington 
offered to Address him in order to exculpate themselves he refused to 
see their Recorder or to hear their Address and it's said he'd determined 
to leave that place and settle at New Bern. Capt. Phips went down to 
bring up his Ship in order to blow the Town to pieces, and when my 
informer came from Wilmington had got as far as the Flats where he 
was taking out his Ballast. The Town on their part were preparing to 
receive him but I imagine there will not be a depth of water sufficient to 
buoy him up. 

[torn] 20th and took an oath of Secrecy with [torn] that should be laid 
before them, but Mr. Berry who unfortunately was absent that day not 
being able to investigate the Business which the Council was called 
about suspected that it regarded him, his Suspicion was founded on 
something that passed between the Gov. and himself about the Trial & 
acquittal of one Simpson Master of the Viper for killing his Lieutenant 
at which the Govf expressed his Surprise and got a copy of the Judge's 
Notes & Minutes of the Evidence of that Trial the 21 st in the Morning 
Mr. Berry distracted with the thoughts of Suspension waited on the 
Gov r and offered to resign his Commission which he with great 
politeness refused to accept the Judge immediately returned to his 
Lodgings and fired a pistol into his Mouth which did little other damage 
than breaking out two of his teeth and a good deal disfigured his face 
where the Balls came out but finding he had missed his purpose he gave 
himself several wounds in the belly with a penknife which were, at first, 
thought to be mortal but we hear that Doctors have now some hopes of 


his Recovery his wife and oon arc in the You will no doubt expect by this 
Oppertunity that State of your affairs which you desired in your last, I 
had the beginning of last Month begun it and made some progress 
which I was rendered unfit for that or any other Business by a most 
Melancholy accident, my Sister Isabel, who with another of my Sisters, 
had for sometime lived with me and taken care of my House, was taken 
suddenly ill and in less than 24 hours expired in my Arms calling upon 
me for that relief which nothing but death could afford her. This, tho I 
thought myself prepared for any Calamity in life, so entirely unman'd 
me that I have been a very woman ever since. This is the first time I 
have put pen to paper since I dont know but you will [torn] this 
weakness when you recollect that for these 8 years past [torn] in the 
place of father and during that [torn] such as in every instance gave me 
the greatest satisfaction. You may depend upon having a State of your 
affairs by the first oppertunity if I live. There is an entire stop to all 
kinds of Business in our way since our way since [sic] the first of 
November, The Stampt paper is still on board the Man of War and no 
person will receive them God knows what will become our Situation 
appears to me extremely critical I wish I knew your Opinion of it. The 
Assembly I am informed is disolved and that an act for an election next 
Month for an Assembly to meet in April remember me to [torn] who 
will hear from me soon and believe me as I ever was 

Dear Sir 

Your most dutiful Obed^ Serv^ 

Jany 10 th 

PS I have just heard that the Judge died on Sunday last and was 
buried privately. 

Jacob Lobb to pro co5/3io, f . 63 

William Dry* aTtS 

Viper, Cape Fear 14 tn January 1766 


As the Sloops Dobbs and Patience not having the Clearances on 
Stampt Paper according to Act of Parliament I have detained them and 
herewith you will receive the Papers in Order to their being prosecuted 
in the Court of Admiralty as I am directed by the Commissioners of the 


I am 

Your humble Servant 
William Dry Esq Jacob Lobb 

'William Dry III (1720-1781). 

Governor William Tryon's Maryland Gazette. 

Reception in Wilmington March 13 - 1766 


Extract of a Letter from Norfolk, Virginia, Jan. 18. 

"Col. Tryon, the Governor of North -Carolina, some few Days ago 
made a great Entertainment, roasted a whole Ox at Wilmington, and 
invited all the People of Consequence, his Commission as Governor was 
read, after which he made a Speech, intimating the Necessity of 
America's helping her Mother, (the old Thread bare Argument) and 
withal added if the People would receive the Stamps, he would make a 
Present of stamped Licenses to the Tavern- Keepers, and give up all 
Fees particularly belonging to him, during his Stay in Carolina: This 
diabolical Proposal was answered with a general Hiss, after which the 
roasted Ox was hung upon a Gallows, where it probably hangs to this 
Day, the very Negroes disdained to taste the Bait of Slavery which was 
laid for their Masters: Indeed the Example of North- Carolina merits just 
Applause; one County on Cape- Fear River, have all along kept their 
Courts of Justice open, saying they never intended to use any Paper but 
such as they now have, and, therefore having enough of that, there's no 
Necessity to stop the common Course of Business." 

William Dry to pro C05/310, 

Robert Jones, Jr. 1 cR%n/i75 

A&H-TLB, 43 
MH-TLB, 52 

Custom House, Port Brunswick 
16 tn January 1766 
D r Sir, 

By Instruction from the Surveyor General, I am ordered in Case any 


of the Men of War should make any Seizures to receive the cause of 
Seizure and her Papers from them and to transmit them to You for Your 
Opinion which I am to be ruled by whether to prosecute or not. 

This therefore serves to inclose You the Papers of Two Vessels, one 
from Philadelphia the other from S t Christophers which Captain Lobb 
hath Seized for not having Stampt Papers, as you will see by his Letter 
to Me here inclosed. 2 The Papers are in Separate Packetts, the one 
Parcel are Copy's of the Originals and the others are the Original Papers 
which M r Quince 3 desired I might send as belonging to His Vessel; All 
which I must entreat the favor of You to look over and to return Me Your 
Opinion by this Express which I send on Purpose. I beg the Messenger 
may be dispatched. 

I am 

D r Sir 

Your Most Obedient Servant 
Robert Jones Jun r Esq Will m Dry 

'Robert (Robin) Jones, Jr. (d. 1766) of Northampton County, was attorney general of the 
colony from 1756 until his death late in 1766. At various times he also held other posts 
and was a member of the assembly for a number of terms. Cheney, North Carolina 
Government, 22, 45, 46, 51, 52, 85, 90. 

^Lobb's letter to William Dry, January 14, 1766, appears above. 

3 Probably this is Richard Quince, who had extensive shipping interests. Schaw, A Lady 
of Quality, 144, 145, 314. See also Robert Jones to William Dry, February 3, 1766, in 
this volume. 

King George to the a&h-er 

Clerk of the Signet 

January 16, 1766 
George R. 

Our Will and Pleasure is that you forthwith prepare a Bill for Our 
Royal Signature to pass Our Privy Seal in these words or to this Effect. 

George the Third by the Grace of God King of Great Britain France 
and Ireland Defender of the Faith and so forth. To the Commissioners of 
Our Treasury now being, and to Our High Treasurer Chancellor and 
Under Treasurer of Our Exchequer or Commissioners of Our Treasury 
for the time being Greeting, Whereas by Letters patent under Our 
Great Seal of Great Britain bearing date the Nineteenth day of July in 
the fifth year of our Reign We have Constituted and appointed Our 
Trusty, and Wellbeloved William Tryon Esquire to be Our Captain 
General and Governor in Chief in and over Our Province of North 
Carolina in America And Whereas the yearly Salary or Allowance of 
One thousand pounds hath for many Years past been paid at the Receipt 


of the Exchequer out of the monies which have arisen there for the Duty 
of Four and an half per Cent, unto Arthur Dobbs EsqF late Captain 
General and Governor in Chief of the said province (in lieu of a like 
Salary which had been established for the Governor of North Carolina 
out of the Quit Rents of the said Province) to enable him to execute his 
Commission and the Instructions thereby given suitably to the Dignity 
of the said Office Now We graciously intending to continue the said 
yearly Salary or allowance unto the said William Tryon in like manner 
and for the purposes for which the same was paid to the said Arthur 
Dobbs, Our Will and pleasure is, And We do hereby Direct Authorize 
and Command that out of any Monies that are or shall be and remain in 
the Receipt of Our Exchequer arisen or to arise for or upon Account of 
the Duty of Four and half per Cent, you do issue and pay or cause to be 
issued and paid unto the said William Tryon or to his Assigns the said 
Yearly Allowance or Salary of one Thousand pounds in respect of the 
said Office (and in lieu of a like Salary formerly payable as aforesaid to 
the Governor of that province out of the Quit Rents thereof) to enable 
him to execute his said Commission and the Instructions thereby given 
him for Our Honor and suitably to the dignity of the said Office, the 
same to Commence from the said Nineteenth day of July 1765, and from 
thenceforth to be payable and paid quarterly by even and equal por- 
tions during such time as he shall continue in the said Office or until we 
shall by any Warrant under Our Royal Sign Manual to be counter- 
signed by the Commissioners of Our Treasury or High Treasurer for the 
time being signify Our pleasure for determining the same, All which 
payments are to be made to the said William Tryon or to his Assigns 
without Account, Imprest or other Charge to be set upon him in Our 
Exchequer for the same. And these Our Letters and so forth, Given and 
so forth. 

And for so doing this shall be your Warrant. Given at Our Court at St. 
James's this 16 tn day of January 1766, in the Sixth year of Our Reign. 

To the Clerk of Our Signet attending By his Majesty's Command 

Rockingham 1 
J Cavendish 2 
Tho: Townshend 3 

William Tryon Esq*" £ 1,000 p Ann. as Governor of North Carolina 

[Endorsed] Kings Warrant 

William Tryon EsqT £ 1,000 
p Ann. as Governor of 
North Carolina.— 

March 1766 


'Charles Watson -Went worth (1730-1782) was the second marquis of Rockingham. An 
outspoken supporter of the American colonies in their protest against British policy, 
Rockingham worked to repeal the Stamp Act and incurred the displeasure of George III 
by opposing grants to the king's brothers. He led the opposition in the House of Lords 
against Lord North's American policy. At the time of his death Rockingham was prime 
minister. Webster's Biographical Dictionary, 1271. 

2 Lord John Cavendish (1732-1796), commissioner of the treasury from July 13, 1765, 
until August 2, 1766, was the fourth son of the duke of Devonshire. Sainty, Treasury 
Officials, 118. 

3 Thomas Townshend (1733-1800), first viscount Sydney, was a lord of treasury under 
Rockingham (1765); joint paymaster of the forces (1767-1768); secretary in Rockingham's 
administration (1782); and home secretary in Shelburne's and Pitt's administrations. 
Webster's Biographical Dictionary, 1482. 

Commission of William Try on a&h-go 

to Robert Howe 

January 20, 1766 



GEORGE the Third by the Grace of God of 
Great Britain France, and Ireland KING Defender 
of the Faith &c. 

To all and Singular Our Faithfull Subjects Greeting. 

KNOW ye, that We Reposing Especial trust and Con- 
fidence in the Loyalty and Abilities of Our Trusty and Wellbeloved 
Robert Howe Esq*" of our Province of North Carolina, HAVE Constituted 
and Appointed and by these presents Do Constitute & appoint Him 
Chief Baron of Our Court of Exchequer of Our Province Aforesaid, to 
Have and to Hold the Office of Chief Baron of Our province Aforesaid 
and all and Singular the Powers and Authorities thereof unto him the 
said Robert Howe during Our Pleasure with the Fees, Privileges and 
Emoluments thereto belonging as fully and Amply and as full and 
Ample a Manner as any Chief Baron of Our Court of Exchequer of Our 
Province Aforesaid hath or Ought to have had and held the same And in 
all matters and Things Whatsoever touching and Concerning the 
Execution of the Duty and Office of Chief Baron of Our said Court of 
Exchequer, to Act and to do as thereunto doth truely and of Right 
Appertain IN TESTIMONY whereof We have Caused These Our Letters 
to be made patent. WITNESS Our Trusty and Wellbeloved William 
Tryon Esquire Our Governor & Commander in Chief of our said province 
at BRUNSWICK the twentieth of January In the Year of Our Lord 1766. 
and in the Sixth Year of Our reign 

W m Tryon 


By His Excellencys (S.L.) 

Benj n Heron Sec 

Recorded the 24 Mar: 1766 
John London 1 


'John London (1747-1816) was born in England and came to North Carolina in 1765 to 
be the private secretary to Tryon . He was appointed deputy secretary of the province and 
clerk of the council in April, 1769, and served at least through November, 1770. He was 
also New Hanover County clerk of court, 1766-1775, when he received leave of absence 
for a year to visit England. He served on local juries in 1779 and 1780 but was considered 
to be a tory in 1782 when his property was forfeited. He was out of the state in 1783 and 
was threatened with jail if he tried to return, but by 1785 he had convinced authorities of 
his loyalty and purchased property. The next year he resumed activity in political, legal, 
and governmental affairs and remained active until his death. (Cheney, North Carolina 
Government, 21, 80.) There are extensive references to John London in Saunders, 
Colonial Records, and Clark, State Records, Vols. VII, VIII, IX, XI, XII, XIII, XV, and XVI. 

William Tryon pro co 5/299, 146-149 

to the Board of Trade SESS&IHi 

CR-VII, 154-157 

The Right Honourable The Lords Brunswick 27 January 1766 

Commissioners for Trade & Plantation 

When I left England I received in part of my Instructions from your 
Lordships Board Directions to Cooperate with the Governor of South 
Carolina, to carry into Execution, His Majesty's Order for Running a 
Temporary Boundary Line between the Two Provinces; and also to 
give my Opinion what I thought would be a proper final Boundary. 

On My Arrival here, in October 1764, 1 was informed Commissioners 
from the Two Provinces were upon the survey of the said Boundary. 
The Inclosed Plan, Numbered 1, will point out to your Lordships their 
first Station at Little River Inlet, Course N. W., till they came to the 35° 
..0' of North Latitude. This Course measured nearly Eighty Six Miles 
and an half 

The Plan Number 2 takes its Course due West from the 35° ..0' of 
North Latitude, and stops at the Eastward Boundary of the Catawba 
Nation, five Miles and an half short of the Catawba River; as will be 
seen by the Plan of the Catawba Tract of Land: The Distance of this 
Western Line sixty One Miles. 

Your Lordships will observe by the Catawba Plan, if this Western 
Course had been run but a few Miles further, it would have taken into 
this Province the whole of the Catawba Nation, and Tract; excepting a 


small Triangle, containing a few Hundred Acres of Land Uncultivated, 
and Uninhabited. This Western Line continued, would in Thirty Six 
Miles from the Catawba River, also have extended to Broad River. 
Since the Temporary Line has been run, the Distance between these 
two Rivers has been measured by some of the Planters on the Frontiers, 
who were willing to know in which Province they should apply for 
Warrants, to be taken up for the survey of Lands. The said Western 
Line still further continued would strike Seludy River; Distance Seventy 
computed Miles from Broad River. These Two Rivers have their 
Confluence at the Head of Congree River; which last empties itself into 
the Santee. 

The Gentlemen and Inhabitants of the southern part of this Province, 
are very desirous of having the Boundary carried so far to the Southward 
as Wynyaw; and running up the Great Pedee River, till it strikes the 
present Temporary Line, (as in Plan N9 2) then to fall into the (present) 
Western Line. One Argument among others for this Extension of the 
Boundary, is, that it will give their Western, or Back Settlers, the 
Opportunity of Transporting their Commodities, thro' the Yatkin, & 
Rocky Rivers down Great Pedee River, into the sea. This Benefit they 
are, in great Measure deprived of, by the South Government laying 
Duties on Commodities brought down the Pedee from this Colony. 

As I esteem it my Duty to Act from the best of My Judgment, for His 
Majestys Interest; and as I consider the two Provinces equally the 
Concern and Property of One Master; I should imagine the fixing the 
Boundary from Wynyaw &c, would too much Contract the Sea Board of 
the South Government, and in a future Day, might be of more Prejudice 
to that Province, than of real Advantage to this. The above mentioned 
Waters are only Navigable at certain seasons of the year, a Circumstance 
attending all the Rivers in these parts, high up their Stream. 

On the Contrary side, it has been Urged, that the South Province is 
equally desirous of establishing the Boundary on the West Banks of 
Cape Fear River and so up its North West Branch to the 35° ..0' of 
North Latitude. This Division would be of infinite Prejudice to this 
Province, as it would shut out these, four large Counties Vidt 
Brunswick, Bladen, Cumberland & Anson, and greatly interrupt & 
Injure the Commerce now carried on here. The Interest, Trade, property, 
and Jurisdiction on both sides the River being blended; their Disunion 
would cause great Confusion in the Business, as well as greatly retard 
the successfull Progress this River is making in her Exports, particularly 
in the Article of Naval Stores, most of which are shipped to Great 

It is possible the Commissioners of His Majesty's Customs may have 
experienced that where the Divisional Line of Colonies, has been 
ascertained by Water Courses smugling has been carried on with more 
success, than when the said Dividing Lines run over a Land Tract. 


Upon the whole of these Considerations, I am of Opinion, the present 
Temporary Partition Line is the best calculated for the final Boundary, 
between these Two Governments; However it might be very expedient 
that the present Line should be continued as far as Broad River; to the 
Banks of which, Settlements are already extended: This River is distant 
upwards of Forty One Miles from the Eastward Boundary of the 
Catawbas; where the Commissioners left off their survey. 

I had, My Lords further Instructions to report to your Lordships 
Board what Proceedings have been had, and Measures taken for 
ascertaining the Line of Partition between the Lands belonging to the 
Crown, and those markt out for the Earl of Granville. On this Head I 
have obtained the following Informations— In the Autumn of 1743, 
Commissioners appointed (in Pursuance of His Late Majesty's Instruc- 
tions bearing date the Twenty fifth day of April of the said Year) set off 
for the Sea Coast, to take the Latitude of 35° ..34' North Lat. which they 
found to fall six miles and an half to the Southward of Chickinacomack 
Inlet, where they set up a Cedar Stake: From this station, they ran a 
West Course across Cape Hatteras Island; but on Account of the sound 
of Pamplico, and a great Dismal, or large Pocoson, which lies in Hyde 
County, they found it impracticable to pursue their Course. Accordingly 
they left off their survey on the West Banks of Hatteras Island; and 
agreed to go up to Bath Town, there to take the Latitude. They found 
the Town to lie nearly 35° ..30'.— The Commissioners then ran Sixteen 
Hundred & Sixty Poles a North Course which brought them to the Lat 
of 35° ..34' where they fixed Two Posts (now standing in the great 
Road that leads from Bath to Edenton) from this station they ran a West 
Course, Eleven Miles only, stopping at a Plantation, called Bonners 
Field. Here ended the survey in 1743. No further Proceedings were had 
till the survey taken in April 1746 which was carried as far as Haw 
River, and in the October following continued it to Rocky River; which 
is the farthest this partition Line has been carried. I had this Intelligence 
from a Gentlemen who was on the survey. 

These two last surveys will be fully explained by the Plans I inclose 
Your Lordships (Numbered 4 & 5;) the Originals have the Great Seal of 
the Province, affixed to them; and Certified as Authenic by Governor 
Johnston. Distances of these last three surveys, are, 

From Hatteras Island to Bonner's Field 90 Computed Miles 

Bonner's Field to Saxhapahaw at Haw River 104 measured D9 

Saxhapahaw to Rocky River 87 D9 

It appears that Lord Granville's Land, as set off, contains Fifty six 
Geographical Miles: which was one full Eighth of the Carolinas in the 
second Grant made to the Proprietors by King Charles the Second; in 
the seventeenth Year of His Reign: containing 7° ..30' that is from the 


29° ..0' to 36° ..30' North Latitude, Whereas before the time that Lord 
Granville's Grant, and Release, was confirmed; near 3° ..0' of Latitude 
was taken from Carolina by Florida and Georgia. I mention this 
Circumstance not as an Advantage His Lordship took of the Crown, as I 
presume he claimed his Eighth under King Charles's Grant; but as the 
probable Reasons, why some People concluded, His Lordships Line 
extended too far to the southward. 

The present Lord has had no Agent, to receive any Quit Rents, since 
His Father's Death. I have reason to believe from several conversations 
I have had with the Principal Inhabitants of that District, that no subject 
will receive any Adequate Advantages for so rich a Body of Land, who 
is not on the Spot, and Diligent to Superintend his Agent. These People 
much wish to be Tenants to the Crown; One Reason is, from the 
Experience they have had of the Two [sic] frequent Abuses, and 
Extorsions of most of the Agents that have been employed. I am with 
Respect & Esteem 

My Lords, 

Your Lordships, most 

Obedient & Humble Servant 
W™ Tryon 

[the Original by the Heron, Capt. Parker for Portsmouth; duplicate by 
the Dilligence, Capt Phipps to Spithead] 

NB. a postscript was added to the Duplicate, which was "The Plans 
here referred to were sent to your Lordships with the Original of this 

William Tryon to the Secretary, shc-spg 

Society for the Propagation cr-vii, 158 

of the Gospel 

N9 Carolina 

Brunswick 29t n Janry 1766 


Your letter of the 21?* of May was delivered to me by the Rev: W. 
Barnett, 1 on his arrival in this Province the 26th of October last. 
Agreeable to the Societys Recommendation, and your Testimony of his 
good Behaviour, I received him into my family. His Conduct is a Credit 
both to his Function, and to the Mission. I imagine the Society for 
Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts, was not apprised, that the 
Towns of Brunswick and Wilmington lay in two different Counties; the 


former in Brunswick County, the latter in New Hanover. Besides, by 
the act of Assembly I obtained last May at Newbern, for Establishing 
Orthodox Clergy, free from former objections, Mr Barnett could not 
receive the benefit of a Parish, if he was to officiate at both the above 
Towns: Upon these Considerations I have desired him to do duty in 
Brunswick County only unless any Casual opportunity might offer for 
his performing Services at Wilmington or elsewhere. From a just sense I 
entertain of the real benefit your Society has been, and still continues to 
be, to these Colonies, I must desire leave to offer my Services and 
Annual Mite to so Honorable and Beneficial an institution. If I am 
Elected a Member I will trouble you Sir to deliver the inclosed to 
Messrs. Drummond at Charing Cross. 

Your very Humble 
W m Tryon 

P.S. I sent last July the above Clergy Bill to the Board of Trade desiring 
it might be communicated with my letter (on the state of religion here) 
to your society. 

l John Barnett, Anglican missionary, served St. James's Church, Wilmington, 1765- 
1766; St. Philip's, Brunswick, 1767-1768; St. George's, Northampton County, 1769-1770; 
and St. Thomas, Orange County, Virginia, 1771-1774. Weis. Colonial Clergy, 58-59. 

James Murray MHi-M 

to William Tryon 

Govr. Tryon Boston Janry 30. 1766 


Since the above Copy of my last, I mean since the date of it, I have 
been favd with a line from Coll Palmer 1 telling me how much your 
Excelly your Lady & Indeed your whole family have suffered by 
Sickness last autumn, which as it is happily over will be rather a Cause 
of Joy than Sorrow to all your friends especially as you may expect 
better health another Summer & for the future 

Your Excellency will perceive by the inclosed papers that the political 
ferment, which first began in votes in Virginia and in action here still 
runs high and that we know not yet how it will subside. Mrs. Murray 
joins me in duty to your Excy. and Compliments to your Lady. 

I am 

Your dutiful & obedient Servant 


Postscript to Govr. Tryon's letter 

If your Excellency determines to keep Tom your sending the bills for 
him hither without passing thro the hands of my attornies will save me 
5prCt. but if your Exccy does not keep him, the Negro with his hire may 
be delivered up at the Expiration of the year to my attorney 

Probably Robert Palmer. 

William Tryon 

to the Board of Trade 

PRO CO 5/299, 

ff. 150-153b 
MH-TLB, 37-40 
A&H-TLB, 31-34 
CR-VII, 158-161 

The Lords Commissioners for 
Trade and Plantations 

Brunswick the 1?* February 1766 

I have been prevented from making up any Dispatches for your 
Lordships Board since those I sent of the proceedings of the General 
Assembly held at Newbern in May last, by a severe and Tedious Illness 
which has visited me for these six months past. I now send your 
Lordships in a separate Packet by the Heron, Parker, Master bound for 
Portsmouth the Plans of the Lines that were run in 1746 between the 
Lands belonging to His Majesty and those set off for the Earl of 
Granville and also those of the Temporary Boundary Line between the 
Carolina Governments run in 1764 together with the fullest Information 
I have been able to obtain on these subjects. The Heron who likewise 
carries this Dispatch is the first vessel that has left this Port since the 
first of Novemb: she sails with the Old Clearances, without Stampt 

Mr. Simpson late Master of the Viper Sloop of War who had made his 
Escape after being committed for the murder of Lieut: Whitehurst of the 
said sloop surrendered Himself up to Justice, and took his Trial at 
Wilmington Superior Court held last October; The Verdict of the Jury 
was manslaughter. The Attorney General to whom I wrote to prosecute 
for the Crown was prevented attending, by a Confirmed Bad State of 
Health: His Deputy brought on the Trial before the Principal Evidences 
arrived in the Province who were on board the Viper every Day 
expected, and who were present at the Duel, as may be seen by the 
Depositions I sent your Lordships 

His Majesty's Officers of the Customs for this River have seized Two 
vessels: The first a Brig named the Samuel, Hezekiah Welch master, 
was stopped the twenty Ninth of May by Mr. Pennington 1 Comptroller 
on suspicion of the master having made a false Entry: Upon search near 
One Hundred Hogsheads of foreign Molasses was found on board Her, 


that had not been entered: this Quantity has been condemned by a 
Decree in the Court of Admiralty of this Province. The sale of this 
Molasses clear of all Charges amounted to £324 — Proclamation Money, 
value in Sterling £162— this Brig came from Hispaniola bound to 
Boston. The second Vessel named the Fox, Nath! Porter master was 
seized by Mr Dry, the Collector the 15 m of October last on suspicion of 
her having broke Bulk before Entry; This Vessel was condemned in the 
above Court together with her Cargoe which consisted of Wines from 
the Azores and Rum from Santa Cruz. The sale of this ship and her 
Cargo is just finished. As the collector informs me he has not yet been 
able to make out the Particulars of the amount of the sale, I will send 
them in my next Dispatches. 

I am next to inform your Lordship I opened in His Majesty's Council 
the 20™ of December last at Wilmington the Commission His Majesty 
has honoured me with as Governor of this Province. 

By the advice of the Council I dissolved the Assembly & issued new 
Writs in His Majesty's Name for the Election of a new Assembly, the 
Writs Returnable the 22^ of April when the General Assembly is to 
meet at Newbern. 

Mr. Berry, Chief Justice of this Province shot himself in the Head, the 
Twenty first of December last and died in Wilmington the Twenty 
ninth of the same month. The Coroners Inquest sat on the Body, and 
brought in their Verdict "Lunacy." 

I have given the Commission of Chief Justice during Pleasure to Mr. 
James Hasell, senior member of His Majesty's Council, next to the 
President: He is much the Gentlemen, has acted in this office at 
different Times seven years to General satisfaction: Has been an 
Inhabitant of this Province upwards of Thirty years and always 
esteemed a Steady Friend to the Measures of Government. 

As Mr. Hasell, Present Chief Justice held the Commission of Chief 
Baron of the Exchequer: I have appointed Mr. Robert Howe an Asso- 
ciate Judge; a Gentleman of good Character and Abilities to be Chief 
Baron of the Exchequer during Pleasure. 

The present members for His Majestys Council are 

Mr. Murray, President 
Mr. Hasell, Chief Justice \ m I Mr. Alexander Macculloch 

Mr. Rutherford, Receiver Gen! & Mr. Henry Eustace M c Culloh 
Mr. DeRosset 1^1 Mr. P a l mer > surveyor general 

Capt Brice Dobbs I g I Mr. Dry 

Mr. Sampson / V Mr. Heron 

I send your Lordships the names of the three following Gentlemen for 
His Majesty's nomination of a Counsellor in the Room of Mr. Berry, 
Vidt. Mr. Samuel Strudwick, 2 Mr. Francis Corbyn, 3 and Col. Lloyd: 4 


Mr. Strudwick came into the Province at the time I arrived, has large 
Possessions in this Country, is a Gentleman of very good Character and 
has already been warmly Recommended to your Lordship's Board. 

Mr. Francis Corbyn was in the Council till suspended by the late 
Governor: He is a near Relation of Mr. Corbyn Morris's, 5 one of the 
Commissioners of His Majesty's Customs. 

Col. Lloyd served with Credit under the late General Bouquet 6 in the 
Virginia Provincial Forces against the Indians; He is about Thirty years 
of Age and happily Unites the spirit of the soldier, with that of the 

I gave Mr. Murray, President, leave of Absence for one year to go to 
Boston; this Leave expires next April. As Capt. Dobbs has not been in 
this Colony since my arrival; I should think it is probable the Death of 
His Father may determine him not to return here: this will make an 
other Vacancy in the Council. 

The Act of Parliament laying Stamp Duties on the Colonies, has been 
as generally rejected in this Province as in any Colony on the Continent: 
the Particular Conduct of the Inhabitants, I have transmitted to Mr. 
Conway one of His Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State, therefore I 
shall not trouble your Lordships on this subject. 

The Stampt Papers arrived the Twenty Eighth of November last in 
His Majesty's sloop the Diligence, Capt Phipps Commander from 
Virginia where they still continue: I have issued a Proclamation 
signifying their arrival, and that they would be delivered from on Board 
the Diligence to any Person who was properly Qualified to Receive 

As the arrival of Dispatches from the Public Boards is extreamly 
uncertain here at all Times, but more particularly precarious in the 
present Times: I should wish that any Commands your Lordships 
honoured me with, might be enclosed to the Governor of South Carolina 
or to the Post Master General residing in Charles Town with orders to 
forward them to me by Express. 

I am with Respect and Esteem 
My Lords 
Your Lordships most obedient & most humble Servant 
W m Tryon 

Note [in MHTLB]: the original by the Heron, Parker to Portsmouth 
Duplicate by the Diligence Sloop, Capt. Phipps to Spithead 

'William Pennington, comptroller. See "Papers Relative to the Murder of Thomas 
Whitehurst," March 18, 1765- May 22, 1765, n. 12, in this volume. 

2 Samuel Strudwick (1730/32?-1794), son of a London merchant, came to North 
Carolina in 1764 to take charge of 40,000 acres of land acquired to pay off a debt 
Governor Burrington owed to the elder Strudwick. Much of the land lay in the Hawfields 


area of present Alamance and Orange counties although Strudwick established himself in 
Wilmington. From 1767 to 1776 he was a member of the council and was secretary of the 
province, 1772-1775. He was also clerk of the pleas and served as a lieutenant general on 
the expedition in 1771 against the Regulators. Powell and others, Regulators, 88, 111, 
125, 140, 168, 185, 197, 199. 

'Francis Corbin (d. 1766/67) came to North Carolina from London in 1744 "for setting 
off to Earl Granville, one eighth part of the colony," and he served for a time as Granville's 
agent in the province. He was a member of the council, 1751-1760, and was one of the 
early victims of Regulator attacks. Moravian Bishop Spangenburg called Corbin "a 
walking encyclopedia concerning North Carolina affairs." For a time the seat of newly 
established Orange County was called Corbinton in his honor. Powell and others, 
Regulators, 5, 9, 10, 11, 14, 224, 307. 

4 Thomas Lloyd (1736-1770), born in Philadelphia, was living in Wilmington by 1765. 
He was a physician and also served as a New Hanover County justice of the peace. In 
1766 he was among the local men active in opposition to the enforcement of the Stamp 
Act. He declined to serve on the governor's council in 1770 and died in August of that 
year. He is buried in the churchyard of St. James's Episcopal Church, Wilmington. Lennon 
and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 182n. 

5 Corbyn Morris (d. 1779), was a commissioner of customs in England and a strong 
supporter of the mercantile theory. 

6 Col. Henry Bouquet (1719-1765), a native of Switzerland, commanded the Royal 
American Regiment sent to South Carolina in 1757 and the next year he served under 
General John Forbes in the campaign against Fort Duquesne. He was not promoted to 
brigadier general until 1765. Webster's Biographical Dictionary, 178. 

Robert Jones pro C05/310, ff . 64-65 

fn William Drv MH-TLB, 53-54 

to w imam ury a&h-tlb, 44-46 

CR-VII, 175-177 

Occanechy 1 3^ February 1766 
D r Sir, 

I received yours of the 16" 1 Ult° p r your Messenger, and have 
perused the Papers sent therewith, from whence I have made a State of 
the Case, You desire to be advised about, as it Occurs to Me, and 
subjoined to it my Opinion in full, both which You will receive Inclosed. 
As Matters are Circumstanced I think You ought to proceed in 
Prosecuting both Vessels, lest Your Neglect, should be deemed a 
Connivance at the Opposition made to the Stamp Act, which in an 
Officer of the Crown probably may be thought worthy of Censure. 2 

Pray let M r Quince 3 have a Sight of the Case and my Opinion, as by 
My Letter to him, I have referred him to You for that Purpose. I was 
from Home when Your Messenger came and did not return till last 
Night which occasioned his tarrying. I am 

D r Sir 
Your most Obed^ & very hum: Servant 
Robert Jones Jun r 


P.S. The Act does not require that Registers should be on Stampt Paper 
To The Honble William Dry Esq 


State of the Case relative to the Sloops Dobbs and Patience, lately 
arrived in Cape Fear River, the one from Philadelphia, the other from St 

It is supposed that no Stampt Paper could be procured by the Officers 
of the Customs in the Ports from whence the Said Vessels Sailed; 
therefore the Captains obtained Clearances Certificates &c on common 
Paper and proceded to Cape Fear, where they are Seized by Captain 
Lobb, Commander of His Majesty's Sloop Viper, who makes Information 
to the Collector of the Port, requiring him to commence Prosecutions 
against them: 

Quere 1. Is failing to obtain Clearances &c on Stampt Paper a proper 
Cause for Seizing the Said Vessels and to be considered as a 
Neglect of the Duties required by the Acts of Trade sufficient 
to induce a Court of Admiralty to decree Vessels and Cargoes 

2. Upon Proof being made that it was impossible to obtain Clear- 
ances on Stampt Paper of the Officers of the Customs in the 
Ports from whence the said Vessels sailed, will it not be a 
sufficient Cause to induce the Court to decree in favour of the 
Owners of the said Vessels? 

3. If it is Necessary to prosecute on Captain Lobb's Information, 
must the Prosecution be commenced in the Court of Admiralty 
at Cape Fear, or must the said Vessels be sent to Halifax in 
Order to be libelled? 

In Answer to the First Question— The Clearances &c being on 
common Paper it is the same as if these Vessels had sailed 
without Clearances, and of Course they are liable to be Seized, 
and I think Condemned by a Court of Admiralty with their 

2. Reason does not require the performance of Impossibilities 
and Courts of Admiralty often decree favorable on the part of 
the Owners of Vessels and Cargoes where it does not appear 
that any Fraud was intended to the Crown; especially where 
all has been done that it was in the Power of the Captains and 
Owners of Vessels to do; but the Captains of these Vessels 
seem to Me to have been guilty of great neglect. They should 
have tendered the Kings Duties to the Officers of the Customs 
and demanded proper Clearances &c and on being Refused 
they should have made the like Tender to a Notary Public and 


offered a Protest. Had these Matters been Complied with so 
as to be duly proved on a Tryal, I should think the Judge 
would Decree that the Vessels and Cargoes were not forfeited. 
3. If Prosecutions are intended against these Vessels, they must 
be sent to Halifax, for should they be Libelled here, and the 
Proceedings carried on upon Common Paper, such Proceed- 
ings will be mere Nullities, and not alter the Property either of 
the Vessels or Cargoes. As to the Provision in the Stamp Act 
that Penalties should be sued for where Offences against the 
Act are Committed, that must be Understood of pecuniary 
Penalties specified in the said Act and can have no Relation to 
Matters mentioned in the above Case. Upon the whole it is My 
Opinion that it is the Duty of the Collector to Prosecute on the 
Informations he has received. 

Robert Jones JunF 

1 Perhaps Occoneechee Mountain in central Orange County. 

2 In the copy of this letter published in Saunders, Colonial Records (VII, 175), a slightly 
different version is used : ". . . which is an affair of the Crown and probably may be thought 
worthy of censure." 

3 Richard Quince (d. 1778) was a merchant and trader at Brunswick who had come to 
North Carolina from Ramsgate, England. He was a commissioner of the town of Brunswick, 
justice of the peace, judge of vice admiralty, and holder of other local positions. Quince 
became a member of the Sons of Liberty and served in the Revolution . See William Dry to 
Robert Jones, January 16, 1766, n. 3. 

John Stuart 1 pro co 5/66, 

to William Tryon ff - 376377b 

Charles Town 5th February 1766 

My having been long absent from this Place in discharging the Duties 
of my Office, as Superintendent of Indian Affairs, hinder 'd me from 
doing myself the Honor of writing your Excellency on your first Arrival 
in your Government. 

I now take this Opportunity of paying my Compliments of Congratula- 
tion to your Excellency; and I sincerely wish your Administration may 
be attended with all imaginable Success and Happiness. 

My Business in the two Floridas was to settle the affairs of my 
Department, and to assist the respective Governors in making Peace 
with, and ascertaining the Boundary Lines between the surrounding 
Indian Tribes and their Provinces, which is considered as essential to 
the preservation of their Tranquility. 


I have the pleasure to acquaint you, that our Endeavours were 
crowned with Success, having obtained several considerable Cessions 
of Land, and in a great Measure effaced the bad Impressions left on the 
Minds of the Savages by the Insinuations of the French. 

During my Absence Governor Bull in Attention to the Complaints of 
the Cherokee Indians, relative to Incroachments [sic] made on their 
hunting Grounds by grants obtained from the two Carolinas, proposed 
fixing a Boundary Line; his proposal met with some Difficulty on the 
part of the Indians, which however has been surmounted, and the Line 
is to be run accordingly. 

I inclose Your Excellency a Copy of their talk on that occasion, in 
which they proposed that a Line be also run between Your province and 
their hunting Grounds, pointing out the Course of said Line, and where 
it is to commence. 

I beg leave to offer it as my Opinion, that the fixing a boundary Line is 
a Measure Necessary and essential to the preservation of peace with the 
Indian Nations, and which will have a good Effect on the minds of all the 
Indian Tribes, as well as the Cherokees. I have this day sent away Alex!" 
Cameron, Esqr., my Deputy, who has in Charge to see the Line between 
the Cherokees and this Province run out; on which occasion he is to act 
jointly with a person employed and authorized by this Province. I have 
also directed him to follow any Directions Your Excellency may think 
proper to send upon that Occasion, and to act conjunctly with any 
Person, who may be authorized or employed by You; & if my Proposal 
meet with your Approbation, it may be proper to acquaint MF Cameron 
with your Determination, as soon as possible, that he with the Indians 
may be ready to go upon the Service if required. 

It will give me great pleasure to facilitate any Measure for the good of 
your Province, and to show with what Respect I have the honour of 


Your Excellency's 

most obedient & 
most humble Servant, 
[John Stuart] 

'John Stuart (1700?-1779)came to America with General James E.Oglethorpe in 1733, 
was active during the French and Indian War, and in 1763 became general agent and 
superintendent of Indian affairs in the Southern Department. Dictionary of American 
Biography, IX, 173-174. See also Tryon's letter to the Drummonds, October 31, 1764, n.l. 


William Tryon proadm 1/2052 

to Jacob Lobb 

Brunswick 6th. Feb: 1766 


Captain Phipps informed [me] this Morning, he had received Or[ders] 
from the Admiralty, to repair [to] Spithead, with his Sloop, as s[oon] [as] 
possible; I must therefore requefst] [you] will receive on board your 
Slo[op] [the] Stampt Papers, destined for this [province?] now on board 
the Diligence I [am] 


Your most Obfed't] 
& Humble Serva[nt] 

Wm. Trfyon] 

William Tryon mh-tlb, 40-41 

to Philip Stephens (Stevens) 1 cm™g™m 

Philip Stevens Esq Brunswick 13 February 1766 

at the Admiralty, 

I received Your Letter of the 4 tn Inst, with a Packet Inclosed directed 
to the Senior Officer of His Majesty's Ships and Vessels at North 
Carolina: I had an Opportunity of delivering the Packet the same Day to 
Capt Lobb of the Viper Sloop. I must request Sir the favor of You to 
acquaint The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, that I had before 
the Receipt of Your Letter experienced a ready Concurrence both from 
Cap? Lobb and Cap? Phipps in every Application I have made to them 
for His Majesty's Service, and that I regret a Young Man of Cap? 
Phipp's commendable Spirit and Zeal, for the Honor of Government and 
his Profession, should be called from His Station on this Continent, in 
the present Critical Situation of Public Affairs here. 

I am &c 

[the Original by the Diligence SI: of War, Cap? Phipps to Spithead] 

'Philip Stephens (Stevens) (1725-1809) was secretary of the admiralty from 1763 until 
1783. Earlier he had been clerk and second secretary and afterwards he was commissioner 
from 1795 until 1806. In 1795 he was created baronet. He became a Fellow of the Royal 
Society in 1771 and represented Sandwich in Parliament, 1768-1806. Sainty, Admiralty 
Officials, 152; Saunders, Colonial Records, VII, 290. 


Concerned Citizens 
to William Dry 


CR-VII, 177-178 

February 15, 1766 

This day was received the Copy of the Attorney Generals answer to 
the Queries and of his Letter relative to the Vessels seized by Captain 

There were many of the Country Gentlemen in Town this Morning 
who are since gone away very much dissatisfied on the Matter; and it is 
certain that in a few days the News will spread through several of the 
Counties; We are apprehensive of the very 111 consequences that will 
attend this affair should you suffer these Vessels or the Papers belonging 
to them to be carried out of the River. If the People of the Country come 
down in a Body which we are informed they are determined to do, We 
leave you to judge how far our Properties or yours may be secure. 

We mention these matters to you as Friends to Our Country Ourselves 
and you, and leave you to determine in what manner you ought to act on 
this interesting Occasion 

We are Sir, your Most Obedient Servants 

Hugh Waddell 1 

John Mortimer 2 

Henry Toomer 3 

William Mouatt 4 

J Wilkinson 5 

Alex: Ross 6 

Will™ Gregory 7 

Francis Dromgoole 8 

J Eustace 9 

Jn° Robeson [Robinson?] 10 

Geo Parker 11 

John Quince 12 

James Walker 13 

A Maclaine 14 

Jn° Foster 15 

Jos: Pennell 16 

Geo Palmer 17 

Arch d Clayton 18 

Robert Wales 19 

Robert Walker 20 

Moses Jn° DeRosset 21 

Cornelius Harnett 22 

John Dubois 23 

John Lyon 24 

Frederick Gregg 25 

Alex Duncan 26 

W m Campbell 27 

Benj n Stowe [Stone] 28 

John Gay 29 

Marcus Ford 30 

William Waddell 31 

David James 32 

Malalial [Malatiah] Hamilton 33 

James Blythe 34 

John Campbell 35 

Will m Purviance 36 

Samuel Green 37 

Obadiah [Obediah] Holt 38 

Hervey [Henry?] Young 39 

Anthony Ward 40 


'Hugh Waddell (ca. 1734-1773), a native of Ireland, settled in the Wilmington area 
probably in 1754. The following year he was clerk of the council under Governor Dobbs. 
Waddell's military career apparently began in 1757 when he served as a lieutenant in Col. 
James Innes's New Hanover regiment that saw service in Virginia. He was soon promoted 
to captain and before the end of the war was dispatched to the frontier of Rowan County to 
construct a fort (Fort Dobbs) to protect the inhabitants from roaming bands of Cherokees. 
In 1758, with promotion to major, Waddell joined the expedition against Fort Duquesne 
under John Forbes. Early in 1759 he was promoted to colonel and placed in charge of 
frontier defense with authority to call out the militia of Orange, Rowan, and Anson 
counties whenever necessary. Before leaving New Bern for the Regulator country in the 
spring of 1771, Tryon appointed Waddell "general of all the forces raised, or to be raised 
against the insurgents" and sent him to the backcountry to take command of the militia. 
He was to gather supplies and men and join Tryon s force from the eastern counties. The 
late arrival of four ammunition wagons from Charleston and their subsequent destruction 
by a group of Regulator sympathizers delayed him until after the Battle of Alamance. 
Powell and others. Regulators, 592-593. 

2 Dr. John Mortimer (d. 1767) was a surgeon and a town commissioner. His wife was 
Rebecca Green, daughter of Dr. Samuel Green. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town 
Book, 115,n.ll4. 

'Henry Toomer, son of Joshua Toomer, moved to Wilmington with his father from 
South Carolina in 1747. Prosperous and active in civic affairs, Toomer was an inspector 
for the town (1761-1786), a member of the Wilmington Committee of Safety, and 
commissary for several North Carolina units during the American Revolution. He 
accumulated a very large estate which included large tracts of land, between forty and 
fifty slaves, and a tavern, Dorsey's Hotel, in which George Washington dined in 1794. 
Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 113, n. 113. 

4 William Mouatt, lawyer, was in Wilmington by 1755. In 1764 he was deputy king's 
attorney. Evidence indicates that he mortgaged property for a trip to Jamaica in 1765. 
Prior to 1768 Mouatt died. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 183, n.139. 

S J. Wilkinson has not been identified. 

6 Alexander Ross (d. 1767), a tailor and a merchant, was in Wilmington by 1752. Ross 
acted as a town commissioner in 1761. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 
103, n. 102. 

"William Gregory (d. 1778) was a constable and proprietor of a Wilmington inn. Lennon 
and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 184, n. 140. 

8 Francis Dromgoole has not been identified. 

9 Dr. John Eustace, physician, died in 1769. 

U) Robeson may be a variant spelling of Robinson. One John Robinson (d. 1779?) was a 
justice of the peace and a town commissioner. He served on the local committee of safety 
in the early part of the year 1775 but resigned in November of that year. When he died 
intestate ca. 1779, Robeson (Robinson) left an estate heavily mortgaged to the London 
merchants, Woldridge and Kelly. In 1769 a John Robinson had attacked James Otis in a 
British coffee house in Boston, the details of which are recounted by Nina Moore Tiffany 
in Letters of James Murray, Loyalist (Boston: Privately published, 1901 ), 159-161. 

"George Parker emigrated ca. 1762 from Scotland to Wilmington where he established 
himself as a merchant. In 1771 Parker left North Carolina and may have gone to Boston. 
During the war his property was confiscated, and after the war he lived in Middlesex 
County, England. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 121, n. 121. 

12 John Quince (d. 1775) was a prosperous Wilmington merchant. He served at various 
times as county coroner, justice of the peace, and member of the Wilmington Committee of 
Safety. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 104, n. 106. 

13 Little is known of James Walker except through references in Wilmington town 
records to his having property and to his slave. One James Walker was a messenger for 
James Moore and executor for his estate. Clark, State Records. XI, 278, XXII, 1007, 
Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 184, 202, 212, 229. 


14 Archibald Maclaine (d. 1791), a native of Scotland, was a Wilmington resident by 
1750. He established himself as an attorney. In addition to serving as a town commissioner, 
Maclaine served on the Wilmington Committee of Safety and on the provincial committee 
of correspondence. He was a delegate to the Provincial Congress of 1775 and was a 
member of the Senate and the House of Commons at various times between 1777 and 
1785, representing Wilmington or Brunswick County. Maclaine was a member of the 
Constitutional Convention which met in Hillsborough in 1788; he supported the Federal- 
ists. The charter of the University of North Carolina lists him as one of the first trustees. 
There are numerous references to Maclaine in several volumes of Saunders, Colonial 

ls Jn° Foster has not been identified. 

lfi Joseph Pennell acted as a purchasing agent for the Continental Congress, paymaster 
to the Navy Board, "and commissioner for the accounts of the Marine Department. Clark, 
State Records, XVII, 69-70, 73;Joumals of the Continental Congress, 1 774-1 789 (Washing- 
ton: Government Printing Office, 34 volumes, 1904-1937), VII, 15, VIII, 504, 813, and 

17 Except for the fact that he owned a house in Wilmington, little is known about George 

18 Archibald Clayton has not been identified. 

19 Robert Wales has not been identified. 

20 One Robert Walker, probably father of the Robert Walker who signed this document, 
had emigrated from Dublin, Ireland, ca. 1738 and settled in Wilmington where he 
established himself as a merchant. In 1740 the elder Walker was a justice of the peace, an 
office he evidently held until his death. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 6, 

21 Moses John DeRosset (1726-1767) was born in London where his parents were 
visiting. His father was French Huguenot and his mother Swiss. Within ten years the 
family was settled in Wilmington where the father was practicing medicine. In 1754 the 
younger DeRosset became captain of the local militia and served during the French and 
Indian War. Afterwards DeRosset held minor offices in the county of New Hanover and 
the town of Wilmington. Unlike some others of his family, he opposed the Stamp Act. 
Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 31,n.46. 

22 Cornelius Harnett (1732-1781 ) of Wilmington was a leader in resistance to the Stamp 
Act at Wilmington and Brunswick in 1765-1766. Harnett was one of the most vigorous 
patriots in the state during the American Revolution; only he and Robert Howe were 
excluded from Gen. Henry Clinton's offer of amnesty in 1776. Of Irish heritage, Harnett 
married Mary Holt and was involved in various business enterprises— farming, milling, 
and mercantile ventures. Politically active on both local and provincial levels, Harnett 
served in the Continental Congress, 1777-1780. Lennon and Kellam Wilmington Town 
Book, 40, n. 61. 

2:i John Dubois, Wilmington merchant, at various times held the offices of town commis- 
sioner, alderman, and mayor. He owned much valuable property in Wilmington and an 
estate in New York which he had inherited from his grandmother. Lennon and Kellam, 
Wilmington Town Book, 26, n.38. 

24 John Lyon (d. 1782), successful merchant, had emigrated from England and settled in 
Wilmington before 1751. He served in several offices — justice of the peace, town 
commissioner, alderman, and sheriff of New Hanover County. Lennon and Kellam, 
Wilmington Town Book, 37, n.54. 

2r, Frederick Gregg was a prominent Wilmington merchant who owned "a town house, a 
large wharf with seven storehouses, a plantation on the sound, forty slaves, and a sawmill 
(or sawmills) on Island Creek near the present-day boundary between New Hanover and 
Pender counties." Ill health prompted him to leave the region in 1773 and his estate was 
confiscated by the state. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 29-30, n.44; see 
also "Papers Relative to the Murder of Thomas Whitehead," March 18, 1765-May 22, 
1765, n.21, in this volume. 


26 Alexander Duncan (d. 1768), wealthy Wilmington merchant, was a partner of John 
Ancrum and Robert Schaw in the firm Duncan, Ancrum, and Schaw. He left a large 
estate, including slaves, which he bequeathed to relatives, friends and to the Episcopal 
church in Wilmington. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 99n-100n. 

27 William Campbell (ca. 1734-1812) was a prominent Wilmington merchant. In his 
obituary in the Wilmington Gazette of May 12, 1812, was the comment that Campbell had 
been "the first white male born in this place. . . ." Son of James Campbell, William was 
active in civic affairs and served as a town commissioner, alderman, justice of the peace, 
and sheriff. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 102, n.101. 

28 Nothing is known about Benjamin Stone except that he evidently lived in Wilmington 
during the period from 1762 until at least 1766. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town 
Book, 121, 161, 171, 172. 

29 It was not possible to identify John Gay. 

30 It was not possible to identify Marcus Ford. 

31 It was not possible to identify William Waddell, but see "Statement of William Ward," 
February 21, 1766, which he witnessed. 

32 David James, son of Thomas and Mary James of Halton Lodge, was a constable and a 
tobacco inspector. During the American Revolution he was a patriot and attained the rank 
of captain. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 185, n.142. 

33 Malatiah Hamilton (d. 1797) owned property in the Welch Tract district. In 1776 he 
worked with the Wilmington Committee of Safety. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town 
Book, 104, n. 105. 

34 James Blythe (d. 1780) was a silversmith who had come to Wilmington— perhaps 
from Virginia— before 1755. He owned property on Ann Street and a plantation in New 
Hanover County. Blythe was a constable and a militiaman (1755). In 1775 he served on 
the Wilmington Committee of Safety. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 97, 

35 John Campbell (d. 1770), a carpenter, was the son of James Campbell and brother of 
James, Jr., Samuel, and William. John Campbell served a number of terms as town 
commissioner. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 37, n.51. 

36 William Purviance (d. 1787), native of Ulster, Ireland, was well established in the 
Cape Fear region by 1762, since by that time he was serving as a justice of the peace. In 
1764 he was appointed commissioner of pilotage for the Cape Fear River. He was a patriot 
during the Revolution and served on the Wilmington Committee of Safety, was colonel of 
a Minute Man company, and was captain of an independent company which disbanded in 
November, 1776. His plantation he called Castle Finn. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington 
Town Book, 103n-104n. 

37 Dr. Samuel Green (1707-1771) was a town commissioner and an alderman when that 
form of government was used for Wilmington. He was a successful practitioner of 
"Physick and surgery" for thirty years; and he accumulated much valuable property, 
including town lots and the Greenfield Plantation which is now Greenfield Gardens 
(owned by the city). Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 3, n.7. 

38 0bediah (Obadiah) Holt was brother-in-law of Cornelius Harnett and in 1766 was 
serving as sheriff of New Hanover County. He died before 1775— or, as Tryon says in a 
letter of March 14, 1768, to Lord Shelburne, "secretly left the province." 

39 No man by the name of Hervey Young could be identified, although a Henry Young 
was still living in Wilmingtin in 1774 and a Henry Young was a major in the militia. 
Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 222 

40 Anthony Ward (d. 1779) was a Wilmington merchant and a town commissioner. He 
later was a lieutenant colonel in the New Hanover County militia. Lennon and Kellam, 
Wilmington Town Book, 64,n.80. 


William Tryon mh-tlb, 41-42 

to Benjamin Barons 1 ' CR-vi^ieeTef 

Benjamin Barons Esq Brunswick 17t n February 1766 

I have received your Letter of the 4 tn Inst together with that of the 
8t n The Dispute you mention between Mr. Burgwin and Mr. Hamilton I 
am an entire Stranger to and therefore think it need not have been made 
a Subject to trouble me with. In the nice Situation of Public Affairs on 
this Continent I esteem it highly necessary that His Majesty's Intruc- 
tions to His Governors, should be conveyed to them with all possible 
Dispatch, and Security; as also, that the Governors Correspondence to 
His Majesty's Several Boards should have the same Advantages: These 
Advantages I am wholly deprived of in this Province, I am therefore to 
seek them in another. This Sir, is the Reason I subscribed for a 
Messenger to go once a Fortnight from Wilmington to Charlestown to 
carry my Dispatches and receive those I might be honoured with by His 
Majesty's Commands, till the General Post Office might be set on Foot. 
If you will send off an Express from Charles Town to Wilmington once a 
Fortnight, or Three Weeks, [torn] Certainly Subscribe to it, in Preference 
to the Subscription opened at Wilmington, should your Office Fund not 
be sufficient to support that Expence. I enclose you an Extract of my 
speech to the Assembly recommending their Assistance for the 
Establishment of a General Post, together with the Attorney General's 
Motion and the Resolve of the House in Consequence thereof. Three of 
the Commissioners appointed to Treat with the Post Master General or 
His Deputy, live in Edenton, the other Two live within forty miles of the 
said Town. These Gentlemen I presume are the proper Persons for you 
to concert the necessary measures for Establishing the General Post 
thro' this Province. 

As soon as I meet the General Assembly I shall lay before them, and 
Recommend the Estimate you sent me in your Letter of the 4" 1 Inst of 
the money requisite per annum to enable you to carry the Post thro' this 
Colony: The Assembly stands appointed to meet the 22° of next April. 

The Distance you desire to be informed of from Suffolk to the 
Northern Boundary of this Province, I am told is Twenty four or 
Twenty five miles, I mean in the Route from Cotton's Ferry to Suffolk. 

The Request you make me to recommend to you proper Persons for 
your Officers in the Route the Post is to take, is a Task I must decline at 
Present, as my long Confinement has prevented my Acquaintance with 
Persons possessed of the Qualifications you require. 

My Letter to you of the 3^ of January last, with this, contains I hope 
answers to every Particular you required of me in your Letters of the 
1 l tn of January last, and of the 4 tn and 8 tn Inst: Any further Information, 


or Assistance you stand in need of for His Majesty's Service, as far as I 
am able, I shall be willing to Procure you being ever ready to Cooperate 
with any Crown Officer for the Interest of His Majesty and the Public; 
however deficient such officer may be in point of Good Manners and 
Decency towards me. I must here too observe that the Route I sent you 
in my Letter of the 3^ of January ; The Expectation I expressed of seeing 
you in this Province. The Information Mr. Surveyor General Randolph 2 
promised me to give you of the State of this Province, to whom I 
referred you with the consideration of the bad State of my Health at that 
Time, I thought would have been sufficient satisfaction for not then 
answering by Letter every Particular you desired: These Reflections 
induce me to be of Opinion your Letter of the 4^ n Inst, was dictated with 
more Warmth than Judgment; and I doubt not, Sir, from the Character I 
have received of you from my Worthy Friend lately at the Head of your 
Office, when you take a Candid Review of your own Letter you will join 
issue with me in Sentiments 

I am, Sir &c 

Karons returned "home" (to England) before July 4, 1766, leaving Peter Timothy in 
charge of the General Post Office of the Southern Department. Saunders, Colonial 
Records, VII, 439. 

2 Peter Randolph was surveyor general of customs. Saunders, Colonial Records, 
IV, 1309. 

Statement against pro co 5/310, 

the Stamp Act CR P #u82 69b ' 70 

February 18, 1766 

To His Excellency Governor Tryon 

An Ascociation [sic] signed by the Principal Gentlemen, Freeholders 
and Inhabitants of Several Counties in this Province. 

"North Carolina 

"We the Subscribers, Free and Natural -born Subjects of George the 
Third, true and Lawfull King of Great Britain and All its Dependencies, 
(whom God preserve) whose Sacred Person, Crown and Dignity, We 
are ready and willing, at the Expence of Our Lives and Fortunes to 
defend, being fully convinced of the Oppressive and Arbitrary Tendency 
of a late Act of Parliament, imposing Stamp Duties on the Inhabitants of 
this Province, and fundamentally Subversive of the Liberties and 
Charters of North America; truly Sensible of the inestimable Blessings 


of a free Constitution, gloriously handed down to Us by Our Brave Fore- 
Fathers, detesting Rebellion yet prefering Death to Slavery, Do with all 
Loyalty to Our Most Gracious Sovereign, with all deference to the Just 
Laws of Our Country, and with a Proper and Necessary Regard to 
Ourselves and Posterity, hereby mutually and Solemnly plight Our 
Faith and Honour that we will at any Risque whatever, and whenever 
called upon, Unite, and truly and Faithfully Assist each other, to the 
best of our Power, in preventing entirely the Operation of the Stamp Act 
Witness Our Hands this 18 tn day of February 1766 

John Ashe, Thomas Lloyd, pro co 5/310, Part 1, f. 66b 

and Alexander Lillington^ mm™** 20 * 2 

to William Tryon a&h-tlb. 46 

J CR-VII, 178 

[February 19, 1766] 2 


The Inhabitants dissatisfyed with the particular Restrictions laid on 
the Trade of this [Cape Fear] River only, have determined to March to 
Brunswick in hopes of Obtaining in a peaceable manner a redress of 
their grievances, from the Commanding Officer of His Majesty's Ships, 
and have Compelled us to conduct them; We therefore think it our Duty 
to acquaint Your Excellency, that we are fully determined to protect 
from Insult, Your Person and Property; and that if it will be agreeable to 
Your Excellency, a Guard of Gentlemen shall be immediately detached 
for that purpose. 

We have the Honour to be with greatest Respect 

Your Excellency's Most Obedt. Humble. Servants 

John Ashe 
Thos. Lloyd 
Alex. Lillington 

'Alexander Lillington (d. 1785), a native of the Lower Cape Fear, appears first as a 
participant in colonial affairs at this time, but in 1771 as a colonel of militia he 
accompanied Tryon on the campaign to quell the Regulators. With the same rank he 
participated in the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge and with commission as a brigadier 
general he continued to lead troops throughout the Revolution. Ashe, Biographical 
History, III, 261-269. 

2 This letter was published in the North- Carolina Gazette of February 26 and in the 
Virginia Gazette of March 21. A good summary of the February events may be found in 
this copy of the North- Carolina Gazette (PRO CO 5/310, Part 1, ff. 82-83). 


William Tryon to the Commander pro co 5/310, 

of the Viper or the Diligence mhtlb^s-sg 68 

A&H-TLB, 46-47 
CR VII, 179 

Copy Brunswick 19th February 1766 

Eleven at Night 


Between the Hours of Six and seven o'Clock this evening, Mr. George 
Moore 1 and Mr. Corn. Harnett waited on me at my House, and delivered 
to me a Letter Signed by three Gentlemen. The Inclosed is the Copy 
from the Original. 2 I told Mr. Moore & Mr. Harnett, that as I had no 
fears or apprehensions for my Person or Property, I wanted no Guard, 
therefore desired the Gentlemen might not come to give their Protection 
where it was not Necessary, or required; And that I would send the 
Gentlemen an answer in writing to morrow morning. Mr. Moore & Mr. 
Harnett might stay about five or six minutes in my house. Instantly after 
their leaving me, I found my House Surrounded with Arm'd Men, to the 
Number I estimate, of One Hundred and fifty; I had some Altercation 
with some of the Gentlemen who informed me, their Business was to 
see Capt. Lobb, whom they were informed was at my House; Capt. 
Paine 3 then desired me to give my word & Honour whether Capt. Lobb 
was in my House or not. I Positively refused to make any such 
Declaration, but as they had force in their Hands I said they might break 
open my Locks & force my Doors. This they declared they had no 
Intention of doing. Just after this, and other discourse, they got Intelli- 
gence that Capt. Lobb was not in my House, the Majority of the Men in 
Arms then went towards the Town of Brunswick, and left a Number of 
Men to watch the Avenues of my House, therefore think it doubtful if I 
can get this Letter Safely Conveyed. 

I esteem it my Duty to inform you Sir, that as Fort Johnston has but 
one Officer & five Men in Garrison, it will stand in Need of all the 
Assistance the Viper & Diligence Sloops can give the Commanding 
Officer there, should any Insult be offered to His Majesty's Fort or 
Stores, in which case it is my Duty to request of you to Repel force with 
force and to take on board His Majs. Sloops so much of His Majesty's 
Ordnance Stores & Ammunition out of the said Fort, as you shall think 
Necessary for the benefit of the service, I am 


Your Most Obedient & Humble. Servant 
Wm. Tryon 


The Commanding Officer either of the Viper or Diligence Sloops of War 


George Moore, member of the prominent Brunswick family, built his home Kendall 
(Kendal) on the bank of the Cape Fear between Orton and Lilliput. Moore was a man of 
considerable wealth and influence who served many terms in the assembly, was a 
member of the committee of correspondence, and was active in matters of public concern. 
As this letter indicates he was a staunch patriot but at the same time was concerned for 
the safety of the royal governor. There are innumerable references to Moore and his 
activities in the colony in Saunders, Colonial Records, IV-X passim. 

2 See John Ashe, Thomas Lloyd, and Alexander Lillington to William Tryon, the letter 
immediately preceding this document. 

3 Capt. John Paine (Payne) served during the French and Indian War with Major Hugh 
Waddell at Fort Duquesne in the campaign of 1758. There are a number of references to 
Paine's activities in connection with his military position. (Saunders, Colonial Records, V, 
VI, VII.) Paine also was active in civil affairs. He served in the assembly, was a 
commissioner of pilotage on the Cape Fear, and was a justice of the peace. 

Constantme J. Phipps pro C05/310, Part 1, f. 67b 

i. 1*7*11 • t MH-TLB.57 

to William Tryon a&h-tlb, 47-48 

CR-VII, 180 

Copy [February 19(?), 1766] 


I have received your Excellency's Favor and am much Concerned at 
the uneasiness this Accident will have given You [& fear M*" s Tryons 
health will be injured by this alarm]. 1 1 have been disappointed in Two 
Attempts to see your Excellency tonight, one very early to'ther late, I 
had immediately upon hearing Five [two] 2 Hundred Men were gone 
down, sent Lieut? Calder with Five Men and Spikes for the Guns if Cap? 
Dalrymple thought them necessary and to give him any other Assistance 
that was necessary I believe they were down in Time. I hope if this gets 
safe your Excellency will let me know it by shewing a light in each of 
the Middle Windows above Stairs. If I see that Signal I will inform your 
Excellency of the success of My Boat by ha[w]ling down the Pendant at 
sunrise, or soon after. Captt Lobb received a Deputation to desire he 
would come on shore which he refused. 

I am 

Your Excellency's Most Obedient 
& Most humble Servant 
C.J. Phipps 

To His Excellency 

Governor Tryon &c &c &c 

'The words in brackets appear in the printed version of this letter in Saunders, Colonial 
Records, but not in the version in Tryon 's letter book. 

2 Two hundred is number cited in A&H-TLB, 48. 


William Tryon pro adm 1/2052 

to Capt. John Dalrymple a&htlb^s 

CR-VII, 180 
Brunswick 19th February 1766 


You will obey all orders you may receive either from the Commanding 
Officer of the Viper or Diligence Sloops of War. I am 


Your very Humble. Serv. 
Wm. Tryon 

To Capt. Dalrymple Fort Johnston. 

Jacob Lobb mh-tlb, 59 

to John Dalrymple c^viuii 49 

[February 20, 1766] 

I think it's necessary at this Time you will render the Guns at Fort 
Johnston Unserviceable, as there is a Number of Men which intend 
insulting his Majesty's Ships in this River. I am 

Your Humble Servant 
Jacob Lobb 

Jacob Lobb . pro co 5/310, 

to William Dry mhtlb. a lb 

A&H-TLB, 49 
CR-VII, 183 

Copy Viper Sloop, Cape Fear 20 Feb/ 1766.— 


As there are Perishable Commodities on board the Sloop Patience, 
detained by Me, You may if You think it Consistent with Your Duty 


deliver up the same with the Vessel and Cargoe upon taking Sufficient 
Security for them 

I am Sir 

Your Very humble Servant 
Jacob Lobb 

To William Dry Esq 
Collector at Brunswick 

Jacob Lobb pro co 5/310, 

to William Dry ^£ 

CR-VII, 183 

Copy Viper Sloop, Cape Fear 20 February 1766 


Not thinking it proper to detain the Sloop Ruby any longer, desire you 
will deliver her to the proper Master MF Homer for which this shall be a 
Sufficient Warrant 

I am Sir 

Your most Humble Servant 
Jacob Lobb 

To William Dry Esq 
Collector for Brunswick 

Statement pro co 5/310, 

of William Ward clwi«s lh 

Copy Brunswick 21?* Feb^ 1766. 

I acknowledge to have received from William Dry Esq r Collector of 
the Port of Brunswick the Sloop Patience and her Cargoe detained by 
him for want of Stampt Clearances, and I hereby Promise to release to 
the said William Dry and to Jacob Lobb Esq rs who seized the said Sloop 
and her Cargoe; Except such as may have happened by the embezzle- 


ment or Loss of the Cargoe, or Materials of the said Sloop or any part 

W m Ward, 

W m Waddell. 

William Tryon pro co 5/310, 

to Jacob Lobb mhtlb!6 7 i 4 62 

A &H -TLB, 52 
CR-VII, 184 

Copy Brunswick the 22" February 1766. 


In answer to your Letter, I can only observe that as you have thought 
it expedient to redress the Grievances which were the pretended 
Causes of the Town of Wilmington's withholding the Necessary Provi- 
sions for His Majesty's Sloops, I should imagine the Contractor's Agent 1 
would meet with no 2 Obstruction at present in obtaining the Necessary 
supply. If the Provisions are not brought to the Viper tomorrow I desire 
you will inform me by a Line. I am &c 

W m Tryon 

To Cap? Lobb 

! On the day before this note, February 21, William Dry had issued this certificate: 
"These are to Certify that there was a Demand made to me by Captain Jacob 
Lobb of His Majesty's Sloop Viper for a Supply of Provisions for the said Sloop 
on the Fifth Instant, and that there was a Boat and Hands sent by me to Wilming- 
ton for the same, that the Men belonging to the Boat were taken up and put into 
Gaol that the Inhabitants and People of the Province would not suffer any Pro- 
visions to be Shipt on board the Boat for the Use of His Majesty's Sloop." 
(A&H, Tryon Letter Book, 51-52; CO 5/310, f. 73b; Saunders, Colonial Records, VII, 184) 

2 The word "no" does not appear in the version of this letter printed in the Colonial 
Records but it is in the copy in Tryon 's letter book. 


Jacob Lobb pro co 5/310, 

to William Tryon mS^lbIm 


Copy Viper Sloop, Cape Fear 22 February 1766.— 


I beg leave to Acquaint your Excellency that by my Order on the 5H 1 
Instant there was a Demand for Provisions given to the Contractor's 
Agent M!" William Dry, for the Use of the Complement of Men on board 
His Majesty's Sloop under my Command, which demand is not complied 
with, and I find by a Certificate from MT Dry the Provisions were denied 
being brought to His Majesty's Sloop by the Inhabitants of Wilmington. 
I must beg leave to Acquaint Your Excellency that there is no more 
Bread on board than to serve the Sloops Company tomorrow, and to 
request your Excellency's Advice. Inclosed your Excellency will 
Receive a Copy of M!" Dry's Certificate 

I am with Respect 
Your Excellencys 
Obedient Humble Servant 
Jacob Lobb 

Viper Sloop, Cape Fear 
Feby 22^ 1766 

To His Excellency Governor Tryon 

William Tryon pro co 5/310, 

to JaCOb Lobb MHTLB, f 58 8 59 68b 

A&H-TLB, 49-50 
CR-VII, 180-181 

Brunswick 23^ February 1766 

Sir [Jacob Lobb] 

I was yesterday with Capt. Phipps at Fort Johnston where I found 
Twenty Three Swivel Guns, Eight Eighteen Pounders and Eight Nine 
Pounders spiked. I demanded of Cap? Dalrymple the Commanding 
Officer his authority for spiking the Cannon: He produced your Order 
and said Lieut. Calder of the Diligence in Consequence of it spiked the 


above Cannon. As I understand your Midshipman was yesterday 
disappointed in getting Copies of my Instructions to Cap? Dalrymple, 
and your Order to Him; I insert them both, Vid? 


You will obey all Orders you may Receive either from the Commanding Officer 
of the Viper or Diligence Sloops of War. I am &c 

W m Tryon 

19 February 1766 
To Cap! Dalrymple 

20 th Feb y 6Oct. 

I think it necessary at this time you will render the Guns at Fort Johnston 
Unserviceable, as there is a number of Men which intend to insult His Majesty's 
Ships now in this River 

I am &c 

Jacob Lobb. 

I must observe that the Reason You give in this Order is totally 
Contrary to every Sentiment I entertained, as I hope My Letter will 
Justify of the 19th delivered to You by Lieut. Calder directed to "the 
Commanding Officer either of the Viper or Diligence Sloops of War," as 
well as my Conversation on board the Diligence on the 20th, where you 
desired I would meet you. I never had a Suspicion that it was in the 
Power of the Persons Assembled in Arms to insult his Majesty's Ships 
in this River. The Object of My Consideration was the Protection of the 
Fort; I therefore wish to receive from You the Reasons why You thought 
the spiking of the Guns a necessary Step to prevent His Majesty's Ships 
from being insulted or what other Motives You had for Your Ordering 
the Guns to be spiked: This request I make that I may be furnished with 
the Proper Causes for such a Proceeding in Order to transmit them to 
His Majestys Principal Secretary of State with My other Dispatches 

I am 

Sir Your Most Obedient Humble Servant 
Wm. Tryon 

To Capt. Lobb 

Commander of the Viper Sloop of War 


Jacob Lobb pro co 5/310, 

to William Tryon M ^ 6 7 2 4 

A&H-TLB, 52 

Copy Viper Sloop, Brunswick 24 FebY 1766. 


I received Your Excellency's Letter of the 22r Ins. signifying to me 
Your Excellency's desire of being acquainted if the Provisions did not 
Arrive the 23? and in Return beg leave to Acquaint Your Excellency 
they are not yet Arrived. 

I am with Respect 
Your Excellency's 

Most Obedient Humble Servant 
Jacob Lobb 

To His Excellency 
Governor Tryon 

William Tryon pro co 5/310, Part 1, f. 74 

to Jacob Lobb 

February 24, 1766 


As You acquaint me by Your Letter of this Morning that the Provisions 
intended for His Majesty's Ships are not yet arrived, if You will direct 
the Contractor Agent to wait on me I will give him an Order to the 
Mayor of Wilmington for his Assistance in furnishing them as soon as 

I am Sir 

Your most Obedient Serv^ 
William Tryon 

Brunswick 24 Feb y 1766: 
To Capt n Jacob Lobb 


William Try on pro co 5/310, 

to Moses John DeRosset 1 mhtlVb™ 

A&H-TLB, 52-53 
CR-VII, 185 

Copy Brunswick the 24 February 1766.— 

Mr Mayor, 

Cap? Lobb having lodged a Complaint with me dated the 22y inst. 
that the Contractor's Boat with Provisions for the Use of His Majestys 
Ships was detained at Wilmington and the Boat men put into Gaol by 
the Inhabitants of that Town I desire to know the proper Causes for such 
Conduct that I may transmit them to His Majesty. The Viper Sloop is at 
present without Bread. I do therefore require your Assistance that the 
Contractor may be furnished with the necessary Provision as soon as 
Possible, I am Sir &c 

W m Tryon 

Moses John De Rosset Esq 

! See "Concerned Citizens to William Dry," February 15, 1766, n.21, for a biographical 
sketch of Moses John DeRosset. 

Jacob Lobb pro co 5/310, 

to William Tryon mhtlb^o 85 " 69 

A&H-TLB, 50-51 

Viper Sloop, Brunswick, the 24 Feb^ 1766 


I received Your Excellency's Letter of the 23" Inst, desiring Me to 
give Your Excellency My Reasons for Ordering the Guns at Fort 
Johnston to be Spiked. Pursuant to Your Excellency's Letter of the 19 tn 
Ins. Signifying to Me that as Fort Johnston had but one Officer & Five 
Men in Garrison and of its Standing in need of all the Assistance the 
Viper and Diligence could give the Commanding Officer there, should 
any Insult be offered to His Majesty's Fort, or Stores, and likewise Your 
Excellency's Request to repel Force with Force, I, on an Information the 
same Evening from Lieut. Calder Corroborated by that of several other 
Gentlemen, that Party of Men consisting of Three or Four Hundred 
under the Command of Col9 Waddle, 1 were on their March to Fort 


Johnston, in order to take Possession of it, as there was no Possibility of 
getting the Ships down, being Night and no Pilots to be had, early 
enough to prevent their making their Quarters good sent Lieutt Calder 
in a Boat with Your Excellency's Order addrest to Cap. Dalrymple 
commanding that He should comply with any Orders he should Receive 
from Myself or Cap. Phipps, with one from Me to render the Cannon 
unserviseable by Spiking them Up; to the End of facilitating our 
Repossession, as soon as the Ships could Arrive before it. 

I am with Respect 
Your Excellency's 

Most Obedient Humble Servant 
Jacob Lobb 

To His Excellency 
Governor Tryon 

'Col. Hugh Waddell. 

William Tryon pro co 5/310, 

to Henry Seymour Conway mhtlb^ 43-51 2 

A&H-TLB, 37-43 
CR-VII, 169-186 

Brunswick the 25 tn February 1766 

The Right Honorable Henry Seymour Conway 
One of His Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State 


As I wish to give You as particular a Relation for His Majesty's 
Information, as I possibly can, of an Illegal Assembly of Men in Arms, 
assembled at Brunswick on the 19 tn Instant, I have collected all the 
Letter Correspondence 1 that has come to my Knowledge, previous to 
the 19 tn Instant, during the Time the Men remained in Arms, as well as 
after they Dispersed. 

In this Letter I shall chiefly confine Myself to the Narration of the 
Actions, and Conduct of the Body Assembled, desiring Leave to refer 
You to the Letters as they Occur in point of Order, and Time. 

The Seizures Captain Lobb made of the Dobbs and Patience Sloops, 
(as by his Letter to the Collector for taking the Papers and Attorney 
General's Opinion taken thereon) was an Affair I did not Interfere with: 
In the first Instance I never was applied to, and in the Second, I thought 
it rested with Cap. Lobb. 


On the 16" 1 in the Evening M\ Dry the Collector waited on Me with a 
Letter he received dated from Wilmington the 15" 1 of February 1766 
and at the same time informed Me he had sent the Subscribers Word he 
should wait on Them the next Day. 

I strongly recommended to him to put the Papers belonging to the 
Patience Sloop on board the Viper (those of the Dobbs had some time 
before been given up to the Owner on his delivering Security for them) 
as I apprehended, I said, those very Subscribers would compel him to 
give them up; His Answer was they might take them from him, but he 
would never give them up without Capt Lobb's Order. The Weather on 
the 17 tn prevented Mr Dry from going to Wilmington till the next Day. 

The next Intelligence I received was in the Dusk of the Evening of the 
19 th soon after six o'Clock, by a Letter delivered Me by M!" George 
Moore and Mr Cornelius Harnett bearing date the 19 tn and Signed John 
Ashe, Thomas Lloyd, Alexander Lillington. My Letter of the Same 
Night directed to the Commanding Officer either of the Viper or 
Diligence Sloops of War will explain the Opinion I entertained of the 
Offer made of a Guard of Gentlemen; and my Declaration to the 
Detachment I found surrounding my House. This Letter My Servant 
about three in the Morning put on board the Diligence who lay moored 
opposite to My House at the Distance of Four or Five Hundred Yards, 
and returned to Me again in a Short Space of Time with Cap. Phipp's 
Letter in Answer. 

Soon after I had put up the Lights required, Cap. Phipps came himself 
on Shore to me; the Guards having quitted the Posts they had taken 
round the House, and on the Beach: With a Generous Warmth, and 
Zeal, Cap. Phipps offered Me every Service his Ship, or himself could 
afford; I assured him the Services I wished to receive from His Majesty's 
Sloops consisted wholly in the Protection of the Fort; That as Capt 
Dalrymple had but Five Men in Garrison to defend Eight Eighteen 
Pounders, Eight Nine Pounders and Twenty Three Swivel Guns all 
mounted and fit for Service together with a Considerable Quantity of 

I wrote an Order to Capt Dalrymple to obey all Orders he might 
Receive from the Commanding Officer either of the Viper, or Diligence 
Sloops of War, and desired Cap. Phipps to send it to the Fort. I made 
this order so general because Cap. Phipps told Me neither of the Sloops 
had a Pilot then on Board, and that it was Uncertain which Ship could 
first get down to the Fort, distant Four Leagues from where the Ships 
then lay off Brunswick. Capt Phipps after a Stay on Shore of about ten 
minutes returned on board the Diligence. 

On the 20 tn about twelve o'clock at Noon Capt Lobb sent to desire I 
would meet him on board The Diligence, which Request I immediately 
Complied with, and at the same time the Collector MT Dry came on 
board: there were then present, the Captains Lobb, and Phipps, MT 


McGwire, vice Judge of the Admiralty, the Collector, & myself. Cap? 
Lobb told Me he had had a Committee from the inhabitants in Arms on 
board his Ship, that they demanded the Possession of the Sloops he had 
Seized, and that He was to give them his Answer in the Afternoon. MT 
Dry informed Me his Desk was broke open on the 19 tn in the Evening 
and the Unstampt Papers belonging to the Patience and Ruby Sloops 
forcibly taken from him. He said he knew most of the Persons that came 
into his House at that Time but he did not see who broke open the Desk 
and took out the Papers. 

Cap: Lobb seemed not satisfied with the Legality of His Seizure of the 
Ruby Sloop (Seized subsequent to the Papers that were Sent to the 
Attorney General for his Opinion, on the Dobbs and Patience) and 
declared he would return her to the Master or Owner; but that he would 
insist on the Papers belonging to the Patience being returned, which 
were taken from the Collectors Desk, and that he would not give up the 
Sloop Patience. I approved of these Resolutions, and desired that he 
would not in the Conduct of this Affair consider My Family, Myself, or 
My Property, that I was greatly sollicitous for the Honour of Govern- 
ment, and His Majesty's Interest in the present exigency, and parti- 
cularly recommended to him the Protection of Fort Johnston. I then 
returned on Shore; and in the Evening Cap. Phipps waited on Me from 
on Board the Viper, and acquainted me that all was settled; that Cap? 
Lobb had given his Consent for the Owners to take Possession of the 
Sloops Ruby, and Patience, as the Copy of Cap. Lobbs Orders for that 
Purpose will declare. This Report was not Consistent with the Deter- 
minations I concluded Cap. Lobb left the Diligence in, when I met him 
According to his Appointment but a few Hours before. 

To be regular in point of Time I must now speak of some further 
Conduct of the Inhabitants in Arms, who were continually Coming into 
Brunswick from difference Counties. This same Evening [of the 20^ n 
Inst?] 2 MT Pennington, His Majesty's Comptroller came to let me know 
there had been a Search after him, and as he guessed they wanted him 
to do some Act that would be inconsistent with the Duty of his Office, he 
came to acquaint Me of this Enquiry, and Search. I told him I had a Bed 
at his Service, and desired he would Remain with Me. The next 
Morning the 21 st about Eight Clock I saw M!" Pennington going from 
My House with Col9 James Moore. I called him back, and as Col9 Moore 
returned with him, I desired to know if he had any Business with Mf 
Pennington. He said the Gentlemen Assembled wanted to Speak with 
him; I desired Col9 Moore would inform the Gentlemen, M*" Pennington, 
His Majesty's Comptroller, I had Occasion to employ on Dispatches for 
His Majesty's Service, therefore could not part with him. Col9 Moore 
then went away and in five Minutes after I found the Avenues to my 
House again Shut up by different Parties of Armed Men: Soon after the 
following Note was Sent and the Answer Annexed returned 


u Sir 

"The Gentlemen Assembled for the Redress of Grievances 
desirous of Seeing Mf Pennington to Speak with him sent 
Col9 Moore to desire his Attendance, and Understand that 
he was Stayed by Your Excellency, they therefore request 
that Your Excellency will be pleased to let him attend, 
otherwise it will not be in the Power of the Directors 
appointed to prevent the 111 Consequences that may attend 
a Refusal. They don't intend the least Injury to Mr 

Friday the 21 st February 1766 

To His Excellency 

The Answer 

"M!" Pennington being employed by His Excellency on 
Dispatches for His Majesty's Service, Any Gentleman that 
has Business with him, may see him at the Governor's 

21 st February 1766 

It was about 10 oClock when I observed a Body of Men in Arms from 
Four to Five Hundred move towards the House. A detachment of Sixty 
Men came down the Avenue, and the Main Body drew up in Front, in 
Sight and within Three Hundred yards of the House. MF Harnett a 
Representative in the Assembly for Wilmington, came at the Head of 
the Detachment and sent a Message to Speak with MT Pennington: 
when he came into my House, he told M*" Pennington the Gentlemen 
wanted him. I answered, MT Pennington came into My House for 
Refuge, he was a Crown Officer, and as such I would give him all the 
Protection, My Roof, and the Dignity of the Character I held in this 
Province, could Afford him. MF Harnett hoped I would let him go. As 
the People were determined to take him out of the House if he should be 
longer detained; An Insult he said they wished to avoid offering to Me: 
an Insult I replyed that would not tend to any great Consequence, after 
they had already offered every Insult they could Offer, by investing 
my House and making me in effect a Prisoner and before any Grievance 
or Oppression had been first represented to Me. M*" Pennington grew 
very Uneasy, said he would choose to go to the Gentlemen; I again 
repeated My Offers of Protection, if he chose to Stay. He declared, and 
desired I would Remember, that whatever Oaths might be imposed on 
Him, he should consider them as Acts of Compulsion and not of free 
Will; and further added, that he would rather resign his Office, than do 
any Act contrary to his Duty. If that was his Determination, I told him, 


he had better Resign before he left me: M*" Harnett interposed, with 
saying, he hoped he would not do that: I enforced the Recommendation 
for Resignation. He Consented, Paper was brought, and his Resignation 
executed, and received. I then said, MI" Pennington, now Sir, you may 
go: Mr Harnett went out with Him; the Detachment retired to the Town. 
Mr Pennington afterwards informed me, they got him in the Midst of 
them when MT Ward Master of the Patience asked him to enter his 
Sloop. Mr Pennington assured him he could not, as he had resigned his 
Office. He was Afterwards obliged to take an Oath that he would never 
issue any Stamped Paper till the stamp Act should be received generally 
in this Province. The above Oath the Collector informed Me he was 
obliged to take, as were all the Clerks of the County Courts, and other 
Public Officers. 

The Inhabitants having redressed after the Manner described their 
Grievances complained of, left the Town of Brunswick about one oClock 
on the 21?t In the Evening I went on Board the Viper & acquainted Capt 
Lobb I apprehended the Conditions he had determined to abide by 
when I left the Diligence in the full Persuasion he was to demand a 
Restitution of the Papers, or Clearances of the Patience Sloop, and not to 
give up the Possession of that Vessel: That I found he had given up the 
Sloop Patience, and Himself not in Possession of the Papers. He 
answered As to the Papers, he had attested Copies of them, and as to 
the Sloop, he had done no more than what he had Offered before this 
Disturbance happened at Brunswick. I could not help owning I thought 
the detaining the Patience became a Point that concerned the Honor of 
Government; That I found My Situation very unpleasant, as most of the 
People by going up to Wilmington in the Sloops, would remain Satisfied, 
and report thro' the Province, they had obtained every Point they came 
to Redress, while at the same time I had the Mortification to be informed 
His Majesty's Ordnance at Fort Johnston was Spiked: This is the 
Substance of what passed on board The Viper, on the 229 Capt Phipps 
accompanied me to Fort Johnston, where I found Capt Dairy mple sick in 
Bed, two Men only in Garrison, and all the Canon that were Mounted, 
spiked with Nails. I gave Orders for the Nails to be immediately drilled 
out which will be executed without Prejudice to the Pieces. I returned to 
Brunswick in the Evening and the next morning sent my Letter bearing 
date the 23? to Capt Lobb, to desire his Reasons for Spiking the Cannon 
&c He returned me his Motives for the Conduct by Letter the 24t n Inst 

Capt Lobb's Complaint relative to the Provisions for His Majesty's 
Sloops being stopt at Wilmington with the Contractor's Certificate of the 
Manner of this Restraint and my Letter to the Mayor of Wilmington to 
require his assistance in furnishing the Provision demanded, will be 
fully I hope Understood by that Correspondence. 

By the best Accounts I have received the Number of this Insurrection 
amounted to Five Hundred and Eighty Men in Arms and upwards of 


One Hundred Unarmed. The Mayor and Corporation of Wilmington, 
and most of all of the Gentlemen and Planters of the Counties of 
Brunswick, Newhanover, Duplin, and Bladen with some Masters of 
Vessels composed this Corps. I am informed & Believe the Majority of 
this Association were either Compelled into this Service, or were 
ignorant what their Grievances were. I except the Principals. 

I have enclosed a Copy of the Association formed to oppose the Stamp 

Thus, Sir, I have endeavoured to lay before You the first Springs of 
this Disturbance as well as the Particular Conduct of the Parties 
concerned in it: And I have done this as much as I possibly could without 
Prejudice, or Passion, Favor or Affection. 

I should be extremly glad if You, Sir, could Honor me with His 
Majesty's Commands in the present Exigency of Affairs in this Colony 
and in the Mean Time will Study to Conduct Myself with the Assistance 
of His Majesty's Council in such Manner as will best Secure the Safety 
and Honor of Government, and the Peace of the Inhabitants of this 

I am, Sir, with all Possible Respect and esteem, 
Your most obedient and most humble Servant 

W m Tryon 

'The documents in question have been presented earlier in this volume in date 

2 This phrase is not in the PRO copy. 

Proclamation pro co 5/350, ff. 68-69 

of the Governor 1%™%™' Part *' *' 79?9b 

MH-CJ, 355 1 

February 26, 1766 

North Carolina 

By His Excellency William Tryon Esquire, 
Captain General, Governor and Commander in 
Chief in and over the Said Province 

A Proclamation 

Whereas a few Days since a great Number of Armed Persons did 
Tumultuously Assemble Themselves together both at Wilmington and 


Brunswick to the Disturbance of the peace and Good Government of 
this Province and in Violation of the Laws of their Country, by which 
they have subjected themselves to the several Penalties incurred by the 
Several Laws to prevent Riotous and Seditious Meetings, 

I have therefore thought fit by and with the Advice and Consent of 
His Majesty's Council, to issue this Proclamation, strictly charging and 
Commanding all Officers both Civil and Military to exert their Authority 
in Suppressing all such Illegal Proceedings, as they shall Answer the 
Contrary at their Peril 

Given under My Hand and the Great Seal of the 
Province at Brunswick the 26^ n Day of February in 
the Year of Our Lord 1766 and in the 6 tn year of 
His Majesty's reign 

(Signed) W m Tryon 

By His Excellency's 

Benjamin Heron, Sec7 

1 After the proclamation is a notation in the council minutes that Tryon called attention 
to a letter written by Andrew Steuart and printed in the North-Carolina Gazette of January 
30. Tryon proposed suspending Steuart for having written a letter containing such 
"inflamatory expressions." 

Proclamation pro co 5/350, f. 69 

of the Governor a&h^go 322 


Feb. 27, 1766 

North Carolina 

By His Excellency Willi 71 Tryon Esqr 
Captain General Governor & Commander 
in Chief in and over the said Province. 

A Proclamation 

Whereas the Assembly of this Province stands Prorogued to the 229 
day of April next, I have thought proper By and With the Advice of His 
Majestys Council further to prorogue the said Assembly Untill the 30? n 
day of October 1766. 


Given Under my hand and the great 
Seal of the Province at Brunswick the 
[blank] day of Anno Domini 1766 

Will m Tryon 

By His Excellencys 

Benjamin Heron Scry 

Moses John DeRosset pro co 5/310, 

to William Tryon mh^b" e™ 

A&H-TLB, 53-54 

Wilmington 28 February 1766 
[Received March 3, 1766] 


Your Excellency's Letter dated the 24™ Ins. came to my Hands 
Yesterday Noon, and after consulting the Aldermen upon the Contents 
of it I find Capt Lobb has been Misinformed in regard to the Contractors 
Boat with Provisions for His Majesty's Ships being Stopt, I shall 
therefore take the Liberty to Relate to Your Excellency, the Facts as 
they really happened. 

Upon the Gentlemen of the Town and Country round having Infor- 
mation that Cap. Lobb had seized several Vessels coming into this 
River for Want of Stamped Papers notwithstanding their producing 
Certificates from the several Officers of the Customs that no Stamped 
Papers were to be had at the Port from whence they came, An 
Agreement was entered into not to Supply His Majesty's Ships with any 
more Provisions unless the Particular Restrictions on this Port were 
taken off, and in Consequence of that Agreement no Person would 
Supply the Contractor with any, so that Your Excellency will find no 
Provisions were on board the Boat. As to the Boatmen being put in Gaol 
it was done by the People who had collected Themselves together to 
procure a Redress of their Grievances, and to prevent their going down, 
and not only they but every other Person going to Brunswick was 

Since the Accommodation of Matters with the Commanding Officers 
of the Kings Ships, Your Excellency has no doubt been informed that a 
Supply of Provisions has been sent them, and Your Excellency may be 
Assured of the best Endeavours of this Corporation to forward His 
Majesty's Service. At the same Time they can't help expressing their 


Concern that Your Excellency should on every Occasion, lay the whole 
Blame of every Transaction relative to the Opposition made to the 
Stamp -Act on this Borough when it is so well known the whole Country 
has been equally concerned in it. 

I am further Instructed by the Corporation to Assure Your Excellency 
that His Majesty has not a sett of more Loyal Subjects in any part of His 
Dominions than the Inhabitants of this Borough I am with the Greatest 


Your Excellency's 

Most Obedient and 
Most Humble Servant 

Moses Jn9 DeRosset 

Henry Seymour Conway pro co 5/66, ff. 120120b 

to William Try on 1 

St James's, l?t March 1766. 


I am very sorry not to be able, as yet, to give You any Instruction for 
the Rule of Your Conduct in the perplexed situation of Things in the 
Colonies; But The Parliament, to whose Wisdom His Majesty has been 
pleased to refer those Affairs, not having come to any ultimate Decision 
thereon, I may not presume to give You any positive Direction: At the 
same Time, It is, I think, My Duty to inform You, That a Bill is brought 
in, and has made some Progress in the House of Commons, for the 
Repeal of the Stamp-Act; and that other Proceedings, relative to the 
mutual Rights of Great Britain, and Her Colonies, are also in Considera- 
tion before Parliament. As soon as ever any Thing is ultimately 
determined by The Legislature, You may depend upon the speediest 
Information from Me, and will not fail to receive therewith His Majesty's 
farther Instructions. In the mean Time, The King relies on Your 
Discretion to take the properest Measures, that the Circumstances of 
the Times may require, for the Good of the Colony committed to Your 

'Circular letter to the governors of Nova Scotia, New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, 
Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, 
and North Carolina. 


William Tryon mh-tlb, 93 

to Walter Stirling 1 a& 

Walter Stirling Esq Brunswick the 3" March 1766. 

Commander of the [blank] 

The favor of your Letter of the 8^ n November last was delivered to 
me by Capt Phipps of the Diligence man of war by whom you sent the 
Stampt Papers for this Province. I have been as unsuccessfull as other 
Governors in my Recommendation of them to the Inhabitants of this 
Province. The late Disturbances in this Town occasioned by the Seizures 
Capt Lobb made of some sloops in this River has given me a good deal 
of Trouble. I am &c 

Commander Walter Stirling (1718-1786) was in charge of the Rainbow, a ship of forty- 
four guns. His wife was from Philadelphia. Dictionary of National Biography, XVIII, 1271. 

William Tryon mh-tlb, 93 

to Francis Fauquier cr-vim90 81 

Brunswick the 3d March 1766 

The Honorable Francis Fauquier Esq 

The Stamps for this Province arrived in Cape Fear River in the 
Diligence Man of War the 27 November last at the same time I received 
the favor of your Letter of the 8th of the same month, delivered to me by 
Capt. Phipps. My Endeavors to promote the Circulation of the Stamps 
have proved unsuccessfull; the particular Insults which have been 
offered to Government by the Inhabitants of this part of the Province, I 
will leave to Colo. Randolph 1 to inform You of. I am very impatient to 
receive Instructions from home for my Guidance in the present Exigency 
of Affairs, I am &c 

Peter Randolph. 

William Tryon mh-tlb, 93 

to Gen. Thomas Gage 1 cR*i\ L ^h%T 

General Gage. Brunswick the 3d March 1766 

Commander in Chief of All His Majesty's Land Forces in North America. 


I received agreeable to the favor of your Intelligence of the 18th June 
last a Deal Box 2 with a Commission from His Royal Highness the Duke 
of Cumberland to make a Collection of seeds and plants of this Province: 
This Commission I have executed but have since had the Mortification 
to see an Account of His Royal Highness's Death. 3 The Deposition you 
sent me of the Particular Circumstances of the murder of Madame 
DeNoyer's Husband I have proclaimed under the Seal of the Province 
with a Reward of Twenty Pounds for the apprehending and Conviction 
of either of the murderers. 4 

The Circulation of the Stamps have met with as General an Obstruc- 
tion in this Province as in any on the Continent. The particulars of the 
late Disturbances in this Town occasioned by the seizures by Capt Lobb 
of His Majesty's sloop the Viper of some sloops which arrived with 
Unstampt Clearances and the Insults offered to Government on that 
Occasion, I shall desire Capt Hamilton 5 to Acquaint you with 

I have the Honor to &c. 

Thomas Gage (1721-1787), British general and colonial American governor, came to 
America in 1754 to serve under Gen. Edward Braddock. He participated in the 
Ticonderoga expedition of 1758 and served as commander in chief of the British army in 
North America from 1763 to 1773. In 1774 Gage became royal governor of Massachusetts, 
and his seizure of military stores was an important action which preceded the battles of 
Lexington and Bunker Hill in 1775. In October of that year he resigned as governor and 
returned to England. Webster's Biographical Dictionary, 569. 

2 Deal was a term used at the time for pine or fir boards, so a deal box presumably would 
have been a lightweight wooden box. It clearly was used to transmit documents. 

3 William Augustus, duke of Cumberland (1721-1765), died on October 31. 

4 No further reference to this subject has been found nor does a copy of Tryon's 
proclamation seem to have survived. 

5 There are two Captain Hamiltons noted in the index of the Colonial and State Records 
and a Captain Hamilton of a whaling vessel at this time is mentioned in the Papers of 
Benjamin Franklin, but without further clues it is not possible to determine whether one 
of these is the one referred to by Governor Tryon. 

William Tryon pro co 5/310, Part 1, ff. 75-77 

to Henry Seymour Conway Zu-tIb^ 

North Carolina 
The Right Honorable Brunswick the 3° March 1766. 

Henry Seymour Conway Esq [Received April 26, 1766] 

The Dispatches I had the Honor to direct to you of the 25 tn of the last 
month, I laid before His Majesty's Council, as will be seen by the 
Extract from the Council Journal. 

My Proclamation of the 26 tn past I understand has given general 


satisfaction to the Inhabitants concerned in the late Disturbances from 
its moderation. As I had no Power to redress their Tumults, it was 
thought most expedient not to inflame grievances. 

If it should ever be found necessary to send Military Force into this 
Colony; the first Week in October is the soonest they should arrive, if 
brought from a more northward Country: were they to Land in the Heat 
of the summer, this Climate would be as fatal to them, as the Climate of 
Pensacola has proved to the Troops sent there. 

The General Assembly I shall prorogue from Time to Time till I have 
the Honor to receive His Majesty's further Instructions. I find by the 
Public Papers that those Colonies who have held Assemblies in the 
present Times have entered warmly into Disputes relative to the Stamp 
Act, without doing any Business for His Majesty's Interest or the 
Benefit of the Colonies. As I have therefore as yet had no Disputes with 
the General Assembly, I esteem it adviseable to prevent as much as 
Possible any breach in the Legislature; as by this Caution, I think I shall 
be best able to support the Honor and Dignity of Government, 'till I can 
be informed of the Resolutions taken by His Majesty and His Parliament 
to terminate the present Disturbances in these Provinces. 

Capt. Lobb has acquainted me he has received the 25 tn past Twenty 
Two Days Provision from the Contractor. I have inclosed a Copy of the 
Mayor of Wilmington's Letter in answer to mine put up with the 
Dispatches of the 25^ n of February, directed to The Mayor. 

Capt. Dalrymple has made his Report to Me that the Cannon at Fort 
Johnston are almost All cleared of the spikes and without any Prejudice 
to the Guns. 

Mr. Randolph, 1 Surveyor General of His Majesty's Customs who is 
now with me on his Return from Charles Town, has at my Request 
Reinstated Mr. Pennington in his office of Comptroller for this Port. 

I must beg leave to mention Capt Phipps to you, Sir, who takes 
Charge of these Dispatches and to refer you to Him for any further 
Particulars relative to the Disturbances here, he having been present 
and intimately acquainted with every Step that was taken. The Spirit 
and Zeal he has shown while on this Station for His Majesty's Service 
and Honor of his Profession, does him great Credit. 

I have the Honor to be with great Respect and Esteem 


Your most Obedient 
and very humble Servant 
W m Tryon 

Note, sent this by the Diligence, Capt. Phipps.— 

Peter Randolph 


William Tryon mh-tlb, 93-94 

to Gen. James Murray a&h-tlb, si 

General Murray. Brunswick, the 3^ March 1766. 

I received the honor of your letter of the 29F 1 of June last with the list 
of the names and the amount of the losses of the unhappy sufferers by 
the fire at Montreal attested under the seal of your province. I took the 
first opportunity of laying before the council the melancholy situation of 
these unhappy people when it was unanimously agreed that the most 
likely method of obtaining any relief from them in this province would 
be to lay their sufferings and distresses before the next General 
Assembly which I shall most willingly comply with and support with my 
warmest recommendations: as affluence does not abound in this pro- 
vince, I cannot flatter myself with the relief equal to my wishes. 

I am &c. 

Treasury Orders pro t 60/22 

for Tryon's Salary [A&H: 763379 1] 

March 23, 1766 

Ordered. Paid 6? n day of May 1766. By virtue of his Majesty's Letters 
of Privy Seal and bearing Date the 23™ day of March 1766. That you 
deliver and pay of such His Majesty's Treasure as remains in your 
charge unto W m Tryon Esq*" e Captain General & Governor in Chief in 
and over the Province of N9 Carolina in America or to his assigns the 
sum of £ 500 with? Acct. for half a year ended the 19* day of January of 
£1000 made payable to him by the said Letters of Privy Seal, in lieu of a 
like Salary formerly payable to the Governor of the said Province out of 
the Quit Rents thereof and these &c. 



W m Dowdeswell 1 

J. Cavendish 2 

T. Townshend 3 

D9 alike Of for 500 for V2 a yf ended 19* July, 1766. Dated 14* NovF 
1766 and signed by Graf., 4 T.T., G.O. 5 


'William Dowdeswell was commissioner of the treasury from July 13, 1765, to August 
2, 1766, as well as chancellor of the exchequer for the same period. Sainty, Treasury 
Officials, 123. 

2 John Cavendish. 

3 Thomas Townshend. 

4 Augustus Henry Fitzroy (1735-1811), third duke of Grafton, was a descendant of 
Charles II by Barbara Villiers. He was secretary of state for the Northern Department 
(1765-1766); first lord of the treasury; prime minister (in name) during Pitt's ministry 
(1766); actively prime minister in 1768. His cabinet opposed him on the American tea 
duty. Webster's Biographical Dictionary, 529. 

5 George Onslow (1731-1814), first earl of Onslow, was a member of Parliament (1754- 
1776) and a member of the privy council in 1769. From 1780 until his death Onslow was a 
lord of the bedchamber. Webster's Biographical Dictionary, 1123. 

Warrant to Pay a&h-er 

William Tryon 

March 24, 1766 

William Tryon Esq r His Majesty's Warrant to the Exchequer out 

Governor of North of the Duty of Four and an Half per Cent, 

Carolina to pay unto William Tryon Esquire, as Gov- 

Allowance ernor of North Carolina, in America, or to 

his Assigns, the Yearly Salary of One Thousand Pounds, to commence 
from the Nineteenth day of July, One Thousand Seven Hundred and 
Sixty Five, and from thenceforth to be paid quarterly during His 
Majesty's Pleasure. Subscribed for Mr. Weston, 1 by Warrant under His 
Majesty's Royal Sign Manual, Countersigned by the Lords Commis- 
sioners of the Treasury. 

Jn9 Larpent Dep. 2 

Treasury Chamber 
24 March 1766 

Our very good Lord 

We have been made acquainted 
with this Docquet. 

W™ Dowdeswell 

Tho: Townshend 

Geo: Onslow 



March 1766 
William Tryon Esq 
Governor of North 
Carolina Allowance 

Ent d 
To the Most Noble 
Thomas Holies 3 
Duke of Newcastle 
Lord Privy Seal. 

Edward Weston (1703-1770) was clerk of the signet and undersecretary of state at this 
time. Sainty, Officials of the Secretaries of State, 115. 

2 John Larpent was chief clerk to Secretary of State Henry Seymour Conway. Sainty, 
Officials of the Secretaries of State, 86. 

3 Thomas Pelham-Holles (1693-1768), first duke of Newcastle (cr. 1715), succeeded to 
the estates of his maternal uncle (1662-1711). From 1724 until 1754 he was secretary of 
state and was prime minister during the years 1754-1756 and 1757-1762. A leader in the 
House of Commons and director of foreign affairs, Holies was acknowledged to be one of 
the most influential men in the Whig party. Webster's Biographical Dictionary, 1094. 

Proclamation pro co 5/299, f. 188 

of the Crovprnor A&HCJ, 323 

ui uic vjuvcinui MH-CJ, 360 

CR-VII, 225 

North Carolina March 26, 1766 1 

By His Excellency William Tryon Esquire Captain General 
Governor & Comdr in Chief in and over the said Province 

A Proclamation 

Whereas a petition has been presented unto me from the Inhabitants 
of the Town and Neighbourhood of New Bern setting forth that the 
great Quantitys of Corn exported from that Port to the Northern Colonies 
and West India Islands is likely to make that Grain a scarce commodity 
in those parts and unless timely prevented will manifestly distress the 
poor and labouring people in General, that reside in that and the 
Adjacent Counties 

I therefore think proper by and with the Consent of His Majestys 
Council to Prohibit the Exportation of Indian Corn from the Rivers 
Neuse and Trent, from the Tenth day of April next untill the end of the 
next Session of Assembly And I do strictly forbid all planters Merchants, 
and Masters of Vessels from Loading or receiving on board any Indian 
Corn for Exportation from the said Rivers during the Time Aforesaid, as 
they shall Answer the same at their peril 


Given under my hand and the Great Seal of the said Province 
at Brunswick the 26 day of March 1766 

W m Tryon 

By His Excellencys Command 
Benjamin Heron Sec y 

'On April 9, 1766, Tryon issued a second proclamation pertaining to this problem, in 
which he forbade "the Exportation of Indian Corn from any of the Ports or Rivers to the 
Southward of the Rivers Neuse and Trent from the 15. day of this Inst April, . . ." 
(G.O. 117). 

Henry Seymour Conway pro co 5/66, 

to William Tryoni cmSSSSb 

St. James 31st March 1766. 

Herewith I have the pleasure of transmitting to you Copies of two 
Acts of Parliament just passed: the first for securing the Dependency of 
the Colonies on the Mother Country; the second for the Repeal of the 
Act of last Session, granting certain Stamp Duties in America; and I 
expect shortly to send you a third, for the Indemnity of such persons, as 
have incurred the Penalties imposed by the Act just repeal'd as such a 
Bill is now depending, & has made a considerable progress in the House 
of Commons. 

The Moderation, the Forbearance, the unexampled Lenity & Tender- 
ness of Parliament towards the Colonies, which are so signally display 'd 
in those Acts, cannot but dispose the province, committed to your care, 
to that return of chearful Obedience to the Laws, & legislative Authority 
of G. Britain, & to those Sentiments of respectful Gratitude to the 
Mother Country; which are the natural, & I trust, will be the certain 
Effect of so much Grace and Condescension, so remarkably manifested 
on the part of His Majesty & of the Parliament; and the future happiness 
and prosperity of the Colonies will very much depend on the Testimonies 
they shall now give of these Dispositions. 

For, as a dutiful & affectionate return to such peculiar proofs of 
Indulgence & affection, may now at this great Crisis, be a means of 
fixing the mutual Interest & Inclinations of G. Britain & her Colonies on 
the most firm and solid foundation so it cannot but appear visible that 
the least Coldness or Unthankfulness, the least Murmuring or Dis- 
satisfaction on any Ground whatever, of former heat, or too much 
prevailing prejudice may fatally endanger that Union and give the most 
severe & affecting blow to the future Interests of both Countries. 

You will think it scarce possible, I imagine, that the paternal care of 
his Majesty for his Colonies, or the Lenity & Indulgence of the 


Parliament should go farther than I have already mentioned; Yet, so full 
of true Magnanimity are the Sentiments of both, & so free from the 
smallest Colour of passion or prejudice, that they seem dispos'd not only 
to forgive, but to forget those most unjustifiable Marks of an undutiful 
Disposition, too frequent in the late Transactions of the Colonies, & 
which for the honor of those Colonies, it were to be wish'd had been 
more discountenanced and discouraged by those, who had knowledge to 
conduct themselves otherwise. 

A Revision of the late American Trade Laws is going to be the 
immediate Object of Parliament: Nor will the late Transactions there, 
however provoking, prevent, I dare say, the full operation of that kind & 
indulgent Disposition prevailing both in his Majesty & his Parliament to 
give to the Trade & Interests of America every Relief which the true 
State of their Circumstances demands or admits. 

Nothing will tend more effectually to every conciliating purpose, & 
there is nothing therefore I have it in command more earnestly to 
require of You, than that You should exert Yourself in recommending it 
strongly to the Assembly that full & ample Compensation be made to 
those who, from the Madness of the people, have suffered for their 
Deference to Acts of the British Legislature; and you will be particularly 
attentive, that such persons be effectually secured from any farther 
Insult; And that, as far as in You lies, You will take care, by your 
Example & Influence, that they may be treated with that respect to their 
persons, & that Justice in regard to all their pretensions, which their 
Merits & their Sufferings undoubtedly claim. The resolutions of the 
House of Commons which, by his Ma'tys Commands I transmit to you, 
to be laid before the Assembly will shew you the Sense of that House on 
those points: And I am persuaded it will, as it certainly ought, be the 
Glory of that Assembly to adopt & imitate those Sentiments of the 
British Parliament, founded on the clearest principles of humanity & 

I must mention one Circumstance in particular which ought to 
recommend those unhappy people, whom the outrage of the populace 
has driven from America, to the Affection of all that Country; which is, 
that, unprovoked by the Injuries they had suffered to a forgetfulness of 
what they owed to Truth & their Country, they gave their Testimonies 
with knowledge & without passion or prejudice; and those Testimonies 
had, I believe, great weight in persuading the Repeal of the Stamp Act. 

Your Situation, which has made you a Witness of the Distraction of 
that Country, will enable you to form the best judgment of the behaviour 
which Your province ought to use upon this occasion & of the 
arguments which You ought to employ to enforce the Necessity of such 
a behaviour as is suitable to their present Circumstances 

I am &c 

H. S. Conway 


'Circular letter to the governors of Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, 
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia. 

Treasury Orders 
for Tryon's Salary 

PRO T 60/23 
[A<S:H: 76.3379.1 

April 3, 1766 

Ordered. This 3 day of April 1767. By virtue of his 
Maj? s Treas. of Privy Seal bearing date the 25? n day 
of March 1766. That you deliver and pay such his 
Maj? Treasure as remains in your charge unto WP 
Tryon Esq? Captain General Governor in chief in 
and over the province of North Carolina in America 
or to his assigns the sum of 500 £ without account 
for half a year ended the 19t n of January 1767 
On the yearly Salary or allowance of 100,000 [sic] 
made payable to him by the said Letters of Privy 
Seal in lieu of a like Salary formery payable to the 
governor of the said Province out of the Quit Rents 
thereof authorized. 




G. Onslow 

P. Campbell 1 

for half a y Y . ended 19t h July 1767 Dated 3 Dec! 1767 . . 

Nath. G.O. P.C. 
for i/fc a yr ended 19t h Jan r y 1768. . Date. 26t h April 1768 . . 

N.. GO.. CT 

for 3/ 4 of a year ended 19t h Oct. 1768. . dat d 28 th Feb. 1769 

G. GO. CJ 

for 3 / 4 of a y Y . end d 19t h July 1769. . dat d 28. NovT 1769 

P.N. GO. CJ. 

for y 4 of a year end d 19 lh Oct. 1769. . dat d 10 Apr. 1770 

P. GO. CJ. J.D 

for y 4 of a year end d 19 Jan^ 1770. . dat? 19 Apr. 1770 

P.N. CJ. JD 

^ryce (Pryse) Campbell (1727-1768), of Cawdor, Nairn, and Stackpole Court, Castle- 
martin, Pembrokeshire, was the son of John Campbell (1695-1777). The younger man 
was a Member of Parliament: a representative of Inverness-shire, 1754-1761; of 
Nairnshire, 1761-1768; of Cardigan Borough, March- December, 1768. He supported Pitt 
in 1757, but in 1766-1768 he supported Bute. From 1766 to 1768 he was a member of the 
Board of Treasury. Valentine, The British Establishment, I, 144. 


. . alike w 

\ for 500 


. . D° . . 

. for 500 


. . D? . . 

. for 750 


. . D? . . 

. for 750 


, . D? . . 

. for 250 


. . D? . . 

. for 250 


William Tryon mh-tlb, 67 

to Samuel Wyley 1 cr-viu96 56 " 57 

Samuel Wyley Esq Brunswick the 5 April 1766 

at Charles Town 

The Original of the Inclosed Copy of a Letter from the Lords 
Commissioners for Trade and Plantations I received the 14 of March 
last. As this Colony has provided no Provincial funds applicable to the 
Contingent Services of Government in General, I shall be under the 
necessity of applying to the General Assembly for the Payment of the 
Moiety of your Charge, as Recommended by their Lordships, I esteem it 
necessary You should furnish me with the Particular of your Charges, 
the Journal of your Survey together with the Plan of the Tract of Land 
set out for the Catawba Indians in Order that I may be able to lay them 
before the next General Assembly at the same Time that I recommend 
the Payment of the Moiety of your Demand, I am Sir & c 

Samuel Wyley was evidently seeking reimbursement for some of his expenses 
incurred in surveying Catawba lands. For biographical sketch, see Board of Trade to 
William Tryon and William Bull, September 12, 1765, n. 1., in this volume. 

William Tryon to the pro t 1/455 

Commissioners of the Treasury mh-tlb^ 80 ' 1 3] 

A&H-TLB, 55-56 
CR-VII, 195-196 

Brunswick 5? n April 1766 

The Right Honble The Lords Commissioners 
of His Majesty's Treasury 

I was honoured with your Lordships Commands on the 25™ of March 
last by the favor of Mr. Lownde's 1 Letter of the 14 September 1765 
requiring me to give my assistance to the Distributor of the Stamps, in 
the Execution of his Office: some Stamps for this Province arrived here 
from Virginia the 28™ of November last in the Diligence Sloop of War; 
but as Mr. Houston Distributor of the Stamps was obliged publickly to 
resign his office in the Court House of Wilmington on the 16 m of the 
same month, a Copy of which I inclose, 2 1 desired Capt Phipps to keep 
the Stamps on board the Diligence. They were lately Removed into His 
Majesty's Sloop the Viper, Capt Lobb Commander, The Diligence 
having sailed for England. My Endeavors My Lords to promote the 
Circulation of the Stamps in this Province have been accompanied, with 


my warmest Zeal, as I flatter myself the Letter I wrote on that subject to 
Mr. Conway one of His Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State will 
Testify. The 111 success that has attended this Discharge of my Duty, 
has given me real Concern; Since the Riotous Assembly of men in 
Wilmington, and Brunswick on the 19 tn , 20 tn , and 21 st of February 
last, there has been no Disturbances in the Province, the Ports have 
never been shut, and Entries and Clearances are made in the Form that 
was practised before the Stamp Act was appointed by Parliament to 
take Effect: I continue in opinion that these Southern Provinces will 
regulate their future Obedience, and Conduct, agreeable to the Measures 
that are adopted by the more Formidable Colonies to the Northward. 
I am my Lords with all possible Esteem and Respect &c 

[Note, the Original by the Hannibal, Bailleul to Bristol 
Duplicate Cazar, Hume to Portsmouth.] 

! This is probably a reference to Rawlins Lowndes (1721-1800), prominent South 
Carolina statesman. Born on St. Kitts' Island in the British West Indies, Lowndes moved 
with his family to South Carolina when he was nine. During his long career Lowndes 
held many high offices in the colony. He was active as a patriot during the American 
Revolution but opposed the ratification of the Constitution. Webster's Biographical 
Dictionary, 925. 

2 Houston's resignation has been entered in this volume as a document of November 16, 

William Tryon pro co 5/66 

to John Stuart ™f 5 f 

CR-VII, 196-197 
North Carolina Brunswick April 9th: 1766 

I am to Acknowledge the favour of your Letter of the 5 of February, 
together with the result of a meeting held at Fort Prince George the 
20th of October 1765. 

It was not in my Power to send Commissioners to join Mr Cameron 1 in 
running the Line relative to this Province described in the Indian 
Agreement; I have received no Instruction from home for running any 
Line from South to North Westward of this Province; and as this Colony 
has not provided a Fund to Answer the Contingent Services of 
Government in General, I could not take such a step without an order 
from His Majesty, or the Consent of the Legislature here. 

No Complaints have been brought to me, Since my Administration of 
Encroachments made by any Inhabitant of this Province on the 


Cherokee [sic] 2 Tract of Land surveyed by Mr. Wyley, aggreable to the 
orders he received from the several Governors assembled at the 
Congress held at Augusta in 1763. 

In Virtue of some Instructions I brought from England, I have sent 
home my Sentiments of what I conceived would be a proper final 
Boundary Line between North and South Carolina. 

If I could hope at any time to have the Pleasure of your Company at 
Brunswick, which would give me great Satisfaction, I should be glad to 
Converse with you on the above Subjects. 

It is as much my Inclination, as I esteem it my duty, to Cooperate with 
you in every Measure, that will tend to the Establishment of a Solid 
Peace between His Majesty's Subjects and the Indians. 

Accept my Thanks for your Compliment of Congratulations and good 
Wishes, and believe me to be, 


Your most Obedient & very humble Servant 
Wm. Tryon. 

'Alexander Cameron was born in Scotland in the early eighteenth century and first 
appeared in the colonies in 1762 and 1763 when he was an ensign in the British 
Independent Regulars stationed at Fort Prince George in South Carolina. He married a 
Cherokee girl and was accepted by the Cherokees and Creeks who called him "Scotchie." 
When he was released from the army he became an agent for the Cherokees and in 1768 
was named deputy superintendent for the British Indian department in the South. He held 
the position through most of the Revolution when he tried to protect both Indians and 
whites by calming both sides. White encroachment, however, was more than he could 
combat and he was forced to flee to escape capture by whites. He died in Savannah on 
December 27, 1781. Grace Steele Woodward, The Cherokees (Norman: University of 
Oklahoma Press, 1963), 85-100 passim; Sabine, Biographical Sketches, II, 287-288. 

2 Although the manuscript has Cherokee clearly written here, it was the Catawba tract 
Tryon probably meant, as other correspondence indicates. 

William Houston pro co 5/299, a. 160160b 

to William Tryon CR VI1 ' 198199 

Soracte, 1 21 April 1766 
[Read by BT, Aug. 9, 1766] 

May it Please Your Excellency, 

Before this comes to Hand, You will be partly Informed of the 
Transactions at Wilmington on Tuesday the 15 tn Inst 

I make bold to acquaint You of a Part which is to be depended upon, 
That the Sons of Liberty never got into their Hands. Tis a Letter from 


M r Brettel, Secretary to the Commiss rs dated from the Stamp Office 
Lincolns Inn London 13™ of Septem: 1765 which is in My Possession; 
what was took from Me, was the Packet, containing My Commission 
and My Deputation Instructions, with a Bond ready filled up to be 
executed before Your Excellency. In Obedience to which I should have 
done Myself the Honor to have waited on Your Excellency. And as 
Affairs Stands at present its impossible for me to Comply, By the 
Information the Letter gives; Those Ships are not yet Arrived, on board 
of which the Stamps are for this Province under My Care, and when 
they Arrive can I possibly take Possession untill the People are 
Convinced; when that is I am ready on Notice But for me who by the 
Nature of my Commission am Hated Abhor'd and Detested: No Friend 
to Consult or Assist. Even those that would or Could have not Courage 
to do, is a great Hardship, And well may I say with Ovid "Nullus ad 
Amissas ibit amicos Opes" 2 As on the other Hand if it doth take Place I 
may Prophesy the other Verse "Donee eris Felix Multos Numerabis 
Amicos." 3 1 beg and hope Your Excellency will not expose this Letter; 
but after Perusal commit to the Flames. Necessity that makes me open 
my Want of a Friendly Advice I think M r John Moses DeRosset would 
not refuse Your Excellency a Copy of a Bond, Instructions & Com- 
mission, which is lodged in His Hands. I most humbly desire Your 
Excellency ['s] Pardon for writing to You in this Manner. My only hope 
is Your Excellency ['s] Generous and Humane Disposition for Unfor- 
tunate Persons, of which I am one, being much cast down by the Usage I 
have received that I hardly know what I do 

Having Experience [d] the Mode of Base Persons in this part of the 
World detaining of Letters and even destroying them makes me send 
this by my Son William who is going to Philadelphia with a Small 
Venture of his own 

I am with the Greatest Duty and Respect Sir, 
Your Excellency's Most humble 
and most Obedient Servant 
(Signed) W m Houston 

P.S. No Gilt Paper or I 

would have wrote upon it 

'Now known as Sarecta, this town in central Duplin County was settled ca. 1736 by 
Henry McCulloh and named for Soracte Mountain in Italy, site of an ancient temple to 
Apollo. William S. Powell, North Carolina Gazetteer (Chapel Hill: University of North 
Carolina Press, 1968), 440. 

2 Ovid, Tristia, I, ix, 10: "No friend will approach when wealth is lost." 

3 Ovid, Tristia, I, ix, 5: "So long as you are secure you will count many friends." 


Philip Stephens 1 pro co 5/299, ff. 166167b 

to John Pownall CRVII < 197 

Admty Office 21?t April 1766 

Having communicated to my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 
your Letter of the 21 st October last, relative to a Duel that was fought 
between Lieut. Whitehurst and M*" Simpson, two Officers of the Navy, 
in which the former was killed, I am to acquaint you, that the Navy 
Board having been acquainted therewith, in order to their taking such 
Notice of M!" Simpson's behavior as the nature of the Case required, 
They have reported, that after the 24t n June 1765 (which is the date of 
Lieut. Governor Tryon's Letter upon this Subject,) MT Simpson being 
recovered of the wounds he received in the Duel, voluntarily returned 
and surrender'd himself to the Governor, and in October following was 
tryed and acquitted of the charge. 

I am Sir &c 

Your most Humble Servant 
Phil: Stephens 

John Pownall, Esq 

Trade & Plantations Office 

'Philip Stephens was secretary to the Lords of the Admiralty. He afterward became a 
commissioner of the admiralty and was made a baronet in 1795. Sainty, Admiralty 
Officials, 152. 

Address of the Wachovia Brethren Fries and others, 

to William Trvnn Records of the Moravians, I, 342 

April 26, 1766 

May it please Your Excellency, 

We His Majestys most dutiful and loyal Subjects the United Brethren 
of Bethabara and Bethany in Wachovia Rowan County under Your 
Excellencys Government, moved by Love and Gratitude towards our 
most gracious King George and the British Government, had it much at 
Heart to Wellcome Your Excellency at your first Arrival in this 
Province: therefore Frederic Wilhelm von Marshall Gentleman Director 
of the Brethrens Settlement here and Abraham von Gammern Steward 
of Bethabara, made a Journey to Willmingtown in Order to wait upon 
Your Excellency in the Name of the United Brethren. But as Your 


Excellency was just then visiting Edenton & that Part of the Province, 
they were to our Sorrow disappointed in the Aim of their Journey. The 
absence of Mr. v. Marshall & the death of Mr. von Gammern since 
prevented us again to follow the Dictates and Duty upon Your 
Excellencys Accession to the Chief Command of this Province. 

May it therefore please Your Execllency graciously to accept our 
United most hearty Congratulations and Warmest Wishes for a long, 
blessed, happy & glorious Administration of Government in this Colony. 

As we are most heartily attached to His Majestys Person & 
Government, & as the Holy Scripture teaches us for Conscious Sake, 
subject to all in Authority being desirous to lead a quiet & peaceable 
Life in all Godliness and Honesty as it is good and acceptable in the 
Sight of God our Saviour, And hearing of Your Excellencys exemplary 
Regard for true Religion & Virtue, we have the greatest Expectation to 
live happy under your Administration. Humbly recommending our- 
selves into Your Excellencys Favour & Protection with all our invaluable 
Religious Rights and Privileges 

We are 

May it please Your Excellency 

Your Excellencys most dutiful and 

obedient Servants 

Ettwein, 1 Graff, 2 Loesch, 3 Reuter, 4 Miksh, 5 

Fockel, 6 for themselves and the other 

Brethren in Wachovia 

April the 26th 

'Johann Ettwein (1721-1802), native of Freudenstadt, Wiirttemberg, but of French 
Huguenot stock, became a Moravian in 1740 and soon entered the service of the church. He 
and his wife were in London between 1750 and 1754 when they sailed for Pennsylvania. 
In 1758 he was sent to Wachovia and in 1763 he was appointed head of Moravian work in 
North Carolina. After three years he was called to Pennsylvania as assistant to the bishop, 
and it was at this time that Ettwein called on Tryon at Brunswick. Afterwards he attained 
positions of importance in the Moravian Church and was consecrated bishop in 1784. Who 
Was Who in America: Historical Volume, 241. 

2 Johann Michael Graff and his wife moved to Wachovia from Bethlehem in 1762. The 
church record for that year notes that they were "the Pfleger and Pflegerin [leaders] for 
the Married Choir." The Graffs lived in Bethania for two months before they moved on to 
Bethabara. In the 1766 census of Bethabara residents Graff was listed as a clerk and in 
the register as "Ordinarius," a term generally used to denote the second rank in the 
ordained ministry. He died in Salem in 1782. Fries and others, Records of the Moravians, 
I, 241-488 passim. 

3 Jacob Loesch (1722-1782) has been identified earlier. See "Tryon Gets Seeds from 
Moravians," March 24, 1765, n.l. 

^Christian Gottlieb Reuter (1717-1771) had a most extraordinary life. Born in 
Steinbach, Germany, he experienced a difficult youth. His father was at the time of the 


son's birth a wealthy physician, but when he lost his wealth he regarded it as the will of 
God and did little more after that time than to keep his family from starving. The boy 
severed his ties with his family in 1732 and served an apprenticeship with two surveyors — 
the Franz brothers. In 1756 he went with Peter Boehler's company of Moravians to 
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and two years later moved to the Wachovia settlement. In 1762 
he married Anna Catharina Kalberlahn. All his life Reuter felt divinely led and declared 
that God's messages were revealed to him in dreams. Reuter's remarkable talents as 
surveyor and cartographer were of inestimable value to the Wachovia community. Fries 
and others, Records of the Moravians, I, 477-483. 

5 Matthew Miksch (d. 1810) came to Wachovia in 1764. In 1765 when Christian 
Gottlieb Reuter was freed from his duties as a shopkeeper so he could survey the 
Moravian property, he was succeeded by Matthew Miksch and his wife. Miksch 
sometimes went outside— as far away as Charlestown— in the course of his duties. He 
died in Salem in 1810. Fries and others, Records of the Moravians, I, 296-489 passim. 

6 Gottlieb Fockel, a tailor by trade, removed from the community at Bethlehem, 
Pennsylvania, to Wachovia in 1755. When the group stopped at the home of Hannibal 
Edwards, a Quaker who lived about forty miles from Salem, Fockel "cut out a coat" for his 
host. In 1757 Fockel was elected to the position of church warden and was reelected many 
times thereafter. He served on the community court (Committee of Arbitration) when it 
was created in 1762. In that same year he was married to Mary Leibert. Fockel died in 
Bethabara in 1778. Fries and others, Records of the Moravians, I, 146-488 passim. 

William TryOIl's Reply Fries and others, 

to the Wachovia Brethren Records ofthe Moravians > l > 343 

Brunswick, the 26th April 1766 

I had the Pleasure to receive by Mr. Edwin [Ettwein] the Address of 
the United Brethren of Bethabara and Bethany in Wachovia in Rowan 

The Warm Sentiments the Inhabitants entertain of Loyalty to His 
Majesty, and steady Attachment to His Government, is Extremely 
agreeable to Me; as well as their Good Wishes for my Happy and 
Honorable Administration. 

I shall be always glad to Encourage and Promote that good Order, 
Harmony and Industry which so happily subsists in the Society of the 
United Brethren. 

The Inhabitants of Wachovia may rest Assured of Meeting with my 
Favor and Protection in the Enjoyment of their Religion; Agreeable to 
His Majesty's Benevolent Intentions.— 

I am 


Your very Humble Servant 
Wm Tryon 

Messieurs John Mich. Graff 
& Jacob Loesch. 


Report Of a Visit by the Fries and others, 

Reverend Johann Ettwein Records oflhc Moravians, i, 338-341 

to William Tryon at Brunswick 

April [26], 1766 

In the latter part of March the General Court was held in Salisbury, 
with our good old friend Mr. James Hasel as acting Chief Judge. Br. 
Losch was also there in the discharge of his duty and both Mr. Hasel 
and the Kings Attorney, Mr. Hooper, took occasion to tell him "That 
Governor Tryon would like to have one of the leaders of the Moravian 
Brethren visit him in Braunshweig." Br. Losch, knowing our circum- 
stances, thought it impossible to carry out the Governor's wish this 
spring, and did all he could to excuse us, telling Mr. Hasel quite frankly 
all the conditions, but he would take no excuse, and advised that we do 
not postpone the visit, giving several reasons, and among them that 
"Not all people were our friends." Br. Losch then promised him to 
speak to the Brethren about it, and that if possible his advice should be 
followed. We saw no other way than to send someone to the Governor 
before the Synod, as very likely something would come up that ought to 
be known before Synod met. And when for certain reasons we 
discussed the matter carefully we were shown that Br. Ettwein should 
travel alone by way of Braunshweig to Pennsylvania. 

Therefore I left Bethabara on April 17th, and on the 24th reached the 
home of Mr. Hasel, who had insisted that if a Brother were sent he 
should come to him, and he would go with him to the Governor and 
introduce him; but two days earlier he had left for Newbern to hold 
court. His son offered his services, as did Capt. Lobb, of the royal man- 
of-war, who knew Br. Marshall and the late Br. Gammern, and through 
his lieutenant, who had been in Bethabara, had conceived a high regard 
for the Brethren. I was unwilling to trouble them, but the first insisted 
on sending a servant with me, and the latter gave me a letter to 
Braunshweig, which place I reached on the 25th of April. 

I had scarcely arrived when Mr. Bernard, 1 Minister of the Parish and 
Chaplain to the Governor, came to welcome me, and offered to introduce 
me to His Excellency; I went with him (heartily praying "Grant that I 
may do no ill in word or deed") and was at once received. I presented an 
Address, in the name of the Brethren in Wachovia, which the Governor 
received in a most friendly manner, inquired concerning the well-being 
of the Brethren, and asked why Mr. Losch did not come with me. I 
replied that Mr. Losch was superintendent of our farm, where there was 
much work to be done at this time of the year, so that he could not leave 
home for so long, and that he begged His Excellency to excuse him! He 
expressed his pleasure that some one had come, and said he had just 


sent a letter to Mr. Losch, which would not now be needed, and that he 
would recall it. (His Secretary told me, when I inquired concerning the 
import of the letter, that Mr. Hasel had deprived the Governor of hope 
that any of us would come so soon, as we were waiting for a Gentleman 
from Pennsylvania, whereupon he had written that the Brethren should 
wait for no one, but Br. Losch or someone else should come to him.) He 
asked how long I would stay, and when he heard that I was on my way 
to Pennsylvania, and that the length of my stay depended on him, he 
said that I must stay several days and rest, but it was not proper that I 
should remain in the Tavern, and that I must come to his house; he 
lodged me with Mr. Bernard, the Chaplain, and for the three days that I 
was there he had me at his table morning, noon and evening. 

He asked numerous questions about the land, and the settlers in our 
neighborhood; and about our trade with Charlestown, and why we 
traded there? I told him the reason was that we needed many things 
which could not be had in Willmington, that goods were at least ten 
percent higher there than in Charlestown, and that the deer- skins with 
which we paid in Charlestown were worth more there than in 
Willmington. He regretted it, but hoped things would improve! He 
asked how many of us there were, and I gave him a catalog; how long I 
had been in Wachovia; and about the Oeconomie in Bethabara? I 
explained to him that it was not an Article of our Religion, but had 
begun as a convenience, and so far had been a necessity, but would not 
continue; that Bethania and other congregation -places had a different 
arrangement. He asked how we used the profits from the Oeconomie? I 
answered 'To settle and improve Wachovia." Question: "Did we not 
send money to Europe?" Answer: "So far we had sent none, though we 
had frequently received money from there; that it would be right and 
proper to make returns to our Brethren, but we had not yet been able to 
do so." He said it would be long before we could do it if we wished to 
settle Wachovia, and to build a town; and that so long as he was 
Governor he would not willingly see us send money out of the country ! I 
answered: "But Your Excellency would not object if we paid our debts!" 
With that he was content, and said he had been told that we sent large 
sums of money out of the country! I assured him that this was not true, 
so far it had been all that we could do to provide for our own needs, and 
the Brethren in Germany had paid our Quit-rents, and the expenses of 
those members who came over. He asked what Quit-rent we paid, and 
when he heard that it was £150 Sterling he said to the Secretary: "That 
is a small Capital, and it is a question whether Granville gets that much 
from all the rest of his land." He asked whether we were a separate 
County? I said "No, but a separate Parish". Further whether we had any 
wish in which he could aid us? Answer: "Just now, nothing; but when 
Salem has been built it may well be that the Brethren will ask a Charter 
for the town". Query: "Did we have no Justice among us except Mr. 


Losch?" Answer: "No!" He thought there should be two more, so that 
one might surely be present each time in Court, and said I should 
propose the names of two Brethren; I asked for time to consult with the 
Brethren but he desired me to do it at once. In the morning he began 
about it again, saying he had been thinking that if he gave Commissions 
to three of the Brethren it might make others jealous and not do us good; 
but two were necessary,— was there not some one in Bethania we could 
recommend? I answered that there was one man who understood the 
English Laws fairly well, and could speak English, though he was only a 
farmer, Henrich Spoenhauer; 2 he told me to give his name to the 

Moreover he and his Lady were uncommonly friendly, he showed me 
all the rooms in his house and other buildings, his horses and his garden, 
and when I was alone with him he let me read an interesting and 
important letter from State Secretary Conway. She talked much about 
religious matters, inquired concerning our rules, the education of our 
children, and the like, and at this and that point said to Mr. Bernard 
"Now that is like the first Christians," "Now that is really Apostolic!" 
and Mr. Bernard replied that the English Church considered ours a 
sister Church, an honor which hitherto it had given to none. 

Mr. Bernard was very friendly, and said that there were now seven 
Church Ministers in the Province, and he had received an order from the 
Bishop of London that so soon as there were nine he should call a 
meeting of them, adding the compliment that he would invite me to the 

On my journey I heard at several places that the Governor and his 
Lady intended to visit Bethabara; I asked the Secretary, Mr. Elwin, 
about it, and he said that the Governor had planned to go to Bethabara if 
none of the Brethren came to him. (Which made me wonder whether he 
had not been instructed to find out about us.) 

I took an opportunity to beg the Governor that if he heard anything 
doubtful about us he would kindly let his Secretary write and ask us, 
assuring him that he would be told the truth, for while many gave us 
more praise than we deserved there were always those who spoke evil 
of us without cause. He assured me that he would be careful no such 
impression was made upon him until he had been to the bottom of the 
matter. So far as I could see he is a deep-thinking, substantial man. As I 
was leaving he gave me a friendly answer to the Address of the 
Brethren in Wachovia. 

On the 28th I set out for Willmington, accompanied in the boat by the 
Secretary, who had showed me all possible attention, and had been 
most pleasant. He offered to serve the Brethren in any way he could, 
especially in the matter of correspondence with Europe. I thanked my 
dear Lord from my heart for the way He had advised us, and that He 
had so graciously helped me through. From Willmington (which is fifty 


miles further from Bethlehem than Bethabara is) I went by way of News 
[Neuse] River and Tarboro to Halifax on the Roanoke (where I visited 
the General Attorney, Mr. Rob. Jones, who advised the late Br. 
Benzien 3 so wisely about our Parish), and reached Petersburg in 
Virginia on May 8th. From there I went by Warick, Richmond, 
Friedrichsburg, Fallmouth, Dumfries, Colchester, Belhaven, Yorktown 
and Lancaster to Lititz, where I rested for Whitsunday; and on May 
20th I reached Bethlehem, happy and well, and full of inward joy, 
humility and thanksgiving. 

'Ettwein refers to John Barnett, an Anglican missionary sent to North Carolina by the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, who arrived in October, 1765, and served first 
at St. Philip's Church, Brunswick, afterwards going to Northampton County where he 
began his ministry in December, 1768. Saunders, Colonial Records, VII, 158, 514-515; 
VIII, 15, 20. 

-'This is probably a reference to Johann Heinrich Spoenhauer, Sr., who was by trade a 
cooper and farmer in Bethania as early as 1764. As this document suggests, Heinrich was 
made a justice of the peace. In 1769 he was on the building committee charged with the 
construction of the new Gamein Haus in Bethania. In 1770 Spoenhauer was a church 
warden and vestryman for Dobbs Parish. He died in 1787. Fries and others, Moravian 
Records, I, 340, 345, 356, 387, 412, 429, 493. 

'The Reverend Christian Thomas Benzien was in Bethabara by 1755, although the 
Wachovia Church Book of that year described him as a "Diaconus" and a visitor. Fries and 
others, Moravian Records, I, 131, 136, 160, 167, 172, 183, 485. 

Edmund Fanning (1737-1818), influential friend 
of Governor Tryon, was a special target of the 
Regulators. He left North Carolina and returned to 
his native colony of New York when Tryon was 
made governor of that province. Photograph cour- 
tesy Frick Art Reference Library. 


William Try on pro co 5/310, Part 1, ff. 84-85b 

to Henry Seymour Conway a&h T tlb 6 58-59 

and Abstract cr-vii, 199-200 

Duplicate Brunswick the 28? h April 1766 

[Received May 30, 1766] 


I have had the Honor to receive this Duplicate only of your Letter, 
dated St James's October 24? n , 1765 which came by Way of Virginia 
and was delivered to me the 25? n of last month. 1 

I have shown it to the Gentlemen of His Majesty's Council, in this part 
of the Province, and to such other Persons, as I thought would make a 
proper and prudent Use of the Contents. The Inhabitants of this colony 
have made no Disturbances since their assembling themselves in arms 
at Brunswick in February last, the Particulars of which I had the Honor 
to send you by Capt Phipps. 

Mr Hasell whom I appointed Chief Justice During Pleasure, in the 
Room of the late Chief Justice Berry, has conducted Himself with great 
Prudence in the Circuit of the Three Superior Courts of Justice he has 
lately held; Vidt at Halifax, Salisbury, and Wilmington. He informed me 
he had done no Business but Crown Causes, and that He declined 
entering upon the Causes on the Civil Dockets. He assured me of his 
Determination to pursue the same Conduct at the Superior Courts to be 
held at Newbern, and Edenton in next Month. He also assured me of the 
Continuance of his best Endeavors to recommend and support Peace 
and Good Order in this Government. His moderate and steady 
Behaviour has greatly Recommended Him to my Esteem: I know of no 
Person in the Province at this Juncture, so capable to conduct that Office 
with the same Dignity and Decorum with Himself. He found in his 
Circuit the Inhabitants in the Back Counties quiet; but not one advocate 
for the Stamp Duty, and scarce any Specie circulating among them. 

The Several Ports in this Province continue open, and all Vessels 
clear out without Stampt Papers. 

The Stamps were Removed on board the Viper Sloop now lying off 
Fort Johnston on the Diligence sailing last month for England. 

I have suspended M r Maurice Moore from the Office of Assistant 
Judge, for the District of Salisbury for his Intemperate Zeal and 
Conduct, in Opposition to the Stamp Act. He is a leading man on this 
River, tho' he enjoys no great Share of Popularity in other Parts of the 

The Commission of Assistant Judge I have given to Mr Edmund 
Fanning, During Pleasure; He is an active, spirited, young man of Good 
Character, and Abilities in the Law. 


The Sentiments of the Generality of the Inhabitants are that the 
Stamp Act will be Repealed and Suspended and by what I can learn, 
they seem Inclined to be Guided by the Determination of the Colonies to 
the Northward, and to adopt and pursue the same Measures with them. 

I hope Sir in the Delicacy of these Times my Conduct has not greatly 
Erred from the Spirit and Humanity of His Majesty's Instructions, 
communicated to me in your Letter. I shall pursue the Measures I find 
most Expedient, as Circumstances arise, and shall Esteem myself happy 
if I can persuade the Inhabitants into a Generous Confidence, in the 
Justice of the Mother Country, and of His Majesty's Benevolent 
Attention towards all his People. 

I am with the most perfect Esteem and Respect 
Your most Obedient and most humble Servt 
W m Tryon 

^his reference cannot be satisfactorily explained since the document has not been 

[The following abstract of Tryon's letter may be found in PRO 
CO 5/217:] 

April 28, 1766 

Received Friday 30th May. 

Had shown Genl. Conway's circular letter of the 24th October, to the 
Council, & to such Persons as he thought would make a proper use of 
the Contents. The Inhabitants had made no farther Disturbances since 
they last assembled in Arms at Brunswick as mentioned in a former 
Letter. Mr. Hassell, whom he had appointed Chief Justice, during 
Pleasure, in the room of Mr. Berry, has behaved with great Prudence — 
had done no Business but Crown Causes & declined entering on those 
of civil Dockets & had promised to use his Endeavours to promote good 
order.— the several Ports in the Province continue open & all Vessels 
clear out without stampt Papers.— the Stamps removed on board the 
Viper Sloop— Had susperseded Mr. Maurice Moore, Assistant Judge, 
for his intemperate Opposition to the Stamp Act and appointed Mr. 
Edmund Fanning in his Room during Pleasure. People there think the 
Stamp Act will be repealed or suspended— seemd inclined to be guided 
by the Determinations of the Northern Colonies — Hopes his conduct, 
considering the Delicacy of the times, will not be disapproved. 


William Tryon pro co 5/199, ff. 156-159 

to the Board of Trade SmaboSS 

Brunswick 30 April 1766. 

[Received July 1; Read by BT Aug. 9, 1766] 

The Right Honble The Lords Commissioners 
for Trade and Plantations 

The first of February was the date of the last Letter I had the Honor 
to send to your Lordships Board. 

As the Occurrences since that Period in this Province, have been of a 
Turbulent, and Extraordinary Nature, I sent the Particulars of them to 
Mr. Conway One of His Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State. The 
Inhabitants have remained quiet since they Assembled Themselves in 
Arms at Brunswick in February last; upon the Pretence of Redressing 
Grievances, on Account of some Sloops, Cap? Lobb of His Majesty's 
Sloop the Viper had seized. 

I have the Satisfaction to inform Your Lordships, Mr. James Hasell 
whom I appointed Chief Justice in the room of Mr. Berry deceased, has 
conducted himself with particular Prudence and Discretion in his 
Attendance at the Superior Courts of Halifax, Salisbury, and Wilming- 
ton; a Circuit of Seven Hundred Miles. No Causes but those of the 
Crown have been tried either in the Superior, or Inferior Courts of 
Judicature since the first of November: The Causes upon the Civil 
Dockets are at present very Numerous. The Chief Justice told me there 
were on the Civil Docket at Halifax Superior Court near One Thousand 
Suits depending. Mr. Hasell left me last Week, to proceed to the 
Superior Courts of Newbern, and Edenton to be held next Month. His 
Journey to those two Circuits including his Return will be upwards of 
Four Hundred Miles; this makes the Circuit of the Five Superior Courts 
Eleven Hundred Miles, and as those Courts are held Twice a year each 
an Attendance on the whole would be Two Thousand Two Hundred 
Miles Annually: By an Act of Assembly an Assistant Judge is appointed 
for the District of Salisbury (on Account of the Great Distance it lays 
from the other Courts) with a Salary of Two Hundred Pounds 
Proclamation Money per Annum; This Provision saves the Chief Justice 
six Hundred Miles a year in his Circuits; But in the present Critical 
Times, Mr. Hasell was sollicitous to be present himself at All the 
Courts: His appearance was necessary; he preserved peace, and good 
Order at the three first Courts, and I have no reason but to believe he 
will be able to do the same at Newbern, and Edenton: His moderate and 
prudent Conduct has recommended him much to My Regard, and 


I am to acquaint your Lordships, I have suspended Mr. Maurice 
Moore from the Office of Assistant Judge for the District of Salisbury, 
for his Intemperate Zeal and Behaviour, in his Opposition to the Act of 
Parliament imposing Stamp Duties in America: I have Appointed Mr. 
Edmund Fanning Assistant Judge for the above District. He is an Active 
Spirited Young Man, of Good Character, and Abilities in the Law: His 
Commission is dated the 7 tn of March last 

Mr. Hasell informed me there was but very little Specie Circulating in 
the Back Counties; there is scarce any in the Maritime Parts of the 

Lumber, a Considerable Staple in this Port, exported to the West 
Indies, is returned in Sugars, Rum and Molasses; Tar, Turpentine and 
Pitch is purchased by Bills of Exchange or returned for Goods imported; 
And if a Ship brings in Dollars to purchase a Cargoe, (a Circumstance 
very uncommon) the Merchant does not suffer it to circulate in the 
Province but either sends it to a foreign Market, or remits it to Great 
Britain: Of the Lumber exported, Plank and Scantling are sawed in the 
Mills. There are but few of these in the Province, but what are on the 
Creeks on the North East, and North West Branches of Cape Fear 
River; on these Creeks, there are Fifty Saw Mills now in Repair, and 
more Building each with Two Saws; These Mills will saw upon a 
Medium Two Hundred Thousand Feet apiece per Annum. 

I sent some Pine Plank that was sawed by Hand (being of too great a 
Length for the Carriages of the Mills, the Carriages not exceeding 
Thirty feet) to Mr. Hughes Commissioner of the Dock Yard at 
Portsmouth: The Inclosed is his Answer. I have heard nothing since on 
the Subject. 

I inclose your Lordships the minutes of the Council, since I have been 
in the Administration of this Government. 

The General Assembly I have prorogued to the 30^ n of October next; 
In Council this was thought the best Expedient, as the Country was not 
esteemed in a Temper to do Business in a Manner, that was likely 
either to be agreeable to His Majesty, or Beneficial to the Colony; This 
Prorogation will also give time for the Information of the Positive, and 
determined Resolutions of the British Legislature, on the Subject of the 
Disturbances of the Colonies: If the Inhabitants should be so Weak, in 
the Vain Imagination of their Strength, as to make their Case desperate, 
Two of His Majesty's Sloops with their full Complement of Men, and 
Two Tenders with 30 or 35 Men in each would be sufficient in my 
Estimation to give Law to the Commercial Interest of this Government: 
The Sloops to remain chiefly in Cape Fear River and the Tenders to 
Cruize from Ocacock Bar, thro' the Sounds and up the Rivers that lead 
to Bath, Newbern, and Edenton. Two Companies of Regulars under 
these Circumstances might be thought Requisite to secure His 
Majesty's Stores and Artillery at Fort Johnston: I am of Opinion that 


North Carolina Station in the best of times would require one Sloop 
[should not at any time be without One Sloop], 1 and Two Tenders 
towards the Protection of the Commerce, and the Improvement of His 
Majesty's Revenues by curbing illicit Trade. The several Ports in this 
Province Continue open and Clearances are made out by His Majesty's 
Officers of the Customs without Stampt Paper. 
I have the Honor to be with Respect and Esteem &c 

W m Tryon 

P.S. The Original of the Inclosed Copy of a Letter from Mr. Houston 2 
came to my Hands after the foregoing Dispatches were wrote. It was the 
first Authentic Account I received of his Commission being lodged in 
the Hands of Mr. Moses DeRosset, Mayor of Wilmington. 

Note, the Original went by the Packet from Chr s Town, Duplicate by 
Doctor Corbyn. 

1 Brackets indicate a slightly different wording used in MH-TLB. 

2 Doubtless this is a reference to the letter of April 21, 1766, from William Houston to 
Tryon, in this volume. 

William Tryon pro co 5/299, 

to the Board of Trade mhtlb^-?!" 155 

A&H-TLB, 62-63 
CR-VII, 203 

Brunswick the 30t h April 1766 

[Received July 1; read by BT Aug 9, 1766] 

The Right Honorable The Lords Commissioners 
for Trade and Plantations 

I had the Honor to receive since Governor Dobb's Death the following 
Dispatches from Your Lordship's Board, Vizt 

A Letter of Mr. Pownall of the 7? h December 1764 with the Order of 
His Majesty's Council of the 20H 1 July 1764 1 inclosed, Repealing an Act 
passed in this Province in 1762 "Entitled an Act appointing the Method 
of Distributing Intestates Estates" 

Also another Letter from Mr. Pownall of the same date with a "Copy 
of a Minute made by the Treasury Board on the 28™ of November 1764 
in Relation to Public Expences which may be incurred by any 
Commander in Chief or Governor" 

A Letter of Your Lordships dated the 23^ August 1765 informing Me 
of Your being appointed His Majesty's Commissioners to the Board of 
Trade and Plantations 


An other Letter of your Lordships dated the 2^ September 1764 
containing Directions &c to His Majesty's Governor's to reserve 
sufficient Tracts of Lands for the Use of His Majesty's Forts 

Also an other Letter from Your Lordships dated the 12™ September 
1765 with a Copy of a Letter inclosed from the Earl of Halifax to Your 
Lordships Board of the 20 June 1765, relative to the Demand made by 
Mr. Wyley, for Surveying the Catawbaw [sic] Lands. 

I have wrote to Mr. Wyley to desire he will send me the [Journal and] 2 
Particulars of his Expences, for the Survey of the Catawba Tract in 
Order to lay them in His Majesty's Name before the next General 
Assembly as there is no Public Fund Appropriated and Applicable to 
Contingent Services of this Government in General 

Fort Johnston is the only Fort in this Province. Fort Granville was 
never finished and what was done to it is now in Ruins. Fort Dobbs in 
Rowan County is likewise neglected and in Ruins; If this last Fort had 
been kept up it would not have been of further Service against the 
Indians as the Inhabitants of this Province have since the last War 
extended their Settlements upward of Seventy Miles to the Westward 
of the Fort. 

I am preparing Dispatches that will acquaint your Lordships of the 
particular State of Fort Johnston. 

All Directions and Commands I have already received from your 
Lordships Board as well [as] those I may here after be honoured with 
shall be observed and executed with Fidelity and Diligence 

I am with All possible Respect 
My Lords 
Your Lordship's 

Most Obedient and Most Humble Servant 
W m Try on. 

The Original sent to Lieut Govf Bull to go by the Pacquet 
Duplicate, by Doctor Corby n 

1 Try on evidently erred in his date of July 20. This letter to which he refers is dated July 
2, 1764, and has been included in this volume at that point. 

2 Omitted in PRO version. 


William Tryon mh-tlb, 75-76 

to Benjamin Barons cr-vil 204-205 5 

Benjamin Barons Esq Brunswick 3^ May 1766 

I received your Letter of the 6t" of last Month: This contained the 
first Information communicated to me of your Proposals to the GentP at 
Wilmington. These Gentlemen have paid so little Attention to the 
Conveniency I might receive from the Express that the Messenger has 
called but Once at Brunswick for any Dispatches I might have to send 
on His Majesty's Service. The late Conduct of the Gentlemen at 
Wilmington affords me at present no reasonable Hopes of Succeeding in 
any Recommendations I may lay before them. The whole of my 
Subscription to the Wilmington Express amounts only to £ 10. Proclam. 
money. If you can carry your Proposals into Execution, I will cheerfully 
subscribe Fifty Pounds this Currency and also pay the full Postage of 
my Letters for an Express from your Office once a Fortnight for four 
Months certain from Brunswick to Charles Town; being thoroughly 
sensible of the Great Necessity and propriety of such a Channel for 
Government Correspondence. I hope I have not Subjected myself to the 
Penalty of any Act of the British Legislature; or that my Conduct will 
appear at home to have in any ways tended to impede His Majesty's 
Intentions of Establishing a General Post thro' this continent, untill you 
had opened the General Post Office, and it could not be consider'd as 
open, before Letters were conveyed by it. I should have been obliged 
Occasionally to have hired an Express to send my Public Letters to 
South Carolina, must I in this Case have sent to MT Barons for leave to 
send My Dispatches to His Majesty's Packet at Charlestown? I in like 
manner consider'd the Wilmington Messenger, as a Temperary and 
Beneficial Expedient, and by no means calculated or intended to 
prejudice the General Post Office. This Subscription will from the 
Principles of its Foundation, drop, the Moment the General Post Office 
is opened. MF Palmer or any others concerned in carrying Letters thro' 
this Province last Summer are not entitled to any part of the £ 133.6.8 
Proc: Money voted in May 1765 by Resolve of the Legislature, for the 
support of the General Post Office. That Resolve stipulates the 
Application of the above sum to be under the Direction of the Post 
Master General. MF Palmer must depend on a Special Resolve of the 
General Assembly for his Reimbursement; As you inform Me You 
expect soon to embark for England with your Family I shall continue to 
trouble the Governor of South Carolina with my Dispatches, but as they 
will as long as you stay in Charles Town pass thro' your Office, I accept 
with Thanks your Offer, of care of them, also for those that may Arrive 
for me. I wish Yourself and Family a safe Passage Home 

I am &c. 


James Murray MHi-M 

to William Tryon 

Boston N.E. May 5 1766 
Governor Tryon 

It is some time since I was favP with Mr. Elwins Letters of the 22 
February inclosing a set of your Excellency's bills in my favor for 
£110...sterl? which not only pays me for the hire & price of the negro 
man Tom which I sold your Excellency but also for two parcels of hay 
sent and all Demand I shall for your Excellency's satisfaction send by 
another conveyance a bill of sale in form for Tom as soon as I know that 
it can be done authentic without Stamps. I beg the favour, of your 
Excellency to renew my License of Absence for another year tho I am 
not without hopes of being able to assist your Excellency at the next 
Session of Assembly in October 

You will be pleased to let me know in time if more hay will be wanted 
that I may look out to get it freight Free. Mrs Murray & Miss Clark 1 join 
me in Compliment to your Lady 

I am 

Your Excel9y s most dutiful Servant 

•Miss Clark is probably Annie Clark, daughter of Murray's sister Barbara. Annie Clark 
married William Hooper about a year later. Tiffany, Letters of James Murray, 99, 112, 
114, 117. 

William Tryon pro co 5/66, ff. 381-382 

to John Stuart Z&Ktlle 

John Stuart Esq Brunswick 5? n May 1766 

Superintendant &c 

I last Saturday received the favor of your Letters of the 22^ & 24 tn of 
April with His Majesty's Instructions to His Governors published in 
1763. As my short Residence in this Country and severe Sickness has 
not given Me an Opportunity of informing myself so perfectly as I wish 
to be of the Settlements to the Westward of this Province: I cannot at 
present give Mr. Cammeron Directions to survey the Line the Indians 
wish to have run as Described in their Talk. I can find nobody who 


knows where Dewis's Corner 1 lies. I shall lay your Correspondence 
before His Majesty's Council, so soon as I can receive such particular 
Informations I have sent for from the Back Counties I shall then be able I 
hope to Answer Satisfactorily the different Subjects contained in Your 

You give Me Pleasure by acquainting Me I may expect to see You at 
Brunswick, I wish to Experience that Satisfaction very soon. 

I am &c 

DeWitt's Corner in South Carolina. 

William Tryon mh-tlb, 74 

to William Bull cr-™ 6 63 

Brunswick 5? h May 1766 

The Honble W m Bull Esq 

Lieut? Governor of S9 Carolina 

I desire the favor of you to send the Inclosed Public Dispatches by His 
Majesty's Packet Boat which Mr. Barons informs me was expected into 
Charles Town last Week. We are quiet here for the present; No 
Business is done in the Courts of Judicature but Crown Causes. He must 
have a Wicked Heart indeed that does not wish to see a happy issue to 
the distracted Situation of Public Affairs on this Continent. 

I am Sir with much Regard &c 

Circular Letter to William Tryon 1 pro t. 27/29 

from the Board of Treasury [A&H: 76 - 28381 ] 

May 5, 1766 


It having appeared to the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's 
Treasury, That by the Resignation of several Distributors of Stamps, 
and by the late Unhappy Disorders and Tumults in some of the Colonies 
of North America, & the West Indies, many parcels of Stamp'd 
Parchment, and Paper, have come into the hands & Custody of the 
Governors, Magistrates, or other Persons within the said Provinces and 


Islands respectively: And the Act of Parliament for laying Duties on 
Stamps in the Plantations being now repealed, I am directed, by their 
Lordships to require your Excellency to give such Orders as may be 
found proper and necessary for returning, and forwarding, in the most 
safe and expeditious manner, to the Commissioners for managing His 
Majesty's Stamp Duties in Great Britain, all such parcels of Stamp 'd 
Parchment & Paper, as may remain in your Custody, or Power, or in the 
Custody or Power of any other Person or Persons within your 
Excellency's Jurisdiction. 

I am & May 5?h 1766 

Grey Cooper 2 

1 Although the copy here cited was addressed to James Murray, governor of Quebec, 
Tryon was among the twenty-one other governors named to receive it. 

2 Cooper at this time was a junior secretary in the treasury but afterward was a 
commissioner. Sainty, Treasury Officials. 120. 

Treasury Warrant for Payment pro t 53/50 

of Salary to William Tryon t A&H: ^.3297.1] 

May 6, 1766 

Ordered. By virtue of his Maj'tys Letters of Privy Seal bearing date the 
25? n day of March, 1766. These are to pray and require your Lordship 
to draw and order for paying unto William Tryon Esq? Captain Gen! 
and Governor in Chief in and over the Province of North Carolina in 
America or to his assigns the sum of 500 £ without Account for half a 
year ended the 19t n day of January 1766 on the yearly allow9 e or 
Salary of 1000 £ made payable to him by the said Letters of Privy Seal 
in lieu of a like salary formerly payable to the GovT of the said Province 
out of the Quit Rents thereof to enable him to execute his Commissions 
and the Instructions thereby given for his Maj? Honor and Suitably [sic] 
to the Dignity of the said Office and let the said Order be Satisfied out of 
any Monies that are or shall be in the Acct of the Exchequer arisen or to 
arise for or upon Ace? of the Duty of 4 l / 2 pr. ct. And for so doing thus 
shall be your Lordships Warrant. 
Whitehall Treasury Chamr s the 6 day of May, 1766 

W™ Dowdeswell, J. Cavendish, T. Townshend 

D° . . . alike-W* for 500 £ . . for V 2 a yF ended the 19* h July 1766 

Dated 14* h Novf 1766 & signed Graf., T.T., G.O. 

D° . . D? • • • for 500 £ . . for '/ 2 a y r . ended . . . 19 Jan^ 1767 

Dated 3 April 1767 signed T.T., Graf., G.O., P.C. 


D° . . . D° . . . for 500 £ . . for V> a y r ended ... 19 July 1767 

Dated 3 Dec. 1767. signed T.T., N., G.O., P.C. 

D? ". . . D? . . . for 500 £ . . for 'A a y r ended . . . 19 Jan!'y 1768 

Dated 26 April, 1768. signed N., CO., CJ. 

William Try on pro co 5/299, f. 164 

to the Board of Trade ¥?Ji T VtJ 5 

A&H-TLB, 64 
CR VII, 206 

Brunswick 6? h May 1766 
[Received July 1; read Aug. 9, 1766] 

The Lords Commissioners for 
Trade and Plantations 

It is my Duty to Acquaint your Lordships that Col9 Thomas Lloyd 1 
whom I recommended as a Gentleman qualified to serve in His 
Majesty's Council was One of the Leaders in the late Illegal Assembly at 
Brunswick. I must however do him the justice to let your Lordships 
know, he waited On me soon after, and acknowledged his Remorse for 
having been drawn in to join with that Assembly, and expressed his 
Error with the decency of a Man of Spirit, and of a Gentleman. He did 
not appear with the Men that invested My House, or could I find He in 
any ways promoted, or approved of the Impositions laid on the Officers 
of the Customs, by compelling them to take an Oath not to receive the 
Stamps, 'till they were generally Accepted. He is the only Person that 
has made me any Personal Apology. My Sentiments towards him are 
Generous, however I must submit the Propriety of his whole Conduct to 
your Lordships. 

I have the Honor to be with All Possible Respect and Esteem 
My Lords 

Your Lordships 

Most Obedient and 
Most Humble Servant 
W m Tryon 

! Tryon's letter to the Board of Trade, February 1, 1766, contains a reference to 
Thomas Lloyd made by Tryon. Lloyd was never appointed to a seat on the council. 


William Tryon l-f xxiii, 41 

to the Bishop of London 1 

North Carolina 

Brunswick the 17th May 1766 

My Lord 

Mr. Fiske 2 the Bearer waited on me in October last with the Inclosed 
Recommendatory Letter from the Principal Inhabitants of the County of 
Pasquotank in this Province. Some of the Gentlemen Subscribers are 
known to me I beg leave therefore to recommind [sic] Mr Fiske for 
Ordination. His Voyage to England being solely to obtain that Benefit. 

If he is so happy to receive your Lordship's Licence I shall on his 
Return collate him to the Parish of St. John's agreeable to the Powers 
and Authorities granted by His Majesty for His Governors in this 

I have the honor to be 

My Lord 

Your Lordship's Most obedient 
and humble servant 
Wm Tryon 

'Richard Terrick (1710-1777) was Bishop of London from 1764 until his death. When 
he became Bishop of London he resigned the vicarage of Twickenham in the parish where 
Tryon was later buried. Dictionary of National Biography, XIX, 558-559. 

2 Samuel Fiske was ordained and returned to North Carolina by April, 1767, when 
Tryon placed him in St. John's Parish, Pasquotank County. Quakers and Anabaptists 
elected to the vestry there, however, refused to qualify so that Fiske's salary could be 
paid. Fiske complained of this as early as 1769 and was still making complaints as late as 
1771. Tryon and the council advised him to sue at law for his salary but he apparently 
never did so. Saunders, Colonial Records, VII, 456-457, 541, 872; Weis, Colonial Clergy, 62. 

John Stuart pro co 5/66, ff. 384385b 

to William Tryon * cr-vii. 213-215 

[with enclosures] 1 

Charles Town 28th May, 1766. 


I am now to acknowledge the Receipt of your Excellency's Letter of 
the 5th Current, since Receipt of which a Talk from the Cherokee 
Nation, of which the inclosed is a Copy, came by the Return of an 


Express which I had sent into that Country; by it your Excellency will 
see, how seriously those Indians think of ascertaining the Line to divide 
your Province from their Hunting Grounds, and the disagreeable 
Consequences that probably will attend delaying to Satisfy them in 
demands which appear to me very reasonable & just; the inclosed 
Extract of M r Cameron's Letter, which accompanied their Talk, will 
point out the Course of the Line already run behind this Province, and 
where it terminates upon Reedy River, which falls into Saludy; from 
which Place they propose continuing it in a streight Course to Coll 
Chiswell's Mines upon the great Kannawa or New River; the Indians 
have so marked the Trees that the Line must easily be found. Mr 
Cameron at my desire diverted the Indians from Running the Line, 
behind your Province, till the Month of September next; after which 
time it will be extreamely difficult to keep them in order, without some 
steps be taken in this Matter. 

The present State of Indian Affairs in this department requires 
attention; The Confederate Nations of Abekas, Tollipusses, Alibamons, 
& Cowetas known to the English by the Name of Creeks, have of late 
years greatly increased in Number; they have not suffered by the 
incursions of the Northern Tribes, against whom the Cherokees & 
Chickasaws Serve as a Barrier, and no war has subsisted between them 
and any Tribe within this department for many Years. Before the 
evacuation of the Floridas & Louisiana by the French and Spaniards, 
the Creeks were equally Contiguous to the French, Spanish, & British 
Settlements, by which three great Nations, their Friendship was equally 
Sollicited and Coveted; This Competition Naturally raised in the 
Savages very high Ideas of their own Importance; and, altho' by the 
removal of the two first, the Competition has Subsided, and they are 
become in a much greater degree dependant on us for Supplies of 
European Commodities, yet that jealousy on Account of their Lands and 
independencey, which was deeply impressed on their Minds by the 
insinuation of the french, is not Effaced, and they Continue very insolent 
and uneasy ; whatever enmity or Misunderstanding may subsist amongst 
the Indian Nations, yet they all think themselves Concerned in every 
encroachment on, or injustice done any Tribe by us. The Complaints of 
the Cherokees on account of their Hunting Grounds and the Murder of 
their people in Virginia have been Echoed thro' all the Nations. The 
Creeks Talk of them in high Terms and quote them as incontestable 
Proofs of our bad intentions and Mortar Warrior, who hears the young 
& restless and turbulent part of his Nation has been very Busy in 
stirring up the Cherokees to take Revenge, Offering to support them 
with 700 Men immediately; and it was with the utmost difficulty that 
some Creeks, who with a Party of Cherokee pursued the Northern 
Enemy, were very lately hindered by the Latter from killing some white 
Men of your Province, who they mett Hunting; and within these twelve 


Months several Murders have been Committed by them in Georgia, 
West Florida, and Near the Cherokee Nation. They have of late been 
sounding the inclinations of our new Allies the Choctaws, and small 
Nations on the Mississippi to a general Rupture; they attempted to 
Seduce the Chickasaws, and are now endeavouring to inflame the 
minds of the Cherokees. I am not without hope however, that their bad 
intentions may be defeated by removing all Cause of just Complaint 
from, and Rendering Justice as far as is in our Power to the Latter. 

A Rupture with the Creeks and Cherokees would soon become 
general, the unfavourable Impressions left by the French in the Minds 
of our New Allies not being as yet entirely Effaced, and those two 
Nations Consist of no less than 6 or 7000 fighting Men, a formidable 
Body and in their Way of making War Capable of doing a great deal of 
Mischief, Compact and Contiguous as they are to our Provinces. 

I take the Liberty of Troubling your Excellency with a View of Indian 
affairs from a possibility of its being acceptable at a time when Settling 
the Boundaries is Agitated. 

As the Arrival of Lord Charles Montague 2 is Hourly expected, I wish 
to be in the Way when that Happens, as I may possibly Receive some 
instructions from the Ministry, Relative to these and such other 
Matters, as I long ago submitted to their Consideration; I afterwards 
propose myself the Honour of waiting on you at Brunswick, I most 
Sincerely wish your Excellency better Health, and have the honour of 
Being Respectfully, 


Your Excellency's 

Most Obedt &c 
Most hble. Servant 
[John Stuart] 

! An extract from George Price's letter to John Stuart and the letter of Alexander 
Cameron have been included in this volume as possible enclosures and immediately follow 
this document. 

2 Charles Greville Montagu (1748-1784), a graduate of Christ Church, Oxford, was a 
younger son of Robert, duke of Manchester. He was governor of South Carolina, 1766- 
1773. Joseph Foster, Alumni Oxonienses: The Members of the University of Oxford, 1715- 
1886 (Oxford: John Parker & Co., 4 vols., 1891), III, 970; Smith, South Carolina As a 
Royal Province, 357-366. 


[Enclosure 1 CR-VII,207 

Extract of Letter from George Price 1 
to John Stuart 

May 7, 1766 

My last was dated 27t n April, and I sent it by the way of Augusta, 
since that time every Trader's mouth, that I have seen from the 
Overhills has been filled with nothing but stories of the insolence of the 

George Parks 2 and one Bowie arrived here the 3™ and 4t n and they 
both agree in their accounts that the great Warrior was near killing one 
MT Savage, a brother of John Savage Esqr e , at Ninety Six; that the 
rogue Mankiller of Setties was prevented from killing another Person, 
that they met a party of Cherokees and Creeks as they were coming 
down, going to Chote, with a white man's scalp tied to a war club but 
that it was the opinion of everyone, that Boyd of Virginia, 3 the 
gentleman mentioned in my last, passed by safe; the Traders all of them 
seem to think the Cherokees would have murdered every man of them 
at one time this spring, if the Norwards had not fallen on them when 
they did, & must inform you that the Cherokees accuse us of having set 
them on. I wrote yesterday to the great Warrior to come down, that if 
the Creeks intend doing any mischief, I may get it out of him, as I am 
told there are constantly Messengers going between him & the Mortar 
and that the Creeks are pouring very fast into this Nation. 

1 Ensign George Price accompanied Alexander Cameron on this assignment to run the 
boundary line. 

2 George Parks in 1786 purchased a lot in Salisbury when property belonging to James 
Kerr was sold. Clark, State Records, XXI, 808. 

3 Alexander Boyd was sent by the government of Virginia to the Upper Cherokee 
Nation and was returning home in May, 1766, when it was reported that he and two 
attendants were killed near the Cherokee towns. (Saunders, Colonial Records, VIII, 234.) 
Since there are numerous references to a man, or more likely to several men, of this name 
in Virginia sources, there is some doubt that the report of the death was accurate. For 
example, the Virginia Gazette of June 7, 1766, contains an advertisement inserted by one 
of this name describing a runaway slave and seeking his return to Boyd's store at New 
London in Bedford County. 


[Enclosure ] PRO CO 5/66, ff . 398-404 

Alexander Cameron cr-vii, 207-213 

to John Stuart 

10th May 1766. 

Agreeable to your Instructions to me, I set out the 21st ultimo, to see 
the Cherokee boundary Line surveyed; I was accompanied by the 
Prince of Chote, Jud's Friend, Tiptoe Enny and the Wolf, with thirty 
young men, and we arrived at Dewise's Corner on the 24th following. 

Mr. Wilkinson 1 was appointed Commissioner by the Governor and 
Council, to see the Line run, and Mr. Pickens, the Surveyor, attended 
us. We began the line at Dewis's Corner and proceeded southwest 50 
miles to Savannah River; the Indians blazed the Trees as we went, and 
made the Boundary very clear and strong, as they term it. 

I could not learn that we took in any Land, that had been surveyed by 
any White man before; but there is one Atkins, settled within four Miles 
of the Line, near to Savannah. The distance from Dewis's Corner to the 
River (as near as we could make it) is 27 Miles; The course of the Line, 
from Dewis's Corner to Reedy River, where the Line terminates, is N.E. 
50 Miles, and the distance 18 Miles. About Saludy, there are several 
Houses within four Miles of the Line, and one House within one mile of 
it. On the North Carolina side of Reedy River, there are three or four 
Families settled: and even if the Indian boundary be run a North 
Course, these settlements will fall five or six Miles above it. One 
William Turner on Saludy, below Ninety Six, has settled a Cowpen and 
Plantation on the above Indian Lands, altho' he very well knew, that 
Mr. Wilkinson, by Governor Bull's order, removed a settlement off the 
same Tract of Land last year: I have sent a warning to remove without 
loss of Time, otherwise, I should take upon me to drive them off, and 
distribute part of their Cattle among the Indians, as a Tax belonging to 
them, &c. 

The Cherokees propose running the Line from where it Terminated a 
streight Course, to Colonel Chiswell's Mines, which I believe will be 
North, as nigh as I could make it; They say, that it must be very evident, 
that as they have given all their claims of Lands in Virginia, below 
Chiswell's Mines, and in South Carolina, below Dewis's Corner, that a 
straight Line, from Reedy River to the Mines, most consequently cut off 
a great deal of their Land in Carolina; that part of their Hunting Ground 
lies 40 Miles eastward of where they now nominate their Boundary; but 
that they do not love disputing with the White People concerning a 
trifle, therefore they made them a present of it. 


It would be very necessary that a Surveyor should first sight the Line, 
from Reedy River a North Course, in order to know, where it will 
terminate, in Virginia, and whether, or not, it will take away any of the 

Your Express, George Redd, arrived at Dewis's Corner the 6th Inst: 
as we returned from marking the Line; I read to the Indians, what part 
of your Dispatches concerned them, for which they return you their 
Thanks: they likewise return you thanks, for your Trouble and 
assiduity, in having their Boundary Line fixed, as they are very 
sensible, it is of great importance to them: they were however 
Chagrined, that Governor Bull had sent no presents, for the Lands they 
ceded to the Province of South Carolina; and more especially, as they 
were a poor People, and prevented from Hunting, by the numerous 
parties of their Enemies, that lurk continually about them. Inclosed you 
have a Talk from the head beloved Man Kittagusta, dictated to him, by 
many Men and Warriors of his Nation. I inclose you likewise, an 
Instrument, Certifying their being present, as well as myself, at the 
Surveying of the Division Line of South Carolina as already mentioned. 

I have distributed most part of the Ammunition among the Indians, 
for their Defence, as well as the greatest part of the other Presents you 
have sent them. 

I would be glad that you would renew the Indian Commissions which I 
conveyed to you, and send them, with the Medals, by the first 
opportunity, as they are at present much wanted to be given, as a 
Memorial of our Friendship toward the Cherokees, which the Creeks 
endeavour to depreciate, as much as possible. One dozen Medals is the 
least that is necessary for them, and if you think proper to be distributed 
as follows, to Ouonnastotah, Kittagusta, Attacullahcullah, Willinnawah, 
Otassatch, of the Overhills; Moitoy, of the Valley; the Mankiller of 
Nuccassie who now lives in little Choteh, to the Southward of the 
Valley, Tiptoe, Emy, Saludy and the Wolf lower Towns, and Tugooloo. 

In my Letter of the 2nd April, I informed you that Emy, or the old 
Warrior of Estatoe, was ready to set out to war against the Norwards, 
with a party of Cherokees and twenty Creeks; upon their March, on the 
frontier of N9 Carolina, they met two white Beaver Hunters, and it was 
with great difficulty Emy prevented the Creeks from Hatch eting them; 
but after a strong and long talk from him to the Creek Head Man (The 
Buck) he prevailed upon them, to return the white men their Guns, 
which they had taken from them; Emy told them that he would proceed 
no further with them, as they determined to bring him into a Scrape; and 
that he could not be present at shedding the Blood of any of his Brothers 
the English; he instantly returned home and the Creeks followed. Mr. 
Price and I, shook hands with, and thanked Emy, at a public meeting for 
his behaviour, and made him small presents: I however explained to 
him, that he did no more than his Duty, for his own Interest, and the 
good of all his Nation. 


Tiptoe had pretty good success in his Expedition: he routed the 
Enemy in two different engagements, he brought home 3 Scalps, Skulls 
& all; in the first skirmish, the Seed ofSettico was wounded, of which he 
died in six nights after; Tiptoe relates, that when he received his 
wounds, he told them he should die in six nights, and desired they 
would not think it troublesome to carry him so long; On their arrival in 
Camp, after the sixth days March, the Seed told them he was now going 
to die; that he was a man, and Warrior, that he did not die like a Woman, 
in Bed, that he died in War; but, said he, you must not bury me under 
the ground, to be smothered, Tye me up with Vines to a pretty high 
tree, where the enemy cannot find my Scalp, but I can see them when 
they are going to War against you, and if I can do no more, I shall bring 
you Intelligence thereof. One more of the party was killed, and three 
wounded, one of which died since. The Cherokees were surprised in 
Camp, and most of them ran away; but upon Tiptoe's animating them 
by a strong and bold speech, throwing off all his Cloaths, and killing the 
Head warrior on the first onsett, his party rallied and beat off the 

Mr. Taylor writes me from over the Hills, that the Rogue Mankiller, 
and his Brother Kennititah are employed as Embassadors, between the 
Mortar of the Creeks, and Ouonnastotake; and, that the Mortar engages 
to reinforce the Cherokees with 700 on one day's warning, provided 
they will go to Virginia, and fall on the back settlements &c. 

The following, is an extract of a letter from Mr. Alexander Boyd of 
Virginia, to me, dated Tenassie 2d April 1766. 

"The Great Warrior, and Attacullaculla, went to see the great King, 
and seem extremely desirous to embark from Virginia, and were they to 
sollicit our Governor and Council for leave, (as they seem inclined to do) 
they would undoubtedly obtain it, adding their Agents, and your 
Concurrence thereto; for there are none of the Murderers, that killed a 
party of these People, yet apprehended, neither can they without 
imminent danger, for the whole Body of Crackers, 2 to a man, have 
unanimously declared, publickly, that they will espouse their cause at 
the expense of their Lives, so that proclamations and great Rewards 
answer no purpose. And should these head men be allowed to take a 
Voyage, the expence of conducting them to, and from England, would 
not exceed the premiums offered for bringing the other Villains to 
justice. Our Colony is now about building, and fixing, a large store at the 
great Island on Houlston, for carrying on an extensive Trade, and 
supplying them on the most reasonable terms possible; and at their 
Request to our Governor & Council, they design to make overtures of 
Peace, to the Northern Tribes, in their behalf; which, if they can Effect, 
great Influence will be used with those living on the Ohio, to bring their 
Commodities also, to this grand Magazine, and be supplied with 
Cloathing &c; all this is possible, but I fear their Views are too 


"I have been Interrogated by several of the Warriors, why the 
Governor and his beloved Men, did not catch the Rogues, and hang 
them that killed their people; and indeed of late, Rumours prevailed 
here, of some of the disaffected having been busy, sowing bad talks 
among them, and they are threatening Revenge for their Losses; 
therefore, your presence here, is much wished for." 

We had accounts some time ago, that Mr. Boyd was killed, going into 
Virginia, but I am glad to understand that our information was 

Numerous are the fearful and dreadful Stories, the Traders report of 
the Cherokees, and the continual attempts of the Creeks upon them, to 
alienate their Minds from us, and sow the Seed of Contention between 
us, if possible, but I am not affraid of setting everything in its proper 
Channel, and making all streight. 

I must observe to you, that should the great Warrior and Attacullaculla, 
be allowed to go to England from Virginia, and pay his passage 
backward & forward, it would never be a sufficient acknowledgement to 
the Relations of the Indians that had been murdered; but if the 
perpetrators of the Murder cannot by any means be brought to justice, 
then they must send large presents for the Relations of the Murdered 
and endeavour to make up matters that way; I am informed the whole 
Body of them intend to pay me a visit on my arrival as I had been all 
along promising them satisfaction; I am upon my word affraid of them, 
but I hope to be able to wave the affair still longer. 

I think Sir, it lies with you, to send home the Great Warrior and Little 
Carpenter, 3 as it would be of the greatest service to the Public, I do not 
in the least doubt but they will be sent home from Virginia, (unless you 
will suppress them) as I am convinced the Carpenter will leave no stone 
unturned to Effect it. 

In an Engagement between the Northwards, and the Hunting Party 
of Cherokees down the Tenassie, four of the former were killed, and 
three of the latter, and several wounded on both sides; the Cherokees 
threw themselves into a Block House (made by the Carpenter last 
Winter for his own defence) which prevented their being mostly cut off, 
as the Enemy were much superior in number. 

A few days after, a Norward Indian came close to the Island Town, 
and snapt his Gun three times at a Cherokee Indian that was cutting of 
wood; the former ran up to the Cherokee with his Tomahawk, and made 
a Stroke at him, which the latter partly parried; They grasped each 
other, but the Norward oversett his antagonist, upon which the 
Cherokee called out, and a Wench, that was nigh to them, ran to her 
friend's assistance, oversett the Norward in his turn, tied him Neck and 
Heels, and brought him in; His tryal soon came on, and Attacullaculla, 
who was Chief Justice, ordered him to be burnt, after cutting off some of 
his Members, which orders were soon executed; the fellow behaved 
with great undauntedness, and smiled at his torture. 


On the 21st ult. Old Welsh, daughter (whom Mr. Wilkinson keeps) 
and grandchild were going to Tooguloo, and were met by six Norward 
Indians; Welsh had his grandchild in his arms, and his daughter coming 
behind; he shook hands with the Indians, and asked what Country, but 
he finding them seizing of him, and making up to his daughter, knew 
they were Enemy, and called to her to make her escape: upon which, 
she turned her horse about and gave him the whip, the Enemy flung two 
spears at her, and wounded her in the side, and arm; Welsh, and 
Wilkinson's child, were both killed, and their brains knocked out with a 
War Club, which was left by them with Shame Signs upon it; No Trader 
will venture into this Nation, if the enemy are permitted to kill White 
People, as well as Red. 

Mr. Wilkinson notwithstanding his good Oeconomy, expended to the 
amount of £600 Currency in making small presents to the Indians, and 
supplying them with provision; altho' I bore a part of the Expence, I am 
however well convinced, that no man in the Province of South Carolina, 
could have done it at so little expence. 

The Traders, with one Voice join and request, that you would apply 
to Sir William Johnson, 4 in order to Suppress the Insolence of the 
Norward Indians, contrary to the last treaty of Peace; the Consequence 
of that Breach of theirs will be, that the Cherokees will follow their 
example, and knock up as many of their Traders as they can, which 
they already begin to insinuate. 

His Highness the Prince shakes hands with you, and begs that you'll 
send up an Union Flag, to be displayed on particular occasions in the 
head beloved Town of Choteh; Ottassatch or Jud's Friend, holds you 
fast also, and desires, that you would give a strong talk, to Henry Young 
at the Forks of Edisto, concerning three Negroes of his, who were taken 
in the time of war by some of the Cherokees, who were going with them 
to the French in order to sell them; when Jud's Friend spoke, and said, 
that altho' they were at war with the English at present, they would 
have a peace with them by and by and that he would not suffer the 
Negroes to be sold to the French, that he himself would purchase them, 
and gave him 300 lbs of Leather for them; they were afterwards sent 
down here, & the Jud left it to his own generosity, what to give, but he 
never had a farthings worth; a couple of cows would satisfy him. 

I am Sir &c 

Alex*" Cameron 

Presumably, this is Edward Wilkinson, commissioner on the Cherokee boundary 
expedition and superintendent of southern Indian affairs (Saunders, Colonial Records, VII, 
207, 208, 212, 852; X, 330-331, 770-771, 783). "Mr. Pickens" quite possibly was the 
Andrew Pickens who was experienced in dealing with the Indians and who in 1785 was 
elected Indian commissioner. 


2 This may be the earliest recorded use of the term Crackers. The first use noted by the 
Oxford English Dictionary was in the London Chronicle, No. 4287, 1784, with reference to 
a disturbance in America "by the inroads of that hardy banditti well known by the name of 

'Little Carpenter was the whites' name for Attacullaculla. 

4 Sir William Johnson (1715-1774), born in Ireland, emigrated as a British representa- 
tive to America about 1738. He was skillful in dealing with the Indians and from 1735 
until 1774 served as superintendent of Indian affairs. In 1760 he hired horses from a man 
named Walter Lindsay; the horses were to be used by Mohawk Indians on a mission 
against the Cherokees authorized by Johnson. Sir John Johnson, son of Sir William, 
organized the Indians and tories and instigated raids against the colonials. After the 
American Revolution Sir John was given an estate in Canada. Saunders, Colonial Records, 
VII, VIII, X passim; Webster's Biographical Dictionary , 790. 

James Murray MHi-M 

to William Tryon 

To Governor Tryon Boston N.E. 31?t May 1766 


On Thursday I had the honour of your Excellencys Letter of the 25 tn 
March Mr Elwins favours Feb^ 22 I have already acknowledged. I now 
inclose in obedience to his Desire a Bill of sale for Tom, who I rejoice to 
hear makes a good Servant to so good a Master 

In imitation of your Excellency's Example I shall be silent on 
Politicks; let the news papers which are inclosed in a Seperate packet 
speak the Sentiments & for the temper of our Leaders. Mr Agar 1 left 
with me the other day the inclosed Letter for your Ex c y I shall 
communicate that of your Letter which relates to him. I have ordered 
two tons of Hay on board the Rainbow Capt Homer which carries this 
having got it freight free from the Owner I might have sent more, but it 
is dearer now than it will be by & by For my last I requested of your 
Excellency a Renewal of my Leave of Absence for another year, not 
foreseeing any Important Points that might sooner require my Attend- 
ance. I likewise signified that I was not without hopes of being in the 
way to assist your Excy at the Winter Session but as affairs have now 
turned— you will be able to have a Session in June or July. 

I hear Mr Martin Howard, 2 a Gentleman of the law who was turned 
out of his house by the Mob at Newport has the offer of the late Mr. 
Berrys place —your Ex c y I imagine will not chuse to pass a Court Bill till 
the arrival of a Chief Justice. 

Mrs. Murray & Miss Clark join with me in Compliments to your Lady 
& Miss Tryon. I am respectfully 



your Excellency's 

dutiful & obedient Servant 

11 bundles w. 44.1.14 of hay @ 26/old tenor 57.13.9 

carrying on board 2.4.- 

£ 5.19.9 Ster. are equal to 59.17.9 

1 Perhaps this was the William Agar, or Agur, who later served Nottoway Parish, 
Southampton, Virginia. He evidently considered settling in North Carolina but decided 
against it. Saunders, Colonial Records, VII, 458, 786; VIII, 12-13. 

2 Martin Howard (ca. 1725-1781) grew up in Rhode Island where he studied law and 
held a number of positions of trust. He was a delegate to the Albany Congress in 1754 and 
afterward was a member of the Rhode Island Assembly. In part as compensation to him 
for losses he suffered in Rhode Island during protests over the Stamp Act, the crown 
offered him an appointment as chief justice of North Carolina, a post which he accepted in 
the summer of 1766, his commission bearing the date of July 29, the date of this letter. 
Within six months he was in the colony and qualified. It fell to his lot to try the Regulators 
whose cases were appealed to the higher court, and he was widely regarded as fair. 
Regulators in Salisbury specifically excluded him from a list of judges whom they 
distrusted. In 1770 Howard became a member of the council. During the Revolution he 
withdrew quietly to live as "an obscure man in the woods," but in 1778 he was called upon 
to take an oath of loyalty to the state; he refused and soon afterward removed his family to 
New York. Within a year he left for England where he lived the remainder of his life on a 
small government pension. Sabine, American Loyalists, I, 546-547. 

Alexander Cameron cr-vii, 215-216 

to John Stuart 

Toquch l s t June 1766 

I arrived here on the 25^ n ult: and notwithstanding the dreadful & 
alarming information the Traders reported of the Indians, I found them 
in very good humor and their Talks very straight. 

I upbraided them with the murder of poor M r Boyd (who is without 
doubt killed with one Fields and Burk) but the Cherokees firmly deny to 
a man their having any hand in it, I am not however without some 
suspicion of them, from the many insinuations they dropt at different 
times in my hearing of the grudge they bore the Virginians in general 
since the murder of their friends in that Country. 

I demanded a party of the Cherokees from their Chiefs, to go as far as 
Broad River, where M r Boyd's horses were found, in order to search for 
his bones that they might be buried, they readily granted my request, 
but the many tracks of the enemy that they met with frightened them 

They absolutely deny giving any encouragement to the Creeks in 
regard to their falling on the White People, and desire that you will not 
believe any such groundless reports of them. 


The Cherokees with one voice return you their unfeigned thanks for 
all the good offices you do them, and if you could but settle a peace 
between the Norwards and them they would for ever acknowledge it as 
the greatest obligation to you. 

The little Carpenter's brother brought in a scalp two days ago, and 
another was brought in by a Party off the great Island, two more to 
Chuoee above Chillhowe —Every now and then we hear the War Hoop. 

It is shocking to express the tearing cheating & horse stealing that 
have been committed among the Indians by the Traders and Pack- 
horsemen last winter in this Nation. Various and numerous are the 
complaints made to me against them, but I was too late to redress them, 
it is no wonder that the Cherokees should withdraw their affections from 
us, when we allow such villains to trade or reside amongst them. 

The Indians seemed extremely satisfied with the appearance of M r 
Ross, 1 who arrived here a few days since from Virginia, he is Factor to 
the Public Trade to be carried on by that Colony with the Cherokees. He 
made them a proposal of settling a store fortified with stockade on Long 
Island on the Houlston; but they replied that his Talk was very good and 
agreeable to them, but that they would not allow any store to be fixed 
for the following reasons; that that was their best Hunting ground, and 
that their young fellows might steal some of their horses and kill their 
cows, and that the White People would be for taking some satisfaction; 
that the issue of this would be their breaking out in an open rupture. 

The Assembly of Virginia have voted £30,000 South Carolina 
Currency for the support of this Trade, and to continue for seven years; 
it seems their views are not to make money but to supply the Indians on 
the cheapest terms possible. Mf Ross promises sending them 
ammunition in a couple of moons, if the Norwards will permit him, and 
he intends carrying all his goods by water. He sets off to-morrow for 
Keowee, from thence about to Virginia, as the path this way is very 

1 David Ross was factor for the Indian factory in Virginia (Virginia Gazette, November 
19, 1767). See George Price's letter which follows. 

Excerpt of Letter from cr-vii, 216-217 

George Price to John Stuart 

June 3, 1766 

M r Cameron has been gone from this place ever since the 17^ n of last 
month but I have not heard from him yet. After the different accounts 
we had concerning M r Boyd it is now reduced to a certainty that some 
mischance has befell him and the three men who accompanied him. 


Their Horses have all been brought in from the Tar River where 'tis 
supposed their Bodies were thrown in after they were slain as there was 
no traces of them any further and as none of their Effects can be found it 
is suspected that a party headed by the White Owl did the Mischief that 
party having returned as they said from War after M r Boyd's departure 
for Virginia and on their coming near Chote set up the death Whoop 
altho they returned as they said without meeting any enemy One Ross 
who is factor for the new instituted Company in Virginia for carrying on 
a Trade with the Indians came into the Nation along the Road M r Boyd 
was to have went but saw nothing of him This Gentleman's business in 
the Nation is to obtain the consent of the Cherokees to build a Factory 
on the Great Island on Holstowns River but the Great Warrior told him 
the Virginians might settle at the Lead Mines and send in Traders from 
thence but no nearer The Carpenters Wife does not stop to say it was 
the Owl and his party who did the mischief 

Commission of William Tryon a&h-go 

to Thomas Lloyd 

June 4, 1766 

North Carolina Ss 

His Excellency William Tryon Esq!" His 
Majestys Captain General and Governor 
in Chief in and over the said Province- 

To Thomas Lloyd Esquire Greeting 

OUT of the assurance I have of Your Loyalty Integrity and Ability, I do 
hereby Nominate, Constitute and Appoint you the said Thomas Lloyd 
to be His Majestys Assistant Judge of the Superior Court of Justice for 
the district of Wilmington within the said Province in the Room and 
Stead of Robert Howe Esquire; To hold, use, Exercise and Enjoy the 
said Office of Assistant Judge during my pleasure; together with all 
powers, Authorities, Salaries, Fees & Emoluments to the said Office 
belonging or in any wise appertaining 

GIVEN under my Hand and the Great Seal of the 
said Province at Brunswick this Fourth Day of June 
in the Year of Our Lord 1766 And in the Sixth Year 
of His Majestys Reign 

W m (Great Seal) Tryon 

Recorded August 4™ 1766 
John London P SecY 

By His Excellencys 

Benj Heron Seer 


Proclamation fro co 5/299, ff. 188b -189 

of the Governor K« 5 


CR-VII, 226-227 

June 9, 1766 

North Carolina'ss 

By His Excelly William Tryon EsqF &c &c 

A Proclamation 

Whereas general complaint has been made to me of the very great 
Scarcity of Grain and other Provisions in this & the Neighbouring 
Counties and several representations laid before me of the present 
distress of many Families Inhabitants of the said Counties from the 
want of the necessaries of Life 

I do therefore with the Consent of His Majestys Council hereby 
Prohibit the Exportation of any Indian Corn, Wheat, Flour, Rice, Pease 
or any Species of Grain, Corn, or Pulse whatsoever, or to any other Port 
or River within this Province; such Quantity of Grain or other Provisions 
before Enumerated, only Excepted, as shall upon the Oath of the Master 
or Masters of such Vessels departing this Port be deemed Sufficient for 
the use and Consumption of such Vessels during their next intended 
Voyage. I do also with the Consent of His Majesty's Council hereby 
Order that no Vessel or Vessels which shall have before the issuing of 
this Proclamation received on board any Quantity of the Articles by this 
Proclamation before prohibited from Exportation, such Quantity only 
excepted as shall upon the Oath of the Master or Masters of such Vessel 
or Vessels be declared to be no more than sufficient for the use of the 
said Vessel or Vessels during their intended Voyage, shall Leave or 
depart from the said Port of Cape Fear, till all such Grain more than 
sufficient for the last mentioned use and Consumption shall be unshipped 
and secured from Exportation, & I do hereby Order that this Embargo 
and Prohibition shall be and Continue from the date hereof, to the 15t n 
day of October next, and all persons concerned are hereby required to 
conform hereto, as they will answer the contrary at their Peril — 

Given under my hand &c, at Brunswick 9t n June 1766 — 

W m Tryon 

By His Excellency's 

Benjamin Heron, Sec7 


The Duke of Richmond 1 pro co 5/66, ff. 132 133 

to William Tryon 2 cr-vii, 217-218 

Whitehall, 12th June 1766. 

I have the pleasure of transmitting to you herewith inclosed a Printed 
Copy of an Act of Parliament entitled "An Act for indemnifying Persons 
who have incurred certain Penalties by an act of the last Session of 
Parliament for granting certain Stamp Duties in the British Colonies 
and Plantations in America &c" as also a Copy of another Act "for 
Opening and Establishing certain Ports in the Islands of Jamaica & 
Dominica for the more free Importation & Exportation of certain Goods 
& Merchandizes & other Purposes therein set forth." 

Thus you see, Sir, that not only the greatest attention has been shewn 
to his Majesty's American Subjects by the repeal of an act which they 
had complained of, but those grievances in Trade which seemed to be 
the first and chief object of their Uneasiness, have been taken into the 
most minute Consideration, & such Regulations have been established, 
as will, it is hoped, restore the Trade of America not only to its former 
flourishing state, but be the means of greatly increasing and improving 
it, to the Conveniency & advantage of all His Majesty's Subjects in 
every part of his Dominions. 

With these Views have these Regulations been enacted, & from the 
best Enquiries into the Commerce of America, it is more than probable 
that very salutary Effects will answer the Intentions. 

Such manifest concern and tender Regard shewn by His Majesty, & 
his Parliament for the true Happiness and Prosperity of the Colonies 
and Plantations, cannot fail, I am persuaded, to produce on their Part, 
suitable Sentiments of Duty, Respect & Gratitude to Their King & of 
love and attachment to their Mother Country 

I am &c 

1 Members of the Stewart family bore the title from 1632 until 1672; from 1675 until the 
present members of the Lennox family have held the title. This correspondent was 
Charles (1735-1806), who was secretary of state for the Southern Department during 
1766-1768 and opposed the ministerial policy toward the American colonies. Sainty, 
Officials of (he Secretaries of State, 99; Webster's Biographical Dictionary, 883. 

^Circular letter to all of the governors in America and the West Indies. 


William Tryon mh-tlb, 77-78 

to Sir Henry Moore 1 a&h-tlb.66 

Sir Henry Moore, Barf Brunswick 14? n June 1766. 

Governor of New York. 

The favor of your letter with the public dispatches from the Secretary 
of State to the Governors of the Southern Provinces and the Admiralty 
letters to the Captains of the Sloops of War I received yesterday, by a 
master of a Sloop from New York. I have delivered the letters directed 
to the Captains Lobb and Wallace: as the latter sails with the Tryal in a 
week for Charles Town he will take charge of the above public letters 
under cover to Mr. Barons Post Master General for this department. 

Permit me Sir to congratulate you on your accession to the government 
of New York and to wish you may find the inhabitants actuated by 
principles suitable to the unparalleled generosity and lenity of the 
British Legislature in their late conduct towards the Colonies. I never 
received the circular letter you mention to have sent the several 
Governors. If I can be serviceable in this wild part of the continent, you 
may command, Sir, 

Yours &c. 

•Sir Henry Moore, first baronet (1713-1769), was born in Jamaica where he was 
lieutenant governor and suppressed a slave uprising. He became governor of New York in 
1765. Dictionary of National Biography, XIII, 801-802. 

William Tryon mh-tlb, 78 

to Henry Seymour Conway cr-v? 2i8 6? 

Brunswick 14th June 1766 

The Right Honble Henry Seym: Conway Esq, 

I had the Honor to receive your Letter of the 10 tn of October delivered 
to me by Lord Hope 1 the 21 st of May last. I endeavor'd to make His 
Lordship experience that Respect and Attention You recommended me 
to show him, a Behaviour I esteemed in every Respect due to His 
Lordship upon a Personal Acquaintance with him. I had the Pleasure 
and Satisfaction of His Company four Days in my House, and should 
have been happy with a longer Continuance of so Amiable a Guest. I 
attended His Lordship down the River and was Two days on board his 
Ship. The 1 st of this Month He took the Opportunity of a fair Wind and 


sailed for Virginia. I was concerned to see him in so critical a State of 
Health; the Obstinate Cough he labors under, indicates a Consumption. 
If there are any Productions Sir in this Colony you would wish to 
obtain upon notifying them to me, you may be assured I shall take a 
Singular Pleasure in my Endeavors to procure them as well as at All 
times to obey your Public and private Commands 

I am &c 

Charles Hope (1740-1766), son and heir apparent of John Hope, earl of Hopetoun, died 
en route home from a visit to the West Indies and was buried at Abercorn. White, The 
Complete Peerage, VI, 573. 

William Tryon mh-tlb, 79 

to Sir William Johnson 1 CR-viins-^o 8 

Sir William Johnson Bart Brunswick 15. June 1766 

The Sachem of the Tuskerora [sic] Indians 2 waited on me the 17: of 
last Month: he shewed me the Credentials You gave him and a pass 
obtained from Governor Fauquier of Virginia, both which together with 
his Talk informed me of the Intention of his Journey from Susquehanna 
River. He arrived at this Town Very 111; I ordered a Doctor to attend on 
him, the best Care to be taken of him, and to be supplied from my House 
with every thing he wanted. This Complaint was the Mumps, of which 
he recovered in about a Week he dined twice at my Table which was as 
often as his Health would permit. I found him not only Humanized, but 
really Civilized As the Tract of Land the Tuskaroras hold in this Colony 
upon the Roanoke was granted to them by the Legislature of this Colony 
I acquainted the Sachem it would be necessary for his Waiting till the 
Meeting of the General Assembly to be held at Newbern the 30™ of 
October next, when I would give him All the Assistance in my Power for 
the sale of so much of the Land as would be necessary to bear the 
Travelling Expences of as many of the Tuskaroras, as were willing to 
quit this Province, and march to join the Six Nations. The Sachem at 
first was very unwilling to stay himself till the above time, as he had 
promised his Nation, and you Sir, to return to them in seven Months 
from the Time of his Departure; and that that term was already expired: 
however upon taking further time to Consider on it, and upon my 
Assurance to Acquaint his Nation, thro' you, of the Necessity of his 
Waiting till the Meeting of Our General Assembly, he consented to go to 
his People settled in this Province till the above Period. The Eight 
Indians he brought from the Six Nations he told me he had left at the 
Indian Town, on the Roanoke River. He gave me Strings of Wampum 
during his Talk. At my Request that he would give the Governor of this 


Province an Indian Name, upon a days Consideration he honoured me 
with his own Name, Diagawekee, in Testimony of his Regard for the 
Care I had taken of him in his Sickness, This Name is to remain to all 
future Governors of North Carolina 

In a letter I have lately received from Mr Stuart Superintendant of 
Indian Affairs for the Southern District, he mentions your Application 
for his Assistance to get the Tusks residing in this Country to remove, 
and join the Six Nations; to Accomplish which End you may be assured 
my Assistance shall not be wanting, as also my Protection to as many of 
the Nation as choose to Continue in the Province. I am told their number 
including Men, Women and Children amounts to nearly Two Hundred 
and Twenty or Thirty. 

I gave the Sachem a Pass under the Seal of the Province for Himself 
and Attendants. The Interpreter I understand is the same that came 
from the Six Nations with him; he seemed to be attentive to the Sachem, 
and behaved himself very well while at Brunswick. 

I am Sir &c 

! Sir William Johnson (1715-1774), first baronet, settled on the Mohawk River in 1738 
and traded with the Indians. He became superintendent of Indian Affairs in 1755. See also 
Alexander Cameron to John Stuart May 10, 1766, n.2, in this volume. Dictionary of 
American Biography, V, 124-128. 

2 Diagawejee came to North Carolina as head of the Tuscaroras to help remove 130 of 
his tribe to Oneida Lake. John W. Moore, History of North Carolina (Raleigh: Alfred 
Williams & Co., 2 vols., 1880), I, 95. 

William Tryon mh-tlb, so 

to William Bull cr-vi™ 9 

The Honble William Bull Esq Brunswick 17: June 1766 

I am to Acknowledge the favor of your Letter giving me the Intelligence 
of the Repeal of the Stamp Act, as also your Letter delivered me by 
Lord Hope. It is with Pleasure I congratulate you on the above Event, I 
trust the Generosity and Benevolence of His Majesty and His Parliament 
in their late Conduct to the British Colonies, will engrave such gratefull 
Inpressions on the Minds of the Americans as neither Ambition, 
Prejudice of Education, or time, will ever be able to efface. Their 
Interests under their different Circumstances are certainly Mutual, and 
Reciprocal. I have received by Way of New York Dispatches from the 
Secretary of State notifying the Repeal of the Stamp Act, &c I have 
inclosed the Dispatches to the Governors of the Southern Province, to 
Mr. Barons a Packet directed to Lord Charles Montagu makes me 
imagine His Lordship may be Arrived at His Government. 

I am &c 


William Tryon mh-tlb, si 

to Benjamin Barons cr-vi^ 222 69 

Benjamin Barons Esq Brunswick the 17 tn June 1766 

The favor of your Letter of the 27 tn of last Month I received the 1 st 
Ins. As the Circumstances of the Times does not so immediately require 
Expedition for public Dispatches as before the Repeal of the Stamp Act; 
I have Ordered My Secretary to inform Mr. Burgwin, I have no further 
Occasion to subscribe for a Messenger to go from Wilmington to Charles 
Town. Till I see a difference of Behaviour among the Gentlemen of that 
Borough, I cannot expect any Proposals I should make agreeable to 
your Plan, will meet with their proper Effect. 

I send You inclosed by this Opportunity the Public Dispatches for the 
Governors of the Southern Provinces, as also Two Letters for the 
Captains Foley and Fanshawe; 1 they were sent inclosed to me by Sir 
Henry Moore, with a desire that I would forward them to Charlestown. I 
should be glad to hear of your Receipt of the above Dispatches. I am &c. 

Efforts to identify Captains Foley and Fanshawe have been futile. 

William Tryon mh-tlb, 81-82 

to John Stuart CR.v1I220.221 1 

John Stuart Esq, Superintendent &c Brunswick 17 June 1766. 

I had the Satisfaction to receive your Letter of the 28 tn of last Month 
by MT London with a Cherokee Talk and an Extract from MI* 
Cammeron's Letter; I now wait only for MT Palmer the Surveyor 
General coming into Brunswick from Bath Town to hold a Council when 
I shall communicate the whole of Your Correspondence, and hope by the 
Time you promise me with a Visit to be able to Accomodate the 
Requisitions of the Indians to the Satisfaction of All Parties. If the Line 
the Cherokees propose to be run is continued in a Straight Course from 
Reedy River to Chiswell's Lead Mines. I am informed that a Considerable 
part of Mecklenburg and great part of Rowan Counties will be left to the 
Westward of the said Line, and consequently a large Body of Inhabitants 
will be shut out of this Province; I therefore think the first propositions 
of the Indians the most easy to be affected Vidt a north Course to be run 
from Reedy River to the Mountains and from thence a Straight Course 
to the Mines; but this you will be a better Judge of when I have the 
Pleasure of shewing you the Rough Sketch I have obtained of Our 
Western Frontier Counties. 


The 17 tn of last Month the Sachem of the Tuskaroras waited on me 
with very good Credentials from Sir William Johnson; he applied to me 
for leave to sell the Lands belonging to his nation in this Colony to 
support the Expence of as many of his Subjects on the Roanoke as are 
willing to join the Six Nations. I could not comply with his Request 
without the Consent of the General Assembly; their Lands being 
appropriated to them by an Act of the Legislature of this Province. I 
have therefore perswaded [sic] him to go to his People settled on the 
Roanoke and remain with them till the Meeting of the General Assembly, 
to be held at Newbern next October when I assured him I would give all 
the Assistance in my Power; and in the mean time promised to write to 
Sir William Johnson to desire he would Acquaint the Six Nations of the 
Cause of his Delay 'd return to them. 

I hope you have had an Opportunity of Congratulating Your new 
Governor on his safe Arrival among You, and that nothing will impede 
my soon experiencing the Pleasure of your Company in this more 
Solitary part of the World. I am &c 

William Tryon mh-tlb, 95 

to Lord Charles Greville Montagu(e) 1 a&h-tlb, 83 

The Right Honorable Brunswick 17? n June 1766 

Lord Charles Greville Montague 

I received last week the Inclosed Dispatch by a sloop from New York 
inclosed to me from Sir Henry Moore with other Dispatches to the 
Governors of the Southern Provinces; the latter I have directed to Mr. 
Barons the Postmaster General. 

I am, my Lord, &c. 

] Montagu(e) had assumed the office of governor of South Carolina. 

John Pownall for the pro co 324/18, f. 6 

Board of Trade to William Tryon 1 

June 19, 1766 


I am directed by the Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, 
to transmit to you a printed Copy of each of the several Acts passed in 
the last Session of Parliament, which related to America. 2 


I am, 

your most obedient and 
most humble Servant 
John Pownall 

'A circular letter also sent to the other colonial governors. 
2 No copy of the acts was found with this document. 

John Rutherfurd 1 

to William Tryon uE-Q^-fef' l "' l " b 

A&H-CJ, 327-329 
CR-VII, 229-230 

North Carolina June 23, 1766 

To His Excellency Will m Tryon EsqF 
Captain General and Governor in Chief in 
and over the said Province, The Memorial 
of John Rutherfurd His Majesty's Receiver 
General for the said Province. 

Humbly Sheweth — 

That in the Year 1758 The late Right Honble Henry Bilson Legg 2 
Then Chancellor of the Exchequer, and who in the absence of His Grace 
the Duke of Newcastle then presided at the Board of Treasury, was 
pleased to require of Your Memo to form and make out a Rent Roll of all 
Lands holden under Grants in His Majesty's District in this Province 
and for which Service He was pleased to say Your Memorialist should 
be allowed in His Account with the Crown for His Expence and trouble. 

Your Memo in Obedience to the said Command from Materials then 
in his Possession, from Extracts out of the Secretarys Office and from 
the Registers Offices in the different Counties in His Majesty's District, 
for which Your Memo, having paid the Clerks and Registers agreeable 
to the Orders of His late Excellency in Council, Also for the expence of 
Books and Papers from England without including for his own personal 
expences and trouble, he has expended the Sum of Six hundred and 
thirty eight Pounds, three Shillings & Six Pence Currency. 

Your Memorialist furthur begs leave to inform Your Excellency that 
he has been employed since the Year 1761 in forming the said Rent Roll 
in 14 Volumes folio & two other small Folios, which not only contain the 
whole of the Lands in His Majesty's District to be found upon Record 
but also all the Conveyances from one Person to another for upwards of 


50 Years past, and though it cannot be said those Books contain an 
exact Rent Roll; occasioned by the Loss of some Records, Neglects of 
Former Provincial Secretarys, uncertain Bounds of Country Lines, 
neglects of Owners of Lands in not recording their Conveyances and the 
impossibility of finding out what Quit Rents had been paid before the 
Year 1749. 

Those Books however, if the Grants and Conveyances continue to be 
Yearly Pooled up, will exhibit an exact Rent Roll, as the Persons in 
Possession of Lands must be under the Necessity of either paying from 
the dates of their Grants or produce former receipts. The whole of what 
is now His Majestys district of this Province was formerly comprehended 
in one County under the Name of Bath County and which has since at 
different Periods been Subdivided into 16 different Counties; Your 
Excellency can very well judge of the difficulty Your Mem: has had to 
arrange the Lands in their proper Counties by reason of the vague 
manner of Description of Lands in former Times. 

Your Mem9 hopes Your Exceliy s approbation to state in his Accounts 
as reasonable Charge for this Service the Sum of One Thousand Pounds 
Currency besides the Sum of Six hundred and Thirty Eight Pounds 
three shillings and Six pence for his expences in forming and making 
out the said Rent Roll, which he flatters himself will be of great service 
for the finding out and ascertaining His Majesty's Revenue in this 
Province and which never could heretofore be Obtained through means 
of any Provincial Assembly and heretofore deemed otherwise impossible 
to be got accomplished. 

Your Mem9 therefore prays for Your Excell. recommendation To 
the Right Honble Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury for 
the final allowance of such Charges in Your Mem9 Accounts with the 
Crown and as in Duty bound will ever pray 


John Rutherfurd 

Dated 23^ June 1766. 

'John Rutherfurd, or Rutherford, (1722-1782) was brought to North Carolina at about 
the age of twenty by James Murray. He settled in the Lower Cape Fear and in 1750 was 
appointed receiver-general of quitrents, on the collection of which he received a commis- 
sion. Governor Dobbs suspended him from the position for a time, but by 1761 he had 
been reinstated. He served on the commissions which surveyed the Cherokee Indian 
boundary line and the North Carolina- South Carolina line, was a member of the council, 
and held other positions. He was a member of the firm of Rutherfurd & Co. dealing in 
lumber and merchandise. A loyalist during the Revolution, he returned to England and 
died shortly after landing. Sabine, American Loyalists, II, 249-250; Schaw, Journal of a 
Lady of Quality, 20-340 passim. 

2 Henry Bilson Legge (1708-1764), financier, was the fourth son of the first earl of 
Dartmouth. From 1754 until 1761 he held the important office of chancellor of the 
exchequer. He had served as ambassador to the king of Prussia in 1748. Sainty, Treasury 
Officials, 136; Webster's Biographical Dictionary, 878. 


Proclamation pro co 5/299, f. 192 

of the Governor a&h CJ cj 3 329 369 

CR-VII, 231 

June 25, 1766 

North Carolina'ss 

George the Third By the Grace of God of 

Great Britain France and Ireland 

King defender of the Faith and so forth . . . 

Whereas Complaints have been made to us that Exorbitant Fees have 
been demanded and taken in the several Public Offices in our Colonies 
to the great Dishonour of our Service and the Prejudice of our Public 

We do hereby strictly enjoin and require all Publick Officers in their 
Respective Stations throughout this Province not to demand or Receive 
any other Fees for Public Business Transacted in their Offices, than 
what are Established by proper Authority upon pain of being removed 
from their said Offices, and prosecuted with the Utmost Severity of the 

Witness Our Trusty and Well 

beloved Will™ Tryon Esquire 

Our Captain General and Governor &c. at 

Brunswick the 25™ day of June anno Dom. 

1766 and in the Sixth Year of Our Reign 

God save the King 

(Signed) Will m Tryon 

By His Excellencys 

Benjamin Heron Sec7 


Proclamation proco 5/299, f. 193 

of the Governor Jfg&Swsi 


June 25, 1766 

[Read by BT, Nov. 6, 1766] 

North Carolina 

By His Excellency William Tryon Esq r His Majestys Captain 
General Governor &c &c 

A Proclamation 

Whereas an Authentick Account has been Transmitted to me of the 
Repeal of the Act of Parliament granting Certain Stamp Duties in 

I do hereby with the Advice and Consent of His Majestys Council 
Issue this Proclamation, to Notify the same that Publick Business may 
be carried on as usual, and that the Inhabitants of this Province, may 
return to that Chearful Obedience to the Laws, and Legislative 
Authority of Great Britain, On which the future happiness and 
prosperity of the Colonies so greatly depend 

Given under my hand and the Great Seal of this Province 
at Brunswick this 25™ June Anno Dom. 1766 and in the 
Sixth Year of His Majestys Reign 

W m Tryon 

By His Excellencys Command 
Benjamin Heron Sec^ 

Deed of Sale pro ao 13/124, f. 6 

from Jacob Lobb to William Tryon 

June 25, 1766 

This Indenture made the Twenty fifth day of June in the Sixth Year 
of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord George the third by the Grace of 
God of Great Britain france & Ireland King defender of the faith and so 
forth, and in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and sixty 
six, Between Captain Jacob Lobb Commander of His Majestys Sloop the 
Viper at Cape Fear of the one part And His Excellency Colonel William 


Tryon Governor and Commander in Chief of the Province of North 
Carolina of the other part. Witnesseth, That the said Jacob Lobb for and 
in Consideration of the sum of One Hundred Pounds Proclamation 
Money of the said Province to him the said Jacob Lobb in hand well and 
truly paid, the Receipt whereof is hereby Acknowledged. He the said 
Jacob Lobb Hath Granted, Bargained and Sold & by these presents 
doth Grant Bargain and Sell unto the Said William Tryon His Heirs and 
assigns all that Messauge or Tennement with the Ground and Appurte- 
nances Situate in Brunswick in the Province aforesaid formerly 
belonging to Benjamin Wheatley Deceased and now in the Tenure 
possession or Occupation of the said William Tryon together with all out 
Houses Edifices, buildings, lands, wayes, Profits Commodities and 
Advantages Whatsoever to the said Messuage or Tennement belonging 
or any Ways appertaining, and all the Right, Title, Interest, Claim, and 
demand whatsoever of him the said Jacob Lobb of in and to the said 
Messuage or Tennement and premisses and every part thereof. To 
Have and to Hold the said Messuage or Tennement & premisses and 
every part and parcel thereof with the appurtenances unto the said 
William Tryon His Heirs and assigns, to the only proper use and behoof 
of the said William Tryon his Heirs and assigns forever. And the said 
Jacob Lobb for himself his Heirs and assigns the said Messuage 
Tennement and premisses and every part thereof Against him the said 
Jacob Lobb and his heirs and assigns and against all and every other 
person and persons Whatsoever to the said William Tryon his heirs & 
assigns shall and will warrant and forever defend by these presents. In 
Witness whereof the said Jacob Lobb hath hereunto set his hand & seal 
the day and year above Written. 

Jacob Lobb 

Sealed & delivered 
in the Presence of 
John Rutherford 
FountP Elwin 

North Carolina 

The above Deed of Bargain & Sale was duly 
Acknowledged in form of Law the 25 tn Day of June 1766 and at same 
time M rs Lobb being privately examined relinquished all her Right of 
Dower in the Same, Let it be Registered 

Ja s Hasell 

[Receipt on the back:] 

Received the day and year within written of the within Named William 
Tryon the sum of One Hundred pounds Proclamation Money being the 


full Consideration Money within Mentioned to be paid to me I say 
Received by me 

Jacob Lobb 

Fount* 1 Elwin 

These are to Certifie that the foregoing is a true Copy 
taken from the Register Book of Brunswick County N9 Carolina folio 49 
& 50, Book A. 

Will: Lord Reg r of Bruns^ County 

Corporation of Wilmington pro co 5/310, Part 1, ff. 101-ioib 

to William Tryon 11°™%™*' 184 " 184b 

June 26, 1766 

North Carolina 

To His Excellency William Tryon Esq!" 
Captain General, Governor, and Commander 
in Chief, in and over the Province of North 
Carolina &c 

The Address of the Corporation of Wilmington 


We His Majesty's most Dutiful and Loyal Subjects the Mayor, 
Recorder, Aldermen, and Freeholders of the Borough of Wilmington 
beg leave to Congratulate Your Excellency on the Repeal of the 
American Stamp Act, and on the happy prospect of the union and 
Harmony thereby established between the Colonies and their Mother 

Permit us also to express our most grateful acknowledgments to the 
Supreme Legislature of Great Britain for their Care and Attention in 
Protecting the Inhabitants of his Majesty's extensive American Domin- 
ions in the enjoyment of that inestimable blessing, Liberty, and at the 
same time releasing them from a burthen they were unable to bear. 

With hearts full of Gratitude to the best of Kings, we assure your 
Excellency, that we shall be ready at all times to defend and protect His 
Majesty's Person and Government, and to Evince our inviolable 


Attachment to His Illustrious House at the risque of our Lives and 

We cannot help expressing our concern at the many misrepresenta- 
tions that have been made to your Excellency of the transactions of the 
Inhabitants of this Borough & several of the Adjacent Counties since the 
time of the Stamp Act's taking place; permit us to assure you, Sir, that it 
ever has been our constant endeavor as far as our influence extended, to 
promote the ease and happiness of Your Excellencys Administration. 

Moses John DeRosset, Mayor 

Borough of Wilmington 
26 th June 1766 

William Tryon's Reply pro co 5/310, Part 1, f. 102 

to the Corporation of Wilmington ll^nf 99 ' ff " 184M85 

June 26, 1766 

His Excellency's Answer 

To the Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen, and Freeholders of the Borough of 



It is with satisfaction I receive your Congratulations on the Repeal of 
the Act of Parliament Granting certain Stamp Duties in America. 

The grateful acknowledgements you express to the Supreme Legis- 
lature of Great Britain for their care and attention to the Liberties of the 
Inhabitants of His Majesty's American Dominions, and also your 
affectionate and Inviolable Attachment to His Majesty's Sacred Person, 
Family, and Government, as they are extremely Gratefull to me, I shall 
with a sensible pleasure transmit those warm sentiments of Respectful 
Gratitude and Duty to his Majesty's Principal Secretary of State. 

I trust that the Moderation and unparelleled Lenity, so remarkably 
Manifested by his Majesty and the Parliament to the Colonies, will 
dispose the Inhabitants of this Province to that Chearfull obedience to 
the Legislative Authority of Great Britain, on which their future 
Prosperity so much depends. Such a Conduct will prove the strongest 
Cement for the most firm and happy Union between the Mother 
Country & her Colonies. 

I Profess, Gentlemen, I am at a loss to answer that part of your 
Address, wherein you mention Misrepresentations having been made 
to me of the Conduct of the Inhabitants of the Borough of Wilmington. I 


declare what Impression I have conceived of them arose from a 
Behavior, that came immediately from my own Observation. 

Brunswick 26™ June 1766 

A True Copy taken from the Original this 3^ August 1766 

Fount n Elwin Priv: Sec: 

The Duke of Richmond pro co 5/66, f. 135 

to William Tryon 1 Fa&h^q 1 ] 7 

Whitehall 10t h July 1766. 


I send you herewith inclosed an Act Intitled "an Act for repealing 
certain Duties in the British Colonies and Plantations, granted by 
several Acts of Parliament &c? and for granting other Duties instead 
thereof." which I make no doubt will be received and considered as a 
further Proof of the King & Parliament's Attention to the Interests & 
Prosperity of His Majesty's American Subjects. 

Circular letter to all of the governors in America. 

Memorandum of a pro co 5/217 

Circular Letter to William Tryon 

July 10, 1766 

Dispatched Thursday 10* h July. 1766 

Circular to all the Governors transmitting the Act for repealing certain 
Duties in the British Colonies, & granting others in Lieu thereof. 

Petition from the Chiefs shc-s 

of the Tuscarora Indians 

[Before July 12, 1766] 

To His Excellency William Tryon Esq*" Governor & Commander in 
Chief in & over the Province of North Carolina. 


The Members of His Majestys Honorable Council for the said Province. 
And the Worshipful Speaker & Assembly thereof. 

The Petition of the subscribers, the Chiefs of the Tuscarora Indians. 

The Assembly sheweth 

That your Petitioners Ancestors were the aborigines of the said 
Province & possessed of greatest part of the Lands in the same in their 
own right, long before it was discovered by the English. 

That about the Year 1714 the said Nation of Indians concluded a 
solemn Treaty, with the then Lords Proprietors Deputies of North 
Carolina, in Writing, whereby the said Indians acknowledged the 
sovereignty of King George the first, of Glorious Memory, and pledged 
their faith to observe dutiful allegiance to him; and also surrendered to 
the said Lords Proprietors all the Lands in the said Province, except a 
small part thereof, which is described by Metes & Bounds in the said 
Treaty, which said parcel of Land the said Lord Proprietors Deputies, 
by the aforesaid Treaty, granted and confirmed to the said Tuscarora 
Indians, their Heirs and Assigns, in fee. 

Your Petitioners further shew that from the time of concluding the 
said Treaty hitherto, the said Indians have most punctually, observed 
the same. Nevertheless several of the said Lords Proprietors Deputies, 
some Years after Ratification of the said Treaty, in open violation of the 
same obtained Patents from the rest of the Deputies for diverse parts of 
the Land so as afore said confirmed to the said Indians, without their 
Consent or Privity. 

Your Petitioners further shew that the afore said Treaty being lost, 
the General Assembly in the Year 1748, passed an Act, whereby the 
said Treaty is recognized, the Bounds of your Petitioners said Land 
recited, and their Title thereto confirmed, but by a Clause in the said 
Act, persons who had obtained the said Patents are empowered to enter 
into & hold the Lands mentioned, therein, according to the Tenor of the 
said Grants from & after the time when your Petitioners should leave 
the same, which your Petitioners humbly hope will be considered as 
incompatible with the aforesaid Treaty and natural Justice, and therefore 
they would humbly pray that so much of the said act as tends to validate 
the said Patents be repealed, the said Patents rendered null & void, and 
your Petitioners left at Liberty to enjoy their said Land according to the 
original Intention of the said Treaty. 

Your Petitioners further shew that about fifty years ago a considerable 
part of the said Nation of Tuscarora Indians removed themselves to the 
Northward & settled near the Mohocks where they now Live & possess, 
an extensive Tract of Land, in which is great plenty of Game, so that by 
hunting they support themselves comfortably, and have increased in 
Numbers greatly That Diagawehee, alias Isaac, a Sachem of the 


Tuscarora Indians, and several others of the said Nation living in the 
North, having learned the Poverty & Distress that your petitioners are 
reduced to, occasioned by the Destruction of Game, so that they can not 
any longer subsist themselves by hunting, are lately come among us 
your Petitioners, and have solicited us to go to the Northward, there to 
reside & enjoy in common with them the Blessings which their Country 
naturally affords, which kind Invitation about one hundred and fifty six 
of the Tuscarora Indians now residing in this Province have agreed to 
accept; but are unable to carry their Resolution into Execution unless 
they can raise a Sum of Money to discharge their just Debt, buy 
necessary Cloathing and defray the Expences of the Journey; Therefore 
the said Indians have unanimously agreed to sell a Part of the Land 
secured to them by the aforementioned Treaty, to wit, Beginning at the 
mouth of Deep Creek or Falling Run; thence up the said Creek to the 
head Line of our Petitioners Lands; thence by the said head Line South 
57 degrees East 1280 poles; thence a Course parallel with the general 
Current of Deep Creek aforesaid to Roanoke River & up that to the first 

Your Petitioners further shew that Robert Jones, His Majesty's 
Attorney General, William Williams of Halifax County 1 and Thomas 
Pugh of Bertie County, 2 whose Friendship your Petitioners are well 
assured of, have consented to become Trustees for selling and 
disposing of the said Land: Your Petitioners would therefore humbly 
pray that an Act may pass, vesting all that part of your said Petitioners 
Land, lying West of the third parallel Line, in the said Robert Jones 
William Williams & Thomas Pugh, the Survivers or Surviver of them in 
fee that they may be impowered and directed to lay it out in convenient 
Lots, not exceeding 640 Acres each, to sell the same at publick Auction 
to settle and adjust all Debts due from Your Petitioners & with the 
Money arising from the said Sales pay the said Debts, furnish all such of 
the Tuscarora Indians as shall undertake to go to the Northward with 
their Brethren with necessary Apparel & Money to defray the Expences 
of the Jury [journey], and to distribute, the Surplus of the said Money, if 
any, equally among such of the Tuscarora Indians as shall choose to 
tarry behind. And that the said Trustees, for their Trouble in executing 
the said Trust may hold and enjoy respectively, a Lot of the said Land, 
to be set apart for them by your Petitioners or a Majority of them in fee 

And your petitioners as in duty bound, shall ever pray &c. 

Billy Taylor Jn9 Cain Billy Hinds 

mark mark 

John Wiggins Billy Sockey Billy George 

Billy Howard Billy [Netops?] Billy dennis 

Captain Blunt Captain J9 Captain Basket 


Billy Blunt 

Billy Pugh 


Billy wheeler 

John Blunt 

James Blunt 

Tom Whitmore 

John Roggers 

Billy Owens 

Billy Bennet 


John Jackit 

Isaac Miller 

John Roberts 

billey Tommas 


1 There are too many men of this name in the records of the time to further identify 
William Williams. 

2 Perhaps this was the Thomas Pugh of Bertie County who served in the colonial 
assembly in 1764 and in the provincial congress of 1776. John L. Cheney, Jr., (ed.), North 
Carolina Government, 1585-1974 (Raleigh: North Carolina Department of the Secretary of 
State, 1975), 49, 158, hereinafter cited as Cheney, North Carolina Government. 

jA****} fatiw^ 

A ^'"' .,, -\ , "... 

't&faMt* m XdjmMfyJttM., 

— ' y&^piid®&M4 

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. — ■ /L 

1 // ' 

i i, 

Sl£* 1 Q0-f&* 



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tew*; *L*'£*^K. hfCt-MlP^'X 



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Pictured above are signatures on the petition from the chiefs of the Tuscarora Indians. 
Photograph courtesy of the Southern Historical Collection, Chapel Hill. 


Commission of William Tryon a&h-go 

to Robert Howe 

July 14, 1766 1 

North Carolina Ss 

GEORGE the Third by the Grace of God 
King of Great Britain France & Ireland 
Defender of the Faith &c. 

To Our Trusty and Wellbeloved Robert Howe Esq r Greeting 

We reposing especial Trust and Confidence in your Loyalty, Courage 
and good Conduct, do by these presents Constitute and Appoint You to 
be Captain and Commander of Our Fort, called Johnstons Fort in Our 
Province of North Carolina in America; You are therefore Carefully and 
Diligently to Discharge the Duty of Captain and Commander by doing 
and Performing any and all manner of Things thereunto belonging; And 
all Our Officers and Soldiers, whom it may Concern, are hereby 
required to Obey you as Captain and Commander of Our said Fort; AND 
You are to Observe and follow such Orders & directions, from time to 
time, as you shall receive from us Our Captain General and Commander 
in Chief of Our said Province now and for the Time being, or any other 
Your Superior Officer According to the Rules and Discipline of War, in 
pursuance of the Trust we hereby repose in you Witness Our Trusty 
and Wellbeloved William Tryon Esqf Our Capt. General, Governor and 
Commander in Chief of Our said Province the fourteenth day of July in 
the Year of Our Lord 1766 And in the sixth Year of Our Reign 

W m (Great Seal) Tryon 

By his 

Exceliy s Command 
Benj Heron Secy 

Recorded August 4t h 1766 
John London P Sec y 

'Captain John Dalrymple had died on July 13, 1766. See Tryon to Lord Barrington,July 
29, 1766, in this volume. 


William Tryon mh-tlb, 82-83 

to Charles Greville Montagu(e) a&h-tlb, 71 

Brunswick the 18* July 1766 

The Right HonN e The Lord Charles Grevil Montagu 
Governor &c. of South Carolina 

The honor of your letter of the 2^ inst gave me great satisfaction as it 
informed me of his Majesty's having appointed your Lordship to the 
government of South Carolina and your safe arrival there. 

Your Lordship may be assured I shall always be glad to receive any 
information you may favor me with, as likewise to communicate to you 
any occurrence that may in any ways relate to his Majesty's service, and 
the benefit of these provinces, with my best wishes for the honor and 
prosperity of your administration, 

I am &c. 

William Tryon mh-tlb, 83 

to Lord Colville a&h-tlb, 71 

Brunswick 18t h July 1766. 
The Right Hont> le Lord Colvill. 

I had this day the honor to receive your Lordship's letter of the 5? n of 
June, delivered to me by Lieut. Allen. As Cap? Lobb sailed from this 
province the 10? n inst purposing to touch at Halifax in his passage to 
England I destroyed the letter directed to him. The public dispatches 
you mention to have been sent to Sir Henry Moore were forwarded by 
Sir Henry to me. The Captains Lobb and Wallace were at my house 
when they arrived about a month since; I delivered them their letters 
and desired Cap? Wallace to take charge of the dispatches to the 
Commanding Officers of his Majesty's ships stationed to the Southward 
of this province, as he was to sail for Charles Town in his way home. 

I thank your Lordship for favoring me with the list of his Majesty's 
ships intended to remain in North America. 

I am my Lord with respect and esteem &c. 


William Tryon mhi -m 

to James Murray 

Nor Carolina 

Brunswick 19th July 1766 


I have had the pleasure to receive both your letters wherein you 
request a Renewal of your leave of absence for another year. My 
Complyance to this request, was it in my power to grant it would at 
present be of no Signification; As by His Majestys Instructions bearing 
date the 19th Feby 1766, I am ordered to Call together, the Persons, 
whose Names are inclosed, Whom His Majesty has appointed to be the 
Members of His Council for this Province. In my next Dispatches to the 
Lords of Trade I shall acquaint their Lordships Mr. Richd. Spaight 1 was 
Dead before I came into this Province, and that On my Arrival here, I 
found you Senior Member of His Majestys Council. If you are of opinion 
your being excluded from the Council, arises from any Mistake in 
Office, It is necessary you should write Home on that Subject, and if 
reinstated to Obtain His Majestys permission for your longer absenting 
yourself from this Colony. The Assembly of this Province I had 
Prorogued to the 30th of October next before I knew any thing of the 
Repeal of the Stamp Act at which time, I hope the Legislature will meet, 
with Unite[d] Hearts, and generous Sentiments. 

I am Sir, with my Complts to Mrs Murray & family 

your Obedient Humble Sert. 
Wm Tryon 


I have desired Mr Elwin to answer the other parts of your letter and 

acknowledge your Civilities to Me. 

Spaight had died in January, 1763. Spaight's death was a real blow to the governor, 
who greatly depended on his competent nephew-secretary. Spaight's son, Richard Dobbs 
Spaight, and his grandson, Richard Dobbs Spaight, Jr., served as governors of North 
Carolina. Clarke, Arthur Dobbs, Esquire, 188-189. 


William Tryon mh-tlb, 83 

to Peter Timothy 1 a&h-tlb, 72 

Peter Timothy, Esq. 
Deputy Post Master General for the Southern District of 

America at Charlestown. 

Brunswick 19t h July 1766. 

I received your letter of the ins? acquainting me of Mr. Barons 

having appointed you to act as Deputy Post Master General during his 
absence from his department. I thank you for your offers of service, and 
shall acquaint you with whatever measures are taken in this province 
relative to your office. 

I am &c. 

1 Peter Timothy (ca. 1725-1783) was born in Holland and at the age of six was in 
Philadelphia with his father, Lewis Timothy, a printer with whom he later worked. The 
family soon afterwards moved to Charleston, S.C., and when the elder Timothy died in 
1738 young Peter assumed publication of the South Carolina Gazette; in addition, he 
published books and other material. In 1764 Timothy became secretary to Benjamin 
Barons, deputy postmaster general, when that position was established and was 
temporarily in charge of the southern district from the time of Baron's departure until the 
arrival of Baron's successor, Peter DeLancey. Until 1772 Timothy served as DeLancey's 
secretary. He became an ardent supporter of the Revolutionary cause. Hennig Cohen, The 
South Carolina Gazette, 1 732-1 775 (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1953), 
241-248 and passim. 

The Corporation of Wilmington pro co 5/310, Part 1, 

to William Tryon PR ff ^ j% 99 ff 186 

CR-VII, 242-243 

July 28, 1766 

May it please Your Excellency 

It is with extream Concern we have Observed in Your Excellency's 
Answer to the Address of the Corporation of Wilmington expressions 
which may be construed to charge that Borough, with some marks of 
intentional disrespect towards Your Excellency, a Conduct which from 
the consciousness of our hearts, we can with the greatest Justice 
disclaim, and which from a love of Order and regard to Decency we 
should sincerely Condemn, not only as inconsistent with that Dutiful 
Affection towards His Majestys Representative, which we shall always 
endeavor to Cultivate, but with the Grateful return of Sentiments which 
your Personal Merit justly claims. 


If oppressed by the late Act some commotions of the Country seem'd 
to threaten a departure from Moderation, Your Excellency we hope will 
not impute these transactions to any other Motive than a Conviction that 
Moderation ceases to be a Virtue when the Liberty of British Subjects is 
in Danger, but the greater that Danger was the more reason we have to 
applaud the Honor and Justice of the British Parliament whose prudent 
resolutions have relieved us from the Melancholy dilemma to which we 
were almost reduced. 

From His Majesty whose Heart ever rejoices in the Happiness of His 
People, we most humbly and thankfully receive this Mark of Attention 
to the Distresses of His American Subjects, and shall always return His 
Royal Protection and regard with all the Affection and Obedience of the 
Most Loyal Subjects of a free Kingdom join'd to that filial Duty and 
Constitutional Connection on which our future happiness and existance 
[sic] entirely depends. 

Amidst the Variety of disagreeable events, which the late Commotions 
occasioned, we have with great indignation observed in the Barbadoes 
Gazette of the 19^ n of April 1 a paragraph as void of Decency as it is of 
Truth, well assured that Your Excellency's Conduct has been always 
regulated by no other motive than a Generous Concern for the Public 
good, and that Duty which You Sir, and we all owe to a Sovereign ever 
intent on the Welfare of His People, supported by an Ardent desire to 
promote the particular happiness of a Province committed to Your 

We have the Honor to be 

Your Excellencys 
28 th July 1766 Most Dutiful and Obedient Servants 

Marmaduke Jones 2 
John Burgwin 
Thomas Loyd 
W m Campbell 
John Ancrum 3 
Henry Toomer 

Alexander Duncan 
Moses Jn DeRosset 
William Purviance 
Cornelius Harnett 
Anthony Ward 

Richard Eagles 4 
Obadiah Holt 

John Lyon 
John DuBois 
Fred^ Gregg 
George Parker 5 
James Moran 6 
Will m Wilkinson 7 

A True Copy taken from the Original this 2^ August 1766 

Fount* 1 Elwin Priv: Sec: 

'Attempts to locate a copy of this newspaper in the United States, in Great Britain, and 
in Barbados have been unsuccessful. Although the Barbados Gazette commenced 
publication on October 9, 1731, the earliest surviving issues date only from June, 1787. 

2 Marmaduke Jones (ca. 1724-1787), an attorney, was described by William Tryon in 
1767 as "a gentleman of the first credit and capacity in the country." A relative of Sir 


Marmaduke Wyvill, Jones was educated in England but by the time of this letter had been 
living for some while in America. In 1760 Jones was appointed assistant judge of the 
general court; in 1767 he became attorney general; in 1768 he became a member of the 
governor's council. William Hooper wrote in 1784: "I have seen Marmaduke Jones: He is 
the greatest coxcomb alive." Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 64, n.78. 

3 John Ancrum (d. 1779) was a business partner of Alexander Duncan and Robert 
Schaw. The three were prosperous Wilmington merchants. Ancrum served as a deputy 
secretary to Arthur Dobbs, justice of the peace, and judge of the admiralty court at Port 
Brunswick. He became an active revolutionary and was chairman of the Wilmington 
Committee of Safety. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 194, n.148. 

4 Richard Eagles was one of the first Wilmington town commissioners, 1739-1740. He 
was active in securing land for Fort Johnston and was especially interested in the 
development of roads and ferries. Eagles Island, a group of swampy islands between the 
Cape Fear and Brunswick rivers, was named for Richard and Joseph Eagles. Lennon and 
Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, XX; Powell, North Carolina Gazetteer, 154. 

5 George Parker, Scotsman, had arrived in Wilmington in 1762. He was a town 
commissioner and a justice of the peace. In 1766 he participated in the Stamp Act affair at 
Brunswick, but in 1771 he left North Carolina and may have lived in Boston. The North 
Carolina property he had not already disposed of was confiscated. After the war Parker 
lived in Middlesex County, England. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 121, 

6 James Moran (d. 1774) had come to Wilmington from Ireland. He was appointed 
deputy clerk for New Hanover County in 1761 and in 1767 became sheriff, although his 
life was threatened because he accepted the office. His handling of the sheriff's position 
was commended by the county court a year later (1768). His plantation on the sound was 
known as Prospect Hall. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 93, n.95. 

7 William Wilkinson (d. 1780) and Cornelius Harnett were joint owners of a rum 
distillery in Wilmington. In addition, Wilkinson was a merchant and held the county 
offices of constable and justice of the peace. During the Revolution he served as 
paymaster for several independent companies of troops. Part of his large estate he willed 
to the Presbyterian church in Wilmington. Lennon and Kellam, Wilmington Town Book, 
160n-161n. " 

William Tryon mh-tlb, 84 

to Lord Barrington 1 cr-vil 244 ?2 

Brunswick 29 th July 1766 

The Right Honble Lord Barrington 
His Majesty's Secretary at War, 

I have the Honor to Acquaint Your Lordship that Cap? John Dalrymple 
Commander of Johnston's Fort in this Province died the 13 tn Inst, in the 
said Fort. As his Commission for the above Command was from His 
Majesty, I have issued a New One under the Seal of the Province to Mr 
Robert Howe (a Gentleman of this Province) to succeed him till His 
Majesty's Pleasure is further known. As your Lordship was so obliging 
to assure Col9 Boyd that if the Command of this Fort should become 
Vacant it should be given to my Recommendation: I beg leave therefore 
to renew my Sollicitations for His Majesty's Commission in favor of MX 


Howe and to remind Your Lordship of Your intended Goodness to me I 
am with Esteem and Respect &c. 

Note. Sent by the Hawke, Cap? Rich^ Newton to London 

'William Wildman Barrington, second viscount Barrington (1717-1793), as a member 
of Parliament in 1745, introduced the plan for the formation of the militia. He was 
secretary of war, 1765-1768. Dictionary of National Biography, III, 295. 

The Duke of Richmond a&h-go 

to William Try on: Warrant for the 
Appointment of Martin Howard 

PRO T 28/1 
[A&H: 76.2886.1 

July 29, 1766 


Trusty and Welbeloved, We Greet you well 

Whereas we have taken into our Royal Consideration the Loyalty, 
Integrity and ability of our Trusty and Welbeloved Martin Howard Esq*" 
We have thought fit hereby to authorize and require you forthwith to 
cause letters patent to be passed under the seal of our province of North 
Carolina constituting and appointing him the said Martin Howard our 
Chief Justice of and in our said province in the Room of Charles Berry 
Esq 1 : deceased; to have hold execute and enjoy the said office unto him 
the said Martin Howard for and during our pleasure and his Residence 
within our said province together with all and singular the rights profits 
priviledges and Emoluments unto the said place Belonging in as full and 
ample Manner as the said Charles Berry or any other person hath 
formerly held and enjoyed or of Right ought to have held and enjoyed 
the same 

With full power and authority to hold the supreme Courts of Judicature 
at such places and times as the Same may & ought to be held within our 
said province and for so doing this shall be your warrent and so we bid 
you farewell Given at our Court at S. James's the twenty ninth day of 
July 1766 in the sixth year of our Reign 

By His Majestys Command 

Richmond &c 

To our Trusty and well Beloved William Tryon Esq: our Captain 
General and Governor in Chief in and over our Province of North 
Carolina in North America or in his Absence to the President of our 
council or Commander in Chief of our said Province for the time Being. 


Martin Howard (ca. 1725-1781 ) left his 
Rhode Island home in 1766 to become 
chief justice of North Carolina. Generally 
respected as a fair judge, Howard heard 
the cases of Regulators who appealed to 
the higher court. Upon the outbreak of 
the war, he withdrew to his Neuse River 
plantation but refused to take the oath of 
loyalty in 1778 and shortly thereafter left 
the colony, removing his family to New 
York, and in the next year, to England. 
Photograph courtesy of the North Caro- 
lina Collection, Chapel Hill. 


/V/U^/t^^ ^ua^y.- /y£6 


/Aof t 



t/A*/ t/C*n^p /i \ 




jfe-u. J*ut££ f&Atsid) it/urn, //U/r 

Pictured above is a portion of a circular letter from Shelburne. When the duke of 
Richmond resigned, the king delivered the seals of the Southern Department to the earl of 
Shelburne, after which Tryon reported to Shelburne. The document may be found in PRO 
CO 5/66, f. 139 (microfilm copy in the State Archives). Facsimiles of UK Crown 
copyright records in the Public Record Office, London, appear by permission of the 
Comptroller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 


William Tryon mh-tlb, 84-86 

to John Stuart MH-TLB, 72-74 

to j onn smart CRVII 244245 

Brunswick 30 July 1766. 

John Stuart Esq, Superintendant & c 

Since my letter to you of the 17™ of last month I have laid before His 
Majesty's Council of this Province Our Correspondence on the Subject 
of Indian Affairs and the following is a Copy of the Resolution of the 
Council on that Business Vidt 

"His Excellency Communicated to this Board Letters of Correspon- 
dence on Indian Affairs from Mr Stuart, Superintendant of the Southern 
District with respect to a Boundary Line between this Province and the 
Hunting Grounds, claimed by the Cherokee Indians, and it is the 
Opinion of this Board that His Excellency direct the Surveyor General 
by himself or his Deputies to run such Lines as the Governor shall think 
proper to quiet the Indians, and secure the Western Inhabitants in their 
Legal Possessions. And as there is no Fund appropriated for this 
Contingency, and that the Service may not be impeded it is also the 
Opinion of this Board, that the Governor may issue his Warrants to the 
Receiver General of His Majesty's Quit Rents for such Sums of money 
as may be found necessary to carry the above Service into Execution, 
and that upon the meeting of the Assembly, application be made to 
reimburse the sums so drawn for." 

I am sorry to find by the favor of your Letter of the 24 tn of July 
delivered me by Mr. Barnett that you are obliged to postpone your 
intended Visit to me, as I am now anxious to see you and ready to 
Consult with you on the Proper Measures to be taken relative to the 
Demands of the Cherokees. I shall acquaint the Inhabitants of the Back 
Country of this Province of the Hostile Disposition of some of the Indian 
Tribes, and the Probability of a Rupture, at the same time strongly 
recommend to them to avoid All Opportunities of giving them a 
Pretence to commit Hostilities and to Caution them to be on their Guard 
in Case the Indians should make any Inroads on them. If the Cherokees 
permit agreeable to their first Talk, the Line to be run from Dewis's 
Corner a north Course to the mountains, and from thence a strait Course 
to Chiswell's Mines, I believe the Inhabitants of Mecklenburg and 
Rowan Counties will be extremely well satisfied, and upon the 
Execution of this agreement I am willing to advance £100 SterlS for the 
Cost and Charges of such Presents, as you may think most acceptable to 
the Cherokee Indians. If the above Line could be run by the End of 
September and you would accompany me I should not dislike to be 


present as it might not only prevent any little jouleusies [jealousies] that 
might Arise between the Settlers, and the Indians, but give me an 
Opportunity to take a View of the Back Country. 

I this day received Information that one William Linvill, 1 his Son, and 
an other young man who were gone over the mountains at the Head of 
the Yatkin to hunt, that in the first Week of this month, they were 
surprized by the Indians, that Linvill and his son, were killed and that 
the young man made his Escape Wounded, to his settlement, where I 
am informed he is since dead of his Wounds. I cannot as yet learn of 
what Tribe or nation the Indians were 

I am & c 

1 William and John Linville were relatives of Daniel Boone's wife. Linville River and 
Linville Falls, near which they were killed, were named for them. They hunted in this 
region from 1760 until their death. Powell, North Carolina Gazetteer, 283. 

The Board of Trade pro co 5/324, f. 10 

to William Tryon 1 

August 1, 1766 

In pursuance of an Address of the House of Commons to His Majesty 
on the 27 of March last, and of His Majesty's Commands thereupon, 
signified to us by his Grace the Duke of Richmond, in a Letter to us, 
dated the ll tn ultimo, you are forthwith to prepare, and, as soon as 
possible, transmit to us, in order to be laid before the House of 
Commons, in the next Session, a particular and exact account of the 
several Manufactures which had been set up and carried on within the 
Colony under your Government since the Year 1734, and of the public 
Encouragements which have been given thereto. 

You are also from time to time annually to transmit the like Account 
of any Manufactures which shall be hereafter set up, and of the public 
Encouragements which shall be given thereto. 

We are, &c. 

Ed. Eliot, 2 
John Roberts, 
W™ Fitzherbert, 
Palmerston. 3 


'A circular letter also sent to the other colonial governors. 

2 Ed\vard Eliot (Craggs -Eliot) (1727-1804), of Port Eliot, near St. Germans, Cornwall 
and Down Ampney, near Cricklade, Gloucestershire, attended Oxford in 1742 but may 
not have received a degree. In 1789 Eliot added the surname Craggs from his mother's 
inheritance. A patron of Sir Joshua Reynolds and Samuel Johnson, Eliot was believed to 
control — with his family— seven seats in Parliament. From 1760 until ! 776 he was a 
member of the Board of Trade. Sainty, Officials of the Board of Trade, 95; Valentine, The 
British Establishment, I, 292. See also "Excerpts from Minutes of Commissioners' 
Meeting," May 1, 1764, n.8. 

3 Palmerston, second viscount, was Henry Temple of East Sheen, near Montlake, 
Surrey and Broadlands, near Romsey, Hampshire. He served in several important posts: a 
member of the Board of Trade and Plantations, 1765-1767; a member of the Admiralty 
Board, 1766-1777; a vice-treasurer of Ireland, 1775-1777; a member of the Treasury 
Board, 1777-1782. Palmerston wrote light verse and travel diaries and was a member of 
Johnson's Literary Club. Sainty, Officials of the Board of Trade, 110; Valentine, The 
British Establishment, II, 852. 

William Tryon mh-tlb, 87-88 

to the Marquis of Granby 1 a&h-tlb, 75-76 

The Marquis of Granby, Brunswick the 1?* August 1766 

Master General of the Ordnance 

I have the honor to inclose to your Lordship a return of the Artillery, 
Stores and Ammunition of Fort Johnston (a weak fort at the entrance of 
Cape Fear River in this Province) as also a return of the arms and 
accoutrements in the said fort. Six carriages for the 18 and 9 Pounders 
and Three Guns of 18 Pounders are at Wilmington; and Three half 
Swivel Guns are at Salisbury in the Western Frontier of this country. 
Six hundred Swivel Balls and Eight Barrils of Gunpowder were let out 
upon Bond by the late Governor to some Gentlemen on this River; I 
have ordered the Parties to replace it as in Case of Neglect I shall sue 
their Bonds. The Three Eighteen Pounders mounted, I shall at the 
request of the Inhabitants leave in the Town of Wilmington, and the 
Three Swivels may be necessary in the Back Country in some 
Temporary Fort against the Indians. The Three Carriages I have 
ordered into the Fort. I have inclosed a Copy of the List of Ordnance 
Stores and Ammunition that was sent from Your Lordships Board in 
1757, by which you may see the Deficiency in the Present Return from 
the Original Delivery. The Three Swivel guns deficient were lost in the 
North West Branch of this River, last war by a Boat oversetting. Great 
quantity of the Powder, the Flints and all the Musket Ball were sent into 
the Back Country during the last War, and tho' there are no Vouchers 
that I can find for the Expenditure, I am told it was all used. 

This My Lord is the fullest return I can procure of the State of the 
Ordnance, Stores, Ammunition, Arms and Accoutrements in this 


I am with much Esteem and Respect &c. 
Sent by Cap? Williamos in the packet from Ch? town. 

Uohn Manners, marquis of Granby (1721-1770), a lieutenant general who had had a 
distinguished military career was now, as Tryon indicates, master-general of the 
ordnance and was also made commander-in-chief in 1766 (Webster's Biographical 
Dictionary, 963). The reports to which Tryon refers will be found as enclosures in the 
letter of Tryon to the Board of Trade, August 1, 1766, which immediately follows this 

William Tryon pro co 5/310, Part 1, ff. 88-90 

to the Board of Trade mhtTbS^" m " 1?4b 

[with enclosures] A&H-TLB, 74-75 

CR-VII, 245-246 

The Lords Commissioners for Brunswick the 1?* August 1766 

Trade and Plantations [Received Nov. 3: 

read, Nov. 6, 1766] 

Upon an Inspection into the Condition of the Garrison, Ordnance, 
Stores and Ammunition at Fort Johnston, I found them agreeable to the 
State of the three Returns Inclosed, 1 st , Return of the Garrison. 
2? Return of the Artillery, Stores and Ammunition. 3? Return of the 
Arms and Accoutrements. Six Carriages for the 18 and 9 Pounders are 
at Wilmington and Three Swivel Guns are at Salisbury in the Western 
Frontier of this Province. Six Hundred Swivel Balls and Eight Barrils of 
Gunpowder were let out upon Bond by the late Governor to Some 
Gentlemen on this River. I have Ordered the Parties to replace it, as in 
Case of Neglect I shall sue their Bonds. The Three Eighteen Pounders 
with their Carriages I shall at the request of the Inhabitants leave in the 
Town of Wilmington; the other three Carriages I have ordered into the 
Fort. The Three Swivels may be necessary in the Back Country in some 
Temporary Fort against the Indians. Great Quantity of the Powder, the 
Flints and All the musket Ball were sent into the Back Country during 
the last War, and tho' there are no Vouchers that I can find for the 
Expenditure, I am told it was All used. This My Lords is the fullest 
Return I can procure of the Ordnance, Stores &c in this Province. As 
Capt Dalrymple told Me he left at Your Lordships Board a Plan of the 
said Fort, I shall only take notice that the Proportions observed in the 
Construction of the Fort, are as Miserable, as are the Materials with 
which it is built; Lime, Half Broken Oister Shells, and sand, are the 
Ingredients, called Tabby Work; There is so great a Proportion of sand 
that every Gun fired, as a Signal or on Public Occasions, brings down 
some of the Parapet. In short I think the Fort a Disgrace to the Ordnance 
His Majesty has placed in it. Its Situation for the defence of the River is 


admirable, and extremely favoured by Nature. It commands not only 
across, but up and down the Channel, and has no covered or hollow Way 
very near on the side of the Country. 

I am apprehensive this Country will not at present be at any further 
Expence in the Rebuilding of this Fort; and indeed were they to raise 
Money for that Purpose, it could not be effectually applied, without His 
Majesty was pleased to Order an Engineer to direct, and Superintend 
the Construction: All the other Forts in the Province are entirely gone to 

In the present Circumstances of the Country, the Protection of the 
Entrance of this River is certainly the most Essential of any in the 
Province; the Towns of Brunswick, and Wilmington laying so near the 
Bar, the first Eighteen, and the other Thirty Miles distant from it, which 
lays them more open to the Insults of the Enemy, than those Towns to 
the North East of this Province, which lay 70, 80, 140 Miles from the 
Mouths of their Rivers. 

I am with much Esteem and Respect 

Your Lordships most obedient and very humble Servant 
W m Tryon 

[Sent by Capt Williamos in the Packet from Ch s town] 

[Enclosure 1] 

Return of Artillery Stores and 
Ammunition at Fort Johnston, 
April 26th, 1766 

PRO CO 5/310, Part 1, ff. 93-94 
PRO CO 5/299, f. 178 

Fit for Service 


Unfit for 

Iron Ordnance 1 18 pounders 


1 v 2 


Standg Carrg s 1 Bed each 

Coins 118 pounders 
Trucks 1 9 


Round Shot ( 18 pounders 




Corned powder 1 Barrels I For the Guns 
Hazle Hoopd 1 1 For the small Arms 


Ladles with Staves ( 18 pounders 


! v 2 


Spunges wt n Staves 1 18 pounders 
and Rammers 1 9 




Fit for Service 


Unfit for 

Wadhooks with (18 pounders 
Rammers < 9 




Spunge Heads ( 18 pounders 
and Rammers 1 9 


Paper Cartridges (18 pounders 

{ V 2 




Cooper powdr Measures (18 pounders 

( M> 


Match Cw: 


Spare Ladle Staves 


Aprons of Lead (Large 



Powder Horns 



Priming Irons 


Linstocks without Cocks 


Budge Barrels Copper Hooped 



Hand Spikes 


Crows of Iron 5y 2 feet 


Hand screws Large 


Hair Cloths 

Hides Tanned 


Sheeps skins DozP 

Musquet (Flints 

(Shot Ton -Cw? 


Fine Paper-Rheams 


Spunge Locks 


Copper Nails for Ladles 


Small Hammers 


Sling Cart Compt 


Triangle Gynn Compl w* n 2 Handsp: 


Iron Gynn Blocks with (Treble 
Brass Shivers (Double 


Tarrd Marlin Skanes 


White Ropes of (5 Inches 

|3'/ 2 Fa s 

Lanthorns <Tin 





Funnels of Plate 



Pick axes Helved 


Shovels Shod 


Spades Steel 


Hand bills 


Hand hatchets 


Wheel barrows 



Hand barrows 


J. Dalrymple Capt 11 and Commander of Fort Johnston 


[Enclosure 2] 

Return of the Garrison 

at Fort Johnston, April 26th, 1766 

PRO CO 5/310, Part 1, f. 91 
PRO CO 5/299, f. 176 

Commissioned Officer 

Effective Rank & Eile 
Mens Names 


For what 

Wanting to 
Compleat the 

Captain Dalrymple 
Id. July 13, 1766| 

John Blomgreen 

William Smith 
Alexander Lindsey 
Thomas Wilson 
Edward Wareing 

Sept: 10, 1765 

Oct. 14, 1765 
Jan ry 7, 1766 
March 11, 1766 
April 25, 1766 

To the 1 st 
Jany 1767 

Per month 

During Pleasure 

During Pleasure 

During Pleasure 

J. Dalrymple Capt n and 

Commander of Fort Johnston 

[Enclosure 3] 

A Return of the Arms and 
Accoutrements at Fort Johnston, 
April 26th, 1766 

PRO CO 5/310, Part l,f. 95 
PRO CO 5/299, f. 180 






• ,-H 



• 1—1 








rs en 





for Ser 




in Barr 
[fit for 







for Ser 

nfit for 

E ^ 

3 c 

a o 





3 4-» 

3 ^D 












J. Dalrymple Capt* 1 and 
Commander of Fort Johnston 


William Tryon pro co 5/310, Part 1, ff. 97-100 

to the Board of Trade aIhtlb 8 ??-^ 

CR-VII, 247-249 

Brunswick the 29 August 1766. 
[Received, Nov. 3; read, Nov. 6, 1766] 

The Right Honble The Lords Commissioners 
for Trade and Plantations 

I take the Opportunity by Capt Williamos 1 to acknowledge the 
Receipt of His Majesty's Instructions: 

The 28 tn of June I called a Council, but as My Commission had been 
opened in December last, and the Council sworn in, I only Communicated 
and Recorded such Instructions as the Minutes of the Council of that day 
will certify. About the Same Time I received Mr Conway's Notification 
of the Repeal of the Stamp Act, and as the Assembly then Stood 
prorogued to the 30 tn of October next, I took the Opinion of the Council 
if an Earlier Meeting would become necessary, their Opinion was in the 
Negative and is Contained in the 10" 1 page of the Minutes of the 
Council Inclosed. 

The Inhabitants of many Counties in this Province have been drove 
to great Difficulties for want of Corn: The Planters have been reduced 
to feed their Gangs of Negroes, upon their Stock of Cattle, and upon 
Apples. This Scarcity will be relieved the first Week in September, as 
they will then begin to dig the Potatoes of this Country, the Usual Food 
for Negroes when Indian Corn is not distributed 

I must beg leave to Observe to your Lordships that among the 
Gentlemen named in His Majesty's Instructions to Me, M*" Robert 
Spaight 2 is in the Number, a Gentleman who died before I came into the 
Province; and M*" James Murray whom I found on My Arrival here, 
President of the Council, is left out of the said Instructions. I therefore 
cannot admit MX Murray to sit in Council, 'till I am honored with your 
Lordships Directions on this Head. Mr. Murray had my leave of 
Absence from this Province for One Year which expired last April; he 
has applied to Me for another Years leave upon which I have acquainted 
him how the Affair stands with regard to My Instructions. As He is 
concerned in a Sugar House at Boston I question whether he will ever 
reside again in this Country. 

The Death of MX Robert Spaight and of MX Chief Justice Berry, with 
the absence of Capt Brice Dobbs, will make Three Vancancies in the 
Council; I shall therefore name the following Persons for your Lordships 
Choice of Counsellors, Vidt Mf Strudwick, Mr Francis Corbyn, MX 
Thomas Lloyd, Mr Thomas M9 Gwire 3 and Mr Samuel Swann Sen!" 
The Three first I transmitted to Your Lordships Board when I notified 


the Death of Mr Berry. Mf M c Gwire is just gone to England; He is a 
Gentleman of very good Character in this Country, and lived with Credit 
in the Province. MF Samuel Swann is a Gentleman well versed in the 
Constitution of this Country; and tho' he has not always supported the 
Measures of Government, I believe him well inclined at present to my 

I shall not have it in my Power to give Your Lordships a particular 
Account of the State and Strength of this Country, till after the Meeting 
of the General Assembly ; the late Disturbances having greatly added to 
the Confusion of All the Public Offices, that I can obtain no proper 
Returns as Yet from them. 

I have however the Satisfaction to inform Your Lordships, the 
Inhabitants have returned to a cheerfull Obedience of the Law; that the 
several Courts are open, and Business carried on as usual. 

The Inclosed Address of the Borough of Wilmington, I believe to be 
the sense of the Province, as far as it relates to Gratitude and Loyalty. 4 

I am of Opinion, this Province is settling faster than any on the 
Continent; In last Autumn and Winter, upwards of One Thousand 
Waggons passed thro' Salisbury with Families from the Northward, to 
settle in this Province chiefly; some few went to Georgia and Floridas, 
but liked it so indifferently, that some of them have since returned. 

The Dispatch containing the Patents I have granted since my 
Administration will shew to your Lordships the great Increase of 
Settlers in the western or back Counties. These Inhabitants are a Race 
of people differing in Health and Complexion from the Natives in the 
Maritime parts of the Province, as much as a Sturdy Briton differs from 
a puny Spaniard: In the present Situation of My Health, I may include 
Myself among the latter. 

The Sachem of the Tuskaroras settled with the Six Nations, waited 
on me last June to sollicit my assistance for the Removal of as many of 
his Nation settled on the Roanoke in this Province, as were willing to 
join his people among the Six Nations. As this Request was made at the 
desire of Sir William Johnston, and with the approbation of MF Stuart, I 
have allowed them to remove. I am told by Cap? Williamos in a Verbal 
Message from MF Jones, the Attorney General, that one hundred & 
thirty of them will march out of this Province this Week, and that MT 
Jones and two more Gentlemen have advanced twelve hundred pounds 
Proclamation Money to purchase Waggons, Provisions &c for their 
Conveyance and Subsistance; and that this Money is lent on the Credit 
of some of their Lands, 'till the General Assembly can re-imburse that 
Expence by a Law for the Sale of as much Lands of theirs as will raise 
the above Sum. There will remain in this Province no more than Fifty or 
Sixty of that Nation. 

I am to acquaint your Lordships Captain John Dalrymple late 
Commander of Johnston's Fort died the 13?h of last Month; I have 


appointed Captain Howe to succeed him under the Seal of the Province, 
till His Majesty's Pleasure is known: there is no Pay to the Commission, 
and the Perquisites only Five Shillings Proc: for every Vessel that 
comes into this Port; this is a Fee for his giving the Masters of the 
Vessels their Product Bill. 

I am with great Esteem and Respect My Lords 
Your Lordships most Obedient 
and very Humble Servant 
W m Tryon 

P.S. I received this Morning the Inclosed Letter from the Mayor and 
Gentlemen of Wilmington 

'The identification of Capt. Williamos could not be definitely made. 

2 This should be Richard Spaight, the nephew of Governor Dobbs who accompanied 
Dobbs to North Carolina and served as his secretary. 

3 Thomas McGuire (1733-1805?) was a resident of Brunswick County who served as an 
assemblyman in 1764-1765. For twelve years (1767-1779) he was attorney general and 
obviously respected by Tryon, who relied on his opinion during the Regulator crisis. 
McGuire signed an indictment against Edmund Fanning when Fanning was accused of 
taking excessive fees from an Orange County citizen. In his capacity as attorney general 
he was called to the court in Hillsborough when some of the insurgents were tried there in 
1771. Powell and others, Regulators, 587. 

4 See Corporation of Wilmington to Tryon, July 28, 1766, which is quite possibly the 
document Tryon enclosed. 

William Tryon to the pro co 5/310, Part 1, f. 105 

Corporation of Wilmington cR^n243 "' f 18? 

Brunswick August 29 1766 
[Read by Board of Trade, 
Nov. 6, 1766] 


As Your Letter of the 28 tn of last Month, has removed those 
Aspersions I felt you had Cast on my Character in Your Address to me 
on the 26^ n of June, I am now willing to forget every Impropriety of 
Conduct, any of the Subscribers, and the Town of Wilmington have 
shown personally towards me in the late Commotions. I thank you 
Gentlemen for the Testimony You give me of Your Approbation, of my 
General Conduct, but my Acknowledgments are more expressly due, 
for the Justice you do me in such part of my Conduct, as has been 
traduced by the Barbadoes Gazette of the 19 tn of April last. 


I am 


Your very humble Servant 
Will™ Tryon 

To Moses John DeRosset Esqf Mayor, 

And the Gentlemen of the Borough of Wilmington 

A True Copy taken from the Original this 2" August 1766 

FountP Elwin Priv: Sec: 

William Tryon pro co 5/299, f. 194 

to the Board of Trade ffi 

The Lords Commissioners Brunswick 29 August 1766. 

for Trade and Plantations 

I send your Lordships inclosed an account of all the Patents I have 
granted for lands since the commencement of my administration; other 
warrants which I have signed for the surveys of lands, have not yet 
been returned into the Secretary s office. 

I am with esteem and respect &c. 

Note. Sent by Capt Williamos. 

William Tryon pro co 5/310, Part 1, f. 107 

to Henry Seymour Conway a&h-tlb 8 76-77 

The Right Hon!> le Brunswick 2<* August 1766. 

Henry Seymour Conway, Esq. [Received Nov. 4, 1766] 


I had the honor of your letter of the 31?* March the 13t n of June 
forwarded to me by Sir Henry Moore with other dispatches for the 
Governors to the Southward; These I immediately sent to Mr. Barons at 
Charles Town, the receipt of which he has acknowledged. 

I got the Council together the 28? n of June, when I laid before them 
your Letter and the Two Acts of Parliament inclosed. The one for 
securing the just Dependency of the Colonies on the Mother Country; 
the other for the Repeal of the Act granting certain Stamp duties in 


As I had prorogued the General Assembly to the 30t n of next October 
before I had the honor of your Dispatches, I consulted the Council if the 
service of his Majesty or the Circumstances of the country required a 
more Early meeting; they were unanimous in Opinion that considering 
the great Heats of this Season of the year, and the great Scarcity of 
Provisions in the Country most of the members would be prevented 
from attending the Assembly if called earlier than it stood Prorogued, 
and those that did attend must suffer great Prejudice by their absence 
from their Plantations; and as the Country was in perfect Tranquility, 
and the Inhabitants returned to a cheerfull Obedience to the Laws, they 
did not see his Majesty's Service required a more early meeting of the 
Assembly than the 30t n of October. 

I have the Pleasure to inclose you, Sir, the address of the Borough of 
Wilmington on the subject of the repeal of the Stamp Act together with 
my answer, as also a letter subscribed by the Mayor and all the 
gentlemen of Wilmington, in consequence of my answer to their 
address: 1 My reply to it has wound up all jealousies on both sides; I have 
reason to believe that the sense of these people are the sentiments of the 
whole province, and that we shall meet at Newbern all in good humour. 

I have the honor to be with much esteem and respect 
Note. Sent by Cap. Williamos in the packet from Ch?town. 

1 These three documents have appeared earlier in date sequence. 

The Earl of Shelburne 1 pro co 5/66, if. 139-13% 

to William Tryotf Kl!" 

Whitehall August 9: h 1766 

The King having been graciously pleased, upon the Resignation of 
the Duke of Richmond, to deliver to Me the Seals of the Southern 
Department, I take the earliest Opportunity of notifying the same to 
you, and am to acquaint you, by His Majesty's Command, that your 
Dispatches are to be henceforward directed to me, you may depend 
upon their being punctually laid before the King, and that I shall not fail 
to transmit to you, from time to time, such orders as I may have the 
Honor to receive from His Majesty in consequence of them. 

I am &c. 




Instead of a Duplicate I sent you herewith a Copy of the Letter The 
Duke of Richmond wrote to you the 10. of last month, inclosing a 
printed Copy of an Act passed in the last Session of Parliament relating 
to Duties on Melasses &c? 

His Maty [Majesty] has been likewise pleased to make a further 
considerable Change in his Administration by the following Appoint- 
ments to some of the Principal Offices of Government, — Lord Camden 3 
to be Lord Chancellor; Lord Northington 4 to be President of the Council; 
MT Pitt, 5 created Earl of Chatham, Lord Privy Seal; Duke of Grafton, 6 
First Lord of the Treasury; and Ml" Charles Townshend, Chancellor of 
the Exchequer. 

1 William Petty, second earl of Shelburne and afterward marquis of Lansdowne (1737- 
1805), was appointed secretary of state for the Southern Department when William Pitt 
returned to power in 1766. He began a policy of reconciliation toward the American 
colonies but faced so much opposition that he resigned in 1768. Webster's Biographical 
Dictionary, 860. 

2 Circular letter to all of the governors in America. 

3 Sir Charles Pratt, first earl of Camden (1714-1794), had served as attorney general 
under Pitt and sat in Parliament where he opposed taxation of the American colonies and 
declared the Stamp Act unconstitutional. He was dismissed from office by the king (see 
Hillsborough to Tryon, January 18, 1770). Webster's Biographical Dictionary, 1210. 

4 Robert Henley (1708-1772), earl of Northington, served as president of the council, 

5 William Pitt, earl of Chatham (1708-1778), entered Parliament in 1735 and quickly 
rose to power as a leader of the Commons. Recognized for his fiery oratory, Pitt was called 
"the elder Pitt" or "the Great Commoner." Despite his numerous disagreements with 
George III, Pitt was called by the king in 1756 to be secretary of state and leader of the 
House of Commons, dismissed, and immediately recalled. A vigorous opponent of the 
British policy of taxing the American colonies, Pitt by 1766 was in declining health but 
still a powerful political figure. In that year he was created earl of Chatham and made lord 
of the privy seal as indicated in this letter. Webster's Biographical Dictionary, 1189. 

6 Augustus Henry Fitzroy (1735-1811) was the third duke of Grafton. The Fitzroys 
were descendants of Charles II by Barbara Villiers. He was secretary of state for the 
Northern Department, 1765-1766; first lord of the treasury, 1766; prime minister, 1768; 
lord of the privy seal, 1771-1775, 1782-1783. Webster's Biographical Dictionary, 529. 

The Earl of Shelburne cr-vii, 251 

to William Tryon 

Whitehall August 9 1766 

The King having been pleased to make an Order in Council bearing 
date the 8™ instant which revokes and repeals every clause and Article 
contained in the order made by his late Majesty in Council on the 11™ 
March 1752. I transmit to you herewith in Obedience to the above 


mentioned order a Copy of the same for your Information and 

I am &c 


Memorandum of Circular Letter pro co 5/217 

to William Tryon [A&H:72.50.i] 

August 9, 1766 

Dispatched August 9t n 


To all the Gov rs on 

the Continent 

From the Earl of Shelburne, on receiving the Seals of the Southern 

Ditto Date. 


Incloses Order of Council of 8. August, relative to the Correspondence. 

William Tryon mh-tlb, 94 

to John Stuart cTv^^fsf 

John Stuart Esq, at Charlestown Brunswick the 31 August 1766 

The favor of your Letter of the 19 Inst was delivered to me this 
morning by your Express. As I am to hold a Land Office the 20™ of next 
Month at Wilmington and to meet the General Assembly of this Province 
the 30 tn of October, I am apprehensive there will not be sufficient time 
for my Personal Attendance at the Running of the Line, particularly as 
my Health will not allow me to make great Expedition on the Road; 
however I am not without Hopes of being able to Attend; If I should be 
prevented Mr Palmer, 1 the Surveyor General will be present and very 
probably Mr. Rutherford. 2 

The Articles you mention that will be agreeable to the Indians I shall 
purchase from the Stores in the Back Country of this Province. I wish to 
be satisfied of the Recovery of Your Health by the Pleasure of seeing 


you as soon as possible at Brunswick. If Circumstances will not permit 
me to go into the Back Country, I shall not set out for Newbern till the 
14 th of October. 

I am &c 

'Robert Palmer. 
2 John Rutherfurd. 

James Murray mhi-m 

to William Tryon 

Boston N.E. Sept 1 " [9?], 1766 

Governor Tryon 

Sir Having no direct opportunity from this to Cape Fear and having 
had none since I Received the fav r of your Excellencys letter of the 19 tn 
July I am glad to meet with so sure a Conveyance for this as my Friend, 
Mr James Waller of London marcht [merchant] who goes on his private 
affairs by way of Rhode Island and whom I beg leave to recommen? to 
your Ex c y s protection and Countenance I observe by the last inclosed in 
your Ex c y s letter that I am again left out of the list of Counsellors which 
as I happen to be Situated is a very small [slight] or disappointment to 
me so small that it will not be worth [troubling] my Friends or being at 
any Expense to rectify it I am obliged however for the notice and 
directions your Exc^ has been pleased to give me in that affair I shall 
send by the first vessel that will take hay as usual the hay which Mr. 
Elwin bespeaks and shall be glad to be useful to your Excellency in a 
private if I Cannot in a publick Station being with real regard your 
Excellencys most obdt servt 

[James Murray] 
the grass seed shall be also sent 

Additional Instructions pro co 324/41, f. 289 

to William Tryon 1 

At the Court at S: James's 

the 10t h Day of Sept 1766. 


The King's most Excellent Majesty 

in Council 

Whereas there was this Day read at the Board, a Report from the Lords 
Commissioners for Trade & Plantations, dated the 9? n of last Month, 


together with Draughts of additional Instructions prepared by them for 
the Governors of Jamaica, Barbadoes, Leewards Islands, Granada 
Islands, Bahama Islands, Bermuda Islands, Newfoundland, Quebec, 
Massachusett's Bay, New York, New Jersey, Virginia, North Carolina, 
South Carolina, Georgia, East Florida, West Florida, & Senegambia for 
regulating their Correspondence pursuant to His Majesty's Order in 
Council of the 8 tn of last Month. His Majesty this Day took the said 
Report & Draught of additional Instructions into Consideration and was 
pleased with the advice of His Privy Council to approve of the said 
Draughts of additional Instructions (which are hereunto annexed) and to 
order, as it is hereby ordered, that the Right Honourable the Earl of 
Shelburne, One of His Majesty's principal Secretaries of State, do cause 
the same to be prepared for His Majesty's Royal Signature. 

W: Blair. 

Additional Instructions 

To Our Trusty & Welbeloved [William Tryon] 2 Esq. Our Captain 
General and Governor in Chief in and over Our [Province of North 
Carolina] ... in America. Given at Our Court at St James's the 13™ Day 
of Sept. 1766 in the Sixth Year of Our Reign. WHEREAS We have 
thought fit, by Order made in Our Privy Council on the 8? n Instant, to 
revoke & repeal an Order made in Council, by His late Majesty Our 
Royal Grandfather on the llt n of March 1752 containing several Rules 
and Regulations relating to Our Colonies & Plantations in America, & 
elsewhere, particularly with respect to the Correspondence to be carried 
on between Our Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, and the 
Governors of the said Colonies and Plantations respectively. It is 
therefore Our Will & Pleasure to revoke and annull, and We do hereby 
Revoke and annull, all and every such part and parts of Our general 
Instructions, and of any Additional Instructions to you, as do direct and 
require you to correspond in Matters relative to Your Government with 
Our Commissioners for Trade & Plantations only. And it is Our Royal 
Will and Pleasure, that in all Cases wherein You are directed and 
required to transmit any General or particular Accounts of Your 
proceedings, or of Matters relative to Your Government, You do for the 
future transmit the same to Us, by Our [one?] of Our principal Secretaries 
of State, and also transmit Duplicates thereof to Our Commissioners for 
Trade and Plantations, for their Information, except in Cases of a secret 


'These additional instructions were sent to the governor of each of the colonies listed 


2 In this particular copy the name of William Henry Lyttleton, governor of Jamaica, 
appealed with an indication that identical documents were addressed to each of the other 

The Earl of Shelburne pro co 5/222, ff. 3-4 

to William Tryon ®&!%& ] 

Whitehall Sep 1 13 th 1766 


Advices having been received from His Majesty's Superintendants 
for Indian Affairs that the most unprovoked violences and murthers 
have been lately committed on the Indians under the protection of his 
Majesty and whose tribes are at present in Peace and Amity with his 
Majesty's Provinces and that the offenders have not yet been discovered 
and brought to Justice and likewise that settlements have been made on 
the back of the Provinces without proper Authority and beyond the 
limits prescribed by his Majesty's Royal Proclamation of 1763, and in 
some places even beyond the utmost Boundaries of any Province in 
America and that in consequence the Indian Nations do everywhere 
discover the greatest discontents and resentments which may endanger 
the Peace of his Majesty's Provinces and the safety of his Subjects. 

It is therefore his Majesty's commands that you apply yourself in the 
most earnest manner to remedy and prevent those evils which are as 
contrary to the rules of good Polity as of Justice and Equity. 

The violation of those principles attended also with so many dangers 
to the Provinces is what cannot be permitted. If a due obedience had 
been paid to his Majesty's Royal Proclamation and a due attention to 
proper Restraints on the conduct of the Indian Traders these evils 
would have been effectually avoided. 

His Majesty's commander in Chief has received express orders to co- 
operate with the civil government for the enforcing a due obedience to 
that Proclamation and his Majesty requires and expects every measure 
to be taken which Prudence can dictate for the removing such settlers 
preventing in future any such Settlements as are contrary to the 
Intention of the Proclamation and for apprehending such Offenders 
whose daring Crimes have so direct a Tendency to involve the whole of 
his Majesty's Provinces in America in an Indian War. 

I am &c 


Grant of Land shc-g 

to Ephraim McLean 1 

September 26, 1766 

Ephraim M c Lean 640 Acres Mecklinburgh on both sides of the Midle 
fork of Crowders Creek, Beginning at a red Oak, thence new lines S9 78 
W? 320 poles to a Hickory, thence N9 12 Wl 320 poles to a Stake, 
thence N9 78 Et 320 poles to a Stake, and thence S9 12 Et 320 poles to 
Beginning. Dated 26™ Day of SeptT 1766. 

W m Tryon 
Copy Will White Secretary 

'This document is only one of many similar to it. It is included merely as representative. 
Ephraim McLean was made a justice of the peace for Rowan County by the legislature in 
1776; between 1777 and 1780 he represented Burke County (created from Rowan in 
1777) for two terms each in the House of Commons and the Senate; he was tax collector 
for Davidson County in 1784; and the 1790 census lists him as a resident of Lincoln 
County and the owner of five slaves. Clark, State Records, various references in volumes 
XII, XIII, XIX, XXIII, XXIV; Heads of Families at the First Census of the United States 
Taken in the Year 1790: North Carolina (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 
1966 [originally published, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1908]), 113, herein- 
after cited as First Census, 1 790. 

Circular to William Tryon 1 pro t 28 

from Board of Treasury [A&H: 762887] 

September 30, 1766 

I am directed by the Lords Commr s of His Majestys Treasury to 
Signify to Your Excellency their desire that you will cause to be made 
up and transmitted to me by the first opportunity and with the utmost 
dispatch for their Information An Account of the Ordinary & Extra- 
ordinary Expences of Your Government, both Civil and Military in 
Sterling Money of Great Britain distinguishing each particular Salary 
and Service, and specifying with most particular manner, the Funds out 
of which such Expences are defrayed, whether Provincial or otherwise, 
and where the same are defrayed by Provincial Funds, specifying the 
particular Taxes and Duties that Constitute such Funds, the Duration of 
the Laws by which such Taxes are laid and Duties imposed and the 
manner in which the Money raised thereby is appropriated, issued and 
Accounted for. Framed 30t n September 1766 

Chas. Lowndes 

'The copy in PRO is actually to James Murray, governor of Quebec, but Tryon is also 
named as a recipient of the circular. 


William Tryon mh-tlb, 95-96 

to Dr. Daniel Burton' cf-vS^ 

Brunswick the 1 st October 1766 

The Rev? MT Daniel Burton 

Secretary to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 

I have had the Pleasure to receive by Mf Micklejohn, 2 your Letters of 
the 22^ of March and 2° of April last: I shall pay the properest Attention 
to Our Society's Recommendation of the above Gentleman The Twenty 
Pounds per Annum for two years allowed him is a Donation no less 
Necessary than generous. I am disappointed in not having received the 
Letter You mention to have wrote to me the 26^ n January past; if it was 
on Business or in Answer to a long Letter I had the Honor to send to the 
society in July 1765, 1 wish to have a Duplicate of that as well as of all 
other Letters I may be honored with on the Subject of a more happy 
Establishment on the Clergy in this Colony: This I request as the 
Conveyance of Letters to this Province is very precarious 

The Rev? MT Morton 3 waited on Me last July with Recommendatory 
letters from the Rev? MT Richard Peters, Rector of Christ Church and 
St. Peters, Philadelphia and M?" William Smyth, Provost of the College 
of Philadelphia. MT Morton informed me he had Accepted the Mission 
allowed to Mecklenburg County, as offered to him by Order of the 
Society, but that He had not received the Answer to the Letters he has 
wrote on that Subject 

I intend as a Rule to myself to dispose of the Ministers as they arrive 
into those Counties where the Inhabitants are most willing to receive 
them: Those of Mecklenburg County are almost All Presbyterians, I 
have therefore sent M** Morton at his Own Request to Northampton 
County where I believe I shall Establish him to the Satisfaction of that 
Parish. He produced Me his Letters of Ordination and Licence from the 
Bishop of London. 

The Rev? MT Cosgreve 4 waited on Me a few Days since with Your 
Letter of Recommendation from the Society. I have sent him into Pitt 
County but wait to hear, how he and his Parishioners agree, before I 
establish him there: He makes fair Promises, and it will give Me 
pleasure to be informed he puts them into Practise: The Credentials he 
produced before He left this Province for England were not sufficient to 
induce Me to comply with his Request for a Letter of Recommendation 
to the Bishop of London; however as he has obtained Orders, He shall 
meet with Encouragement as long as his Conduct will entitle him to my 
Countenance. I have great Expectations from M*" Micklejohn: He is 
lately gone into Rowan County. The two Churches of Wilmington and 


Brunswick will both be ready by Christmas for Public Worship I am 
obliged to you Sir for your Intelligence of the Annual Subscription that 
would be proper for Me to give, for which Purpose I inclose You an 
order on MessT s Drummond. I desire You will please to present My 
Respects to the Society and am &c 

! Dr. Daniel Burton (1705-1775), educated at Oxford, was rector of St. Peter-le-Poer, 
London, from 1751 until his death. In 1761 he became secretary of the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel and served until 1772. Foster, Alumni Oxonienses, I, 199; 
Ernest Hawkins, Historical Notices of the Missions of the Church of England in the North 
American Colonies (London: B. Fellowes, 1845), 91, 434; A Sermon Preached before the 
Incorporated Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts . . . on Friday 
February 19, 1773 (London: T. Harrison and S. Brooke, 1773), 63. 

2 The Reverend George Micklejohn (1717?-ca. 1819) was born in England but little is 
known of his early life. In 1766 he was licensed to North Carolina by the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel. Tryon placed him in charge of St. Matthew's Parish, Orange 
County, where he worked diligently on behalf of the Regulators to solve their problems 
and prevent an open break with the government. He was courier assigned to relay 
messages between the government and Regulators but never advocated violence nor did 
he waver in his loyalty to the established government. Nevertheless, the Regulators 
regarded him with friendship. When Tryon and the militia were in Hillsborough in 1768 
to quiet the Regulators, Micklejohn preached before the troops. With the coming of the 
Revolution he opened the First Provincial Congress with a prayer but was among the 
loyalists captured the following year at the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge. Eventually 
paroled, he retired to a newly purchased farm in Granville County where he ministered to 
several small congregations. In 1803 he sold his land and removed to Virginia where he 
died at about the age of 100. Alfred S. Lawrence, "George Micklejohn," Carolina Church- 
man, 12 (December, 1921), 9-12. 

3 The Reverend Andrew Morton or Moreton had served St. Thomas Church in 
Alexandria, New Jersey, and St. Andrews Church in Amwell, New Jersey, from 1760 
until 1765. By 1766 he was serving St